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PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18. 



ANNUAL REPORT 






THE TRUSTEES 






State Primary and Reform Schools, 



WITH THE 



ANNUAL BEPOBTS OF THE KESIDENT OFFICERS. 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 187 



BOSTON : 

ftanU, giforg, & <£o„ primers to tjje Commontoealtfj, 

117 Franklin Street. 

1880. 



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TEUSTEES' EEPOKT. 



To his Excellency the Governor, and the Honorable Council. 

The act passed by the last Legislature which provided for 
a change in the administration of the State charities, taking 
effect on the first clay of July, 1879, the Trustees of the State 
Primary and Reform Schools entered upon the duties of their 
office at that time. 

The members of the new Board, appointed mainly from the 
old local Boards, were nearly all of them strangers to two of 
the schools now consigned to their care ; and, while to one all 
the institutions were new fields of duty, to the whole, the 
first labor suggested was that which would give acquaint- 
ance with the workings and condition of each school ; the 
next, organization for work, division of duties among the 
different members, and formation of plans for future use. 
Practical men of business, of whom the Board was largely 
composed, could bring their experience and knowledge to 
bear at once upon the material interests of the three insti- 
tutions ; but the work of reform, of education, of physical 
improvement and moral elevation, require more than this, — 
require deliberation and study, without which mistakes might 
be made of far greater detriment to the State than the loss of 
a few dollars and cents. The conscientious consideration of 
facts like these, with the short time it has held the trust, 
must account for a meagre statement of work actually done 
by the present Board ; and the condition of the institutions 
must be considered as the result of a past policy. 



4 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

The Trustees in giving this statement, and commending 
what is worthy of commendation, will with decision, as well 
as modesty, indicate where in their judgment improvements 
may be. made, and better results achieved ; for reform must 
be progressive, or it would not be reform, and the work of each 
succeeding year should be greater and better than that of 
the last. If this desirable result shall not be attained by the 
present officers of the three institutions, let it be hoped that 
it will not be in consequence of any neglect of duty, but 
because the work is too arduous, and the system not quite 
the right one yet. Indeed, it would not be strange if further 
legislation were required to perfect it. 

They enter upon their labors, it is believed, with an earnest 
desire not only to serve the State in the spirit of true econo- 
my, by a careful, attentive, and judicious administration of 
the financial trusts imposed upon them, but also to promote 
its higher interests in the service of humanity, by elevating 
the low, educating the ignorant, reforming the criminal, and, 
better still, by preventing the wayward and ungoverned 
from becoming criminal. With this preliminary they respect- 
full}' present statements of the three schools, with sugges- 
tions for their improvement, in the order assigned them in 
the act providing for their management. 



STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 

This institution is about the same numerically as repre- 
sented by the last reports, and with no essential difference in 
the condition of the children. 

Unfamiliar as were most of the members of the Board 
with the state of affairs at Monson, it was obvious from the 
first that there were too many children there to be wisely 
cared for, that some had remained there too long for their 
own good or that of the school, and that the first duty of the 
new Board should be to devise some way to relieve the insti- 
tution, and better the condition of the children. Though by 
legislation they have been decreed no longer paupers, enough 
to whom the name rightfully belongs are retained in the in- 
stitution to infect the atmosphere with the " taint of pauper- 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 5 

ism ; " and under the present system, more or less necessarily 
exposed to this influence, the children seem to have lost, if 
they ever had, the vivacity of childhood, and present an ap- 
pearance of helpless — it may almost be said hopeless — de- 
pendence. Whatever has been the policy of the past, — and 
there is little doubt that the end desired has been the same 
by the officers of thfi past as by those of to-day, and that the 
obstacles in the way of better things, existing then, exist 
now, — they yet feel it their duty, in entering anew upon a 
work, the necessity of which has always been recognized, 
emphatically to repeat what has* been so often stated, that 
the remedy for this which the State expects, and which they 
believe is the surest and most direct means to produce the 
desired effect, is the immediate establishment in homes, of all 
of an age and condition of health to warrant such removal ; 
thus substituting for the artificial life of the institution, — 
for a time, a necessary evil, — the domestic life of industrious 
and respectable families. 

To attain this, every effort on the part of the management 
of the school should be made to tit them to be of some use 
in these families, even from the very beginning of the life 
into which they are adopted. The aim of the institution 
training should be to teach them from their very entrance 
lessons' of responsibility, of self-reliance, of helpfulness in 
things ever so small, and, as the ultimatum to be looked 
forward to, the certainty of some day being entirely self- 
supporting. Instruction in the common, ever-recurring 
duties of every-day family life should be given as system- 
atically as the lessons of the day or the Sunday school. And 
all this in a spirit of the most thorough kindness, the most 
tender -solicitude for their future well-being. For no kind- 
ness can be so great, no care so really like that of the Divine 
Providence, as that which, while it shields and protects, 
teaches that how to take care of one's self properly is of flist 
importance, and how to help others, next to it. 

Then, as, it may be, all cannot be placed in homes as fast 
as is desired, another great object of those in charge of these 
children should be to give to this artificial family-life on a 
large scale, as many features of real domestic life as possible. 
The Trustees are aware how difficult all this is, and that to 
preserve discipline with such numbers, without the aid of 



6 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

routine in the institution sense, would be well-nigh impossi- 
ble; and that even an occasional departure from it without 
disastrous consequences, requires more than ordinary ability, 
requires genius. Still something can be done, and should be 
attempted. " Nothing risked, nothing won," is a maxim, the 
lesson of which is safe enough, when suggested by an even- 
balanced, judicious person, desiring only the highest good. 
The impetus given by a little variety, the pleasure b}^ a little 
departure from rules, and the monotonous round of daily life, 
will sometimes do more to quicken the intellect, brighten the 
dull, and inspire with good-nature the sulky and stubborn, 
than whole weeks of effort in the same weary direction. 
The institution at Monson is mainly for children. It is a 
State Primary School, designed to give to these children the 
instruction of which, under the happier influences of a bet- 
ter class, they have been deprived, and, combined with this 
teaching of the school, the comforts and influences of a 
home. That this design may be carried out, no condition 
should exist having a tendency to result in harm to them. 
Their elevation, their education, their preparation for future 
usefulness, are the first considerations, are really the all to 
be considered. Their poor little weakly bodies, suffering 
from the deterioration of generations, are to be fed with 
good healthful, nourishing food, lodged in comfortable, 
clean, and well-ventilated rooms, and clothed with suitable 
garments. Their minds are to be trained to acquire useful 
knowledge of all kinds ; and their souls to recognize their 
responsibility to a heavenly Father, in whose eyes they are 
of as much value as are the greatest of his children. Life 
for them in the institution should be made, by all the means 
the State so bountifully provides, a progressive career, hin- 
dered, no doubt, by many obstacles, but better than the one 
from which they have been rescued, and a preparation for 
the one outside always recognized as the best fortune in 
store for these " children of the State." 

Homes, Visitation, Supervision, Etc. 
That there are some practical difficulties in the way of 
securing this outside life for the children at Monson, is con- 
ceded ; but with an improved system of finding homes, of 
visitation, and of supervision, which the Trustees desire to 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 7 

see inaugurated, and in which they hope for the co-opera- 
tion of the Central Board, it is believed much may be done 
to make this work easier and more effective than it has been. 
The success of the Hampden County Aid Society, with that 
of private effort in the same direction, augurs well for simi- 
lar effort. The present system of visitation, under the direc- 
tion of the agent of the Board of Health, Lunacy, and Char- 
ity, seems inadequate to the work to be done, because it is 
improbable that the large number of children can be visited 
by so few individuals with any frequency; because this 
necessary infrequency precludes the possibility of any actual 
acquaintance with the children, or of those who have the 
charge of them, and because only men are employed for this 
work. It may be added, that, with the present workers, 
there is little or no time to seek out suitable homes. Those 
who desire the services of the boys or girls make application 
for them : and the success of the arrangement is alwa} 7 s a 
matter of doubt. 

Women are the natural guardians of children, and have an 
instinctive sense of right and wrong as done to them, and a 
sensitiveness to cruelty not always granted to men. They 
have, too, a knowledge of domestic affairs, and are thus bet- 
ter qualified to judge of the ability, as to size, strength, or 
age, of the children for the duties assigned them. It is 
conceded, too, that women have quicker perceptions, and 
are therefore, perhaps, better judges as to the fitness of 
persous to take charge of these defenceless ones, while coun- 
sel, encouragement, and instruction come more naturally 
from their lips. 

It is believed, that in every New-England town there are 
women who are fitted for this work of visitation, supervis- 
ion, &c, and who would gladly engage in it; while the fact 
that such persons, invested with the authority a formal ap- 
pointment would give, are to be referred and appealed to, 
will have the effect to protect the children, and to raise 
the character of the homes thus provided. 

In view of these considerations, the Trustees therefore 
recommend the appointment of a suitable number of women, 
in various parts of the Commonwealth, whose service with- 
out compensation shall be given to this work, all necessary 
expenses being, of course, provided for by the State. These 



8 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

services to be in accordance with the needs enumerated ; 
viz., the finding of suitable homes for the children, having 
a guardian's care of them after they are established in these 
homes, acting as advisers to the children, and as supervisors 
to those who assume their charge, reporting delinquencies 
on the part of the latter, giving prompt notice of all wrongs 
and abuses, and in every way aiding in the work of human- 
ity begun by the State. 

In this system of visitation, it is intended that the girls 
from Lancaster and the boys from Westborough shall be 
included ; and, as they are held directly responsible for the 
well-being or the ill-treatment of all from the three institu- 
tions, the Trustees are of the opinion that they should 
have some voice in the matter of the appointment of these 
visitors or guardians. A plan to embody something of the 
above has already been considered by them, and will if 
carried out, it is believed, be potent for good in every way, 
and aid the institutions by making it almost certain that 
homes so selected would become permanent ones. The 
details of such a plan would take too much space in this 
report, but would be given to the Superior Board whenever 
desired. 

Boarding Out. 

As many of the children are too young to be of service 
in family life, it is farther recommended that an appropria- 
tion be made, which shall enable those who have the matter 
in charge to pay a small price for their board in families, who 
would thus assume the care of them ; a plan widely adopted, 
and with great success, in many European countries. 

Injurious Influences. 
As has been before stated, every influence prejudicial to 
the children should be removed. Among positively baneful 
influences it is believed that association with paupers, and 
the employment of paupers in responsible positions in their 
supervision, &c, are foremost. To this the Trustees make 
absolute objection, believing that though proper economy 
in State charity demands that those who are fed from 
its bounty should, in part at least, pay the cost of their 
support, they should be employed where they can have no 
effect to lower still farther the condition of these little ones 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 9 

In all the departments at Monson, a more than ordinary 
intelligence, combined with the highest moral qualities, is 
required ; and they therefore recommend that, wherever the 
children come into direct association with older persons, such 
persons shall be of the highest character, and that less 
responsible individuals, if they must be supported there, 
shall be assigned to duties better suited to their capabilities, 
and entirely separate from the children. If this cannot be 
done under the present system, it is recommended that all 
help of this kind be dispensed with, these persons supported 
elsewhere, and services of more suitable character substituted 
for theirs. Indeed, it would seem the practice of true econ- 
omy, to employ, even at some cost in money, those who would 
instruct the children in the best way, and fit them for 
domestic life or for farm and mechanical labor. The neces- 
shVv of the removal of the young from the association of 
paupers is recognized as imperative by those most learned 
in social science both in this country and in Europe, and as 
the first step to be taken towards the prevention of the 
4b perpetuation of pauperism." Another fruitful source of 
harm to comparatively innocent children is their necessary 
connection with others less so, known at Monson as " court 
children." Misfortune ought not to be obliged to consort 
with crime ; and the Trustees respectfully ask that the sub- 
ject of the removal of these children may be considered at 
an early day, suggesting the propriety of sending some of 
the older girls to Lancaster, and of the boys to Westborough. 
If they had the authority, such transfer would at once un- 
doubtedly be made, as they are of the opinion that the dis- 
cipline of the former institution is better fitted to that class 
of girls than that of Monson, not intended for them ; while 
the " trust-houses " at Westborough would furnish better 
training for the boys than that they are necessarily under, 
and Monson would thus be free from a fruitful source of 
evil. 

Schools. 

Of the schools proper at Monson, like those of the other 
institutions, less can be said than the importance of the sub- 
ject demands. The time since they came under the notice 
of the present Board has been too short to enable it to speak 
with justice of them ; and from the reports of the superin- 



10 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

tenclent and principal, information regarding them must be 
obtained. But it is hoped by some of the Trustees, that at no 
very distant day the plan proposed at more than one educa- 
tional gathering may be considered ; viz., that of connecting 
this school with the State Normal Schools, making this a 
training-school for graduates from them, and that the State 
shall require some of the best services of these graduates 
to be given to make the State Primary School a model for 
all others. 

The short term of service of the members of this Board 
also renders them incompetent, from personal knowledge, to 
compare the condition of the institution this year with those 
of the past. The report of the superintendent will give the 
details of all such work, while the Trustees confine them- 
selves to suggestions, which are but the re-iterations of those 
of past years, from the Board of State Charities, and other' 
workers in the department of social science. If legislation 
is required for any of the changes asked, they respectfully 
request for the subject an early consideration. 



THE REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. 

Nearly every report since its organization lias given some 
portion of the history of the Reform School. It is to be 
supposed that most persons are fairly informed upon this 
point, and it will be omitted now. 

One fact remains prominent : a necessity existed for its 
establishment. A necessity exists no less to-day for its con- 
tinuance. Departing as it has by degrees, from time to time, 
from the original intention of its founders, and probably 
very widely from that of its most generous benefactor, the 
question may fairly be raised, whether it does not come as 
near meeting the wants of to-day, as it did, in its early time, 
those of that day. The changes have many of them been 
those necessitated by the change in the character of those 
committed, while others have crept in almost unconsciously 
under the administrations of different superintendents, and 
different boards of trustees. It is not to be supposed that 
all changes are reforms, or that all are necessarily retrograde 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 11 

movements. Methods differing widely may bring about the 
same result, and men entertaining the most opposite ideas of 
discipline may each accomplish good in his own way. All 
this teaches a wide charity in the judgment of those in 
charge of such an institution, but also teaches that a sensitive 
perception of actual right and wrong, with the rigid deter- 
mination that the right shall not be violated, nor the wrong 
committed, is an imperative requisition on the part of those 
who assume the supervision of the institutions with their 
otherwise defenceless inmates. 

Difficulties in the Way of Discipline. 

Taking the fact as granted, that no boy is sent to West- 
borough unless he has in some way been made, or has made 
himself, a fit subject for its discipline, the first question of 
importance to be considered, is, how to bring the discipline to 
bear upon him in the best way. This must often tax the 
ingenuity of the superintendent, and must be attended with 
repeated disappointments. But this office is one that calls 
for energy, for courage, and for Christian patience ; and he 
who undertakes it must do it in the spirit of Him who, while 
he ever rebuked sin and wrong, inculcated the forgiveness of 
injuries " till seventy times seven," and said there was " more 
joy over one sinner" that repented, " than over ninety and 
nine that needed no repentance." Difficulties lie in the way 
to-day, that did not exist in the early day, when those com- 
mitted were of an age, and at a stage in a career of wrong- 
doing, warranting generally the same methods of discipline. 
The increased age of those committed has complicated the 
system of the institution, and it must be looked at now as 
virtually two institutions under one head, — the Industrial, 
formerly called the "Correctional," and the Reformatory and 
Trust Departments. In the former, the inmates can scarcely 
differ much from those of the prisons of the Commonwealth, 
while the latter is composed of the younger and compara- 
tively innocent boys. It will be evident to all, that the dis- 
cipline suited to one may be entirely unsuited to the other, 
and that the mind which might control and guide those in 
the one, might be utterly at fault in the other. If a fair 
degree of success is attained in both departments, those con- 
cerned are to be congratulated, when the difficulties of the 



12 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

position are considered. How judicious it is to combine the 
two departments in one institution, remains yet to be proved, 
although it must be conceded, that the costly experiment 
should not be abandoned without faithful trial. 

Industrial Training. 

The variety of occupations affording industrial training for 
the boys, in contrast with those of a few years since, when 
chair-seating and tailoring were almost the only ones, is sub- 
ject for congratulation ; increasing not only the means of the 
reform of individuals, but also their chances for an honest 
livelihood when they leave the institution. The greater 
number of employments, the greater the chance of rinding 
that congenial to the boy ; and just so much the greater 
probability of his reform, through it as one agency. 

The interest the boys express in the occupations in which 
they are engaged, tells most conclusively its own story, and 
one that needs no comment. 

Their so-called industrial and agricultural employments, 
their schoolroom occupations, and their vigorous and hearty 
recreation, should, and we believe do, leave little time with 
a majority of the boys, for the ill-doing in which idleness is 
so fruitful. Labor, hard and engrossing, is desirable for all 
possessing physical strength ; while, for those who are less 
strong, there should still be no unemployed time. 

Not a Penal Institution. 
Notwithstanding the character of its inmates, as it is de- 
creed that the institution shall bear the name, over all its 
departments, of "Reform School," any feature not actually 
necessary, of a penal institution, is earnestly protested 
against ; and it is believed, that, in many cases of seem- 
ingly hardened offenders, what should be the policy of 
a reformatory will be sufficient, while it is far better to 
transfer those who are not safe there, to some other insti- 
tution better adapted to them, than to consign all to a more 
rigid discipline by retaining them. 

Judicious Expenditure. 
The State has been most generous in its provision for West- 
borough, and private munificence has favored it, almost 
beyond precedent. Thus both combine to provide it with 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 13 

facilities for the work of reform, not exceeded by any other 
institution in the country. Indeed, the criticisms upon the 
lavish expenditure there are not without just cause, and it 
would be inexcusable in any in authority to neglect to im- 
prove the means so freely provided for the work. It may be 
regretted that this expenditure provides for a system which 
might perhaps be supplanted by a better one, — we mean 
one less congregate, — but the duty is obvious, to make the 
best and the most of this, for the present, and that with the 
most economical management consistent with the great and 
important work to be done. It is inexcusable extravagance 
to spend money for luxuries or splendor upon a charitable 
institution ; and it is equally inexcusable, in the pursuance 
of a false economy, to withhold it, in the interests of true 
reform. 

Reduction of Expenses. 

The Trustees, believing that the general reduction of 
salaries and wages elsewhere, with the demand of the hour, 
warranted a corresponding reduction at Westborough, have 
lowered those of the superintendent and physician, and 
have recommended a similar reduction through all the sub- 
ordinate offices. This recommendation was cheerfully com- 
plied with, and the year succeeding this will probably show 
materially the saving of such reduction. The appropriation 
for the last year's current expenses will, it is thought, cover 
not only the ordinary expenses, but some extra ones to be 
incurred, for which it was at one time thought a special ap- 
propriation must be asked. That for salaries may fall short 
for this year, but will undoubtedly be quite sufficient for the 
next, at the rates at which they have been fixed. The schools 
seem to be in a prosperous condition ; but, of the particulars 
of this important part of the work at Westborough, the Trus- 
tees must refer those desiring information, to the reports of 
the superintendents and teachers. Another year they may 
be better able to enter into details concerning them. 

Library. 

With the ample funds at their disposal for the purpose of re- 
plenishing the library and other kindred objects, the Trustees 
are of the opinion that it should be well supplied with all the 
literature, healthy in tone, which shall conduce to the men- 



14 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

tal and moral improvement and to the pleasure of the boys; 
and they have appointed a committee to procure at once a 
considerable addition to the numbers of the library. And 
here they take occasion to say that they deprecate the cus- 
tom of providing the boys with newspapers ; for, while many 
of them contain much that is healthful and improving, they 
all give publicity to facts and occurrences it is undesirable 
they should learn, and, if the newspaper is to be allowed at 
all, it should be read aloud by an officer who should make 
judicious selections. It is hoped by the increase of whole- 
some reading of magazines and interesting books of the right 
character, to destroy the morbid taste for police-reports and 
other even more objectionable details to be found in our 
best newspapers. They also believe that the teachers and 
other officers should be considered in the purchase of books ; 
and that especially should the library be well supplied with 
all the best works upon reform, social and sanitary science, 
and the best methods of teaching, — in short, all that shall 
help them in the work they have chosen. 

Health. 
The health of the school is good, and the mortality during 
the past year exceptionally small. The scrupulous cleanli- 
ness of every department, the regularity of life, together 
with the healthfulness of the situation, all combine to pro- 
duce this result. For details see Physician's Report. 

Diet. 
The short time the present Board of Trustees has been con- 
nected with the work at Westborough, as well as that of the 
other schools, has precluded the possibility of attention to all 
details; but the question of diet is considered of prime im- 
portance, and will receive early attention. It is not intended 
to convey an impression that in any of the schools it is very 
fault}s or that it is insufficient in quantity ; but that it will 
admit of improvement, there is no doubt, and that such im- 
provement should be made. Other matters connected with 
the food, the methods of serving it, &c, are all of impor- 
tance. Indeed, many of what are termed minor details are 
of great importance in their effect, and are of a class of indi- 
rect influences which are sometimes as potent as those which 
tire specific. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 15 



INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL AT LANCASTER. 

Since last year's report of the Lancaster School, an almost 
complete change has taken place in its officers, from the 
superintendent clown through all the departments. Of 
former matrons but one remains, of teachers but one, while 
of housekeepers not one there a year since occupies the 
position at the present time. This entire change was un- 
doubtedly owing in part to the appointment of a new super- 
intendent, who, with the advice and sanction of the then 
existing Board of Trustees, instituted some different meas- 
ures, to which, having long been accustomed to the discarded 
ones, they found it not pleasant to conform ; and, in part, to 
a reduction of salary which the same Board felt it a duty to 
recommend. Faithful as many of these women were, it has 
not been thought to be a positive injury to the school, 
from the consideration that new measures are more easily 
carried out by those not wedded to old ones. The discipline 
of the houses has not materially suffered, and the girls have 
generally adapted themselves readily to the changes. 

Commitments. 
The commitments have not been numerous during the 
year, hardly keeping pace with the numbers sent out. Why 
this is so, we have been unable to ascertain ; for, believing 
most thoroughly in the discipline, in the influences, and in 
the teachings at Lancaster, knowing that it is the only insti- 
tution in the State where much attention can be given to the 
individual, — where each case can be remembered, watched, 
and treated according to its needs, — it has been a matter of 
surprise, that, in the wisdom of those having the power to 
dispose of juvenile delinquents, it has been decided to do 
almost any thing else with them rather than send them to 
Lancaster ; while, of those who have been committed there, 
not a few have been of the character and for offences which 
would naturally suggest Sherborn as their fittest place. 
Wh} T , when the prison at Sherborn exists, and for the avowed 
purpose of reforming hardened offenders, such subjects 
should so frequently be sent to Lancaster, is past the under- 
standing of those who are most conversant with its workings. 



16 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Equally strange does it seem to those acquainted with the 
original purpose for which the Industrial School was insti- 
tuted, and for which it is still the only institution of the 
State, that the younger, less hardened girls, with whom our 
towns and cities abound, and who but for some timely in- 
terference are surely fitting for Sherborn, should not be sent 
there to be benefited by its reforming influences. Undoubt- 
edly there are good and sufficient reasons for the course 
which is still pursued ; but it has been decreed by the legis- 
lature that the State could not afford to give up the school, 
and both public and private testimony has been to the same 
effect. It cannot be doubted that there are more than 
enough to fill it to its utmost capacity, and even to de- 
mand much larger accommodations, of those who need pre- 
cisely its discipline. With a plan conceded to be far better 
than any other, in that it is a family system and free from 
most of the evils inevitably belonging to a congregate sys- 
tem, it would seem that next to wholesome family restrain- 
ing life, and indeed necessary as a preparation for that, no dis- 
cipline could be better for the ivayward young girl than that 
of Lancaster. True, the fact of old and hardened offenders 
having been sent there has had, probably, its effect to deter 
the officers of justice from exposing the younger to their cor- 
rupting influence ; but the remedy has always remained in 
their own hands ; and since the opening of the prison at 
Sherborn, the discipline of which was designed for such 
cases, and the consequent relief from excessive numbers at 
Bridgewater, there would seem to be absolutely no excuse 
for not filling to their full capacity the houses at Lancaster 
with the class much needing its influence. Let this be done, 
and the expense always of late complained of, will be far less 
per capita, and the reason for the existence of the institu- 
tion far more apparent. 

Expenses. 
That the expense of Lancaster — always uppermost in the 
criticisms upon the institution — has been perhaps greater 
than it should, may be.true; but this fact should be remem- 
bered, that no money has ever been spent there which has 
not been most conscientiously devoted to the interests of 
the girls, and with direct reference to elevating and reform- 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 17 

ing them. No magnificent buildings, with expensive furnish- 
ings, have swallowed up the appropriations. The simplest 
surroundings with an absence of all luxury for the officers, 
have been an expression of the policy of the past, and will, it 
is to be hoped, be continued. Although, in comparison with 
some of the more expensive State institutions, the different 
houses at Lancaster may not always compare favorably in one 
sense, in another, it has been with a sort of pride that the 
housekeeping departments have had an old-fashioned look 
suggestive of cleanly New-England homes. Larger appro- 
priations are not asked or required for any purpose not im- 
mediately connected with the elevation of the girls, and for 
the prosecution of some much-needed repairs. 

A State institution should set an example of neatness, and 
a State farm should be a model of thrift and good manage- 
ment. To these ends more money will be required this year 
than the last ; for the Trustees of the old Board as well as 
those of the new have determined to keep within the appro- 
priation, and repairs which would otherwise have been made, 
have been left in the hope of a more generous one for the 
year to come. It will be found that the expenses of the 
institution have been less than for the past } r ears, and that 
the labor of the girls has been a source of some profit to the 

State. 

Remunerative Labor. 

A workshop was fitted up in what was formerly a stable, 
attached to the house of the superintendent, making a neat 
and convenient room for the work of knitting by machines, 
introduced by the present superintendent, Mr. Brown, with 
the full approval of the Trustees at that time. 

No contract was entered into, but a simple agreement was 
made that twenty-five girls from the institution should be 
employed by the proprietors of the machines six hours each 
day, and that the engagement should continue so long as 
both parties were satisfied. One month's time was given to 
learn the process, after which a certain rate was established, 
and the proceeds of all work done over the maximum required, 
to be paid to the credit of the girls doing the surplus work ; 
thus stimulating and encouraging them to earn something, 
which shall be a help on leaving the institution. Many 
small sums have thus been laid aside for future need. 



18 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

The work began late in January, but no compensation was 
received until the end of March, since which time the 
aggregate earnings have been $513.49. Another year will 
see larger results. All this is accomplished with no neglect 
of any of the duties always considered paramount in the 
system at Lancaster, and no expense of any kind beyond that 
of fitting up the room, which was inconsiderable, has been 
incurred. It has proved a success in every way ; has inter- 
ested the girls, given them an impetus much needed, taught 
them another means of support after leaving the institution, 
and has been the means in several cases of reducing " incor- 
rigibles " to a condition not only of submission, but of useful 
industry. It has been thus an essential aid to discipline ; 
and while the girls have every month been changed from 
house to shop, and vice versa, the hours of labor have 
been arranged so as not to interfere with those of school. 
None have been deprived of their daily instruction there ; 
all have a share of the teaching of the sewing-room, and all 
are required to perform the various duties of domestic service. 
A certain number working on the farm are those whose 
physical condition requires the open-air exercise. 

During this past year forty-two girls have been placed at 
service " on probation." Of this number two only have 
returned from any cause. This number has no reference to 
those who had been previously placed out " on probation," 
or by indenture. 

Testimonials to the value of the work at Lancaster are by 
no means uncommon from those who have been benefited by 
it, and who have left the school for respectable positions in 
life. A volume of no inconsiderable size might be made 
from these voluntary tributes to the worth of the system, and 
would make an interesting addition to the annals of reform- 
atories ; but such a use of them would be a breach of confi- 
dence not to be considered. At this very time one among 
the many who have gone out from Lancaster is pursuing a 
course of study to fit her for an honorable position, while 
others are already occupying such positions. 

Cases like these, known only to those most nearly con- 
cerned, are encouraging, and compensate largely for the dis- 
appointments inevitable in many other instances. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 19 

May it not be looked forward to, with a degree of certainty, 
that Lancaster shall again be solely devoted to the class for 
which the institution was intended, and that the older and 
more hardened cases shall be disposed of where they can 
themselves be benefited, and where they cannot injure those 
less depraved ? 

The schools, the families, the workshop, and the sewing- 
room seem to be fulfilling the purposes for which they were 
instituted. 

Of the farm it may be said that never has it promised 
more than at the present time. Some needed improvements 
in the way of fences, roads, &c, will require more money 
than was granted the last year ; and the Trustees respect- 
fully request that the appropriation be sufficient to admit of 
such repairs being made. 

The last year's report, and that of the physician of this 
year, call attention to defective drainage in one of the houses. 
These drains have been examined, and such improvements 
made in them as to warrant the conclusion that the house is 
safe in a sanitary point of view. In regard to the other 
houses, the best commentary upon their condition is the con- 
tinued good health of the girls. No death has occurred for 
nearly two years ; and no severe case of illness, if we except 
that of one little girl, who, having a disease of the lungs, was 
admitted upon request of the Trustees to the " Consumptives' 
Home," Grove Hall, Dorchester. In the event of the occu- 
pancy of No. 5, now ready to receive twenty-five girls, water 
should be introduced from the same source as that from 
which it is supplied to the other houses. It may be added 
that it will probably be considered desirable soon to open this 
house, temporarily closed, as the three houses are fuller than 
it is best they should be; and the commitments, if no more 
than in the past, will before long necessitate such a course, 
all having been placed in families who can be conscientiously 
recommended at present. It is also suggested that the girls 
from Monson, committed there by the courts, might with 
profit nearly fill this house at once, relieving essentially the 
latter institution, and bringing under the discipline at Lan- 
caster those who would be materially benefited by it. 



20 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Conclusion. 

To the reports of the superintendents, the public must 
this year look for statistics and for facts concerning all the 
institutions, which might at another time come legitimately 
within the province of the Trustees. 

The general interests only of each could in the last three 
months be considered, and plans not of immediate urgency 
were necessarily deferred. 

As was stated at first, all radical changes must be made 
deliberately and after serious consideration. In co-operation 
with the Central Board, it is to be hoped that during the 
next year some improvements, hitherto hindered by causes 
not now existing, may be made in all the schools. No insti- 
tution can be so nearly perfect as not to admit of improve- 
ment ; and it is with satisfaction that this Board has seen 
the appointment of an " inspector of charities," believing 
that much good may result from the criticisms of a disinter- 
ested individual. If there are imperfections in a system, 
they should be shown ; if wrongs, they should be righted ; 
and, if abuses, they should be exposed to those who have the 
power to prevent their recurrence. By proper regard to the 
suggestions of such an officer, much good may, and doubt- 
less will, be done. 

What has been proposed in regard to any of the institu- 
tions is, the Trustees are aware, no new policy ; and, if dwelt 
upon too long, it is because, at the beginning of the work of 
a new board, it has been felt by its members, that too much 
emphasis could not be laid upon what was considered of 
importance, and that an honest devotion to duty required an 
equally honest expression of opinion concerning it. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

ANNE B. RICHARDSON. 
GEO. W. JOHNSON. 
SAME. R. HEYWOOD. 
ADELAIDE A. CALKINS. 
MILO HILDRETH. 
M. J. FLATLEY. 
LYMAN BELKNAP. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 21 



REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF STATE 
PRIMARY SCHOOL. 



State Primary School, Monson, Mass., 
Sept. 30, 1879. 

To the Board of Trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools. 

By the kind care of a merciful Providence we have been 
preserved through another year from serious sickness and 
from calamity of any sort. For our freedom from contagious 
disease, and from serious harm of any kind, we are pro- 
foundly thankful ; and we desire to render a special thanks- 
giving to the Giver of all good for our own preservation 
while in the midst of fire, and that during the temporal 
alarm among so many children no lives were lost, and no 
limbs were broken. The explosion of gas, Aug. 24, was the 
result of a serious misstep on the part of a hitherto faithful 
employe, and of course ended his career here. 

This year, like the two preceding, has been a year of growth. 
It has given us very great pleasure to promote and to watch 
this growth. What can be more healthful to an institution 
than to have it steadily improve under the genial sunshine 
and care of those who labor for it ? 

I feel perfectly safe in saying that no institution in this 
State has improved in the past three years as much as the 
State Primary School ; and this has been done under very 
great difficulties and very peculiar obstacles, and with no 
special appropriations except in comparatively small sums, 
and with a current expenditure much less than any other 
institution, especially when the helplessness of our charge is 
considered. One evil after another has been met and reme- 
died, and the whole tone of the school has been raised and 
improved thereby. That the work of fitting the rude mass 
of humanity congregated here for family life and for a re- 



22 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

spectable citizenship, is a work the magnitude of which is 
hardly comprehended by those outside an institution, is ex- 
ceedingly probable. To make this fact more apparent, sup- 
pose we ask the question of individuals, How many children 
or other persons have you reformed during the past year ? 
How many in your life ? Of whom can you say, " My efforts 
saved or reformed that person " ? 

The State Primary School has a great work before it. The 
sentiment, even of those officially connected with it, is not 
fully awake to its importance. It is to make a vast differ- 
ence with the welfare of many a community and many a 
family, whether these children receive right impressions of 
life or not. As regards moral and industrial training, there 
is not a child on this ground that does not daily pass through 
some experience calculated to impress moral obligation, and 
in that respect the training here is far better than that in 
four-fifths of the families of this Commonwealth ; and no 
child large enough or old enough to assume any responsible 
labor who is not taught in some industrial art, and in those 
best calculated to fit them for life. Girls sew and cut cloth- 
ing of all kinds ; they sweep, scrub, make beds, mend cloth- 
ing, wait on table, and attend the younger ones. Boys cut 
and make clothing, sew, scrub, sweep, make beds, wait on 
table, prepare food, wash dishes, bake bread, run washing- 
machines and the mangle, iron, sift ashes, build fires, cobble 
shoes, paint, whitewash, mix mortar, cultivate flowers and 
vegetables, — acres and acres of them, — hoe corn and pota- 
toes, and rake, harness horses, get in wood and saw it, feed 
cattle, cut feed for them, empty and fill beds, &c. They also 
clean silk, they (both boys and girls) go to school and to 
sabbath school, and sing. They do not all do all these things 
at once. Perhaps that is our mistake, but we are not spirit- 
ual enough for that yet. 

The assistance to ventilation contemplated at the time of 
our last report was soon after completed. Direct steam- 
pipes were run up thirty feet in twenty-seven flues to chim- 
neys over the house, with return-pipes. It takes forty pounds 
of steam to force its way through them all, and of course 
quite a large expenditure of coal. There is no doubt but it 
assists ventilation : whether it is an economical method, is not 
so apparent. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 23 

The seven years allowed for the life of a washing-machine 
were up last winter, and ours were replaced by two new ones 
at about the cost of repairing the old. A steam-mangle was 
also added. As we have nearly five thousand pieces to 
cleanse weekly, all modern appliances must be used. We 
continue to use unadulterated soap, both in our laundry and 
bathing, by which both the clothing and the children are 
greatly benefited. The next greatest improvement made is 
the construction of a closet for each of the eleven wards, into 
which the carryalls are put, and so ventilated into the chim- 
neys as to carry off all effluvia. This has been a hard ques- 
tion to solve, and we think its solution one of the best 
improvements of the year. The wards have all received a 
double coat of whitewash and paint, a work lasting through 
many months. The dish-room has been entirely reconstruct- 
ed ; oblong bake-pans have been substituted for the large 
round ones, making a much neater loaf. The food through 
the year has been ample in quantity and proper in quality. 
The hundreds of barrels of apples raised on our farm, and 
many more purchased, added very much to our bill of fare. 

The health of the children has been remarkable ; only thir- 
teen deaths have occurred, and nearly all of them chronic 
diseases, wasting away their victims ; but for three months 
past we have had no deaths. During the winter there pre- 
vailed a great deal of pneumonia ; all but one child, by care- 
ful nursing, recovered. I have a profound respect for a good 
nurse ; without that aid, the skill of the physician is una- 
vailing. 

Our silk-industr}^ is a very pleasant feature to visitors. I 
think the State of Massachusetts could well afford to pro- 
mote such an industry by erecting proper buildings and sup- 
plying machinery, as it gives those who work at it a trade by 
which they can earn a good living. 

Repairs on the building have been kept up in accordance 
with the law which directs that they be kept in good repair ; 
but repairs on such a building as ours mean a great deal. For 
example, on removing the dish-room sink it was found that 
the entire side of the house was rotted through, necessitating 
the removal of timbers as well as boarding. The buildings 
are at the present time in better condition than at any 
previous time for three years. 



2± PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

The practice of butchering on the barn-floor, just in front 
of the cattle, which has been in vogue here for years, alwa} T s 
impressed me with a sense of shiftlessness unworthy a State 
institution. Last December we raised up a building that had 
been used as a sheep-barn, and excavated a slaughter-house 
underneath. With a good cement floor, the introduction of 
steam and water, convenience in sweeping all refuse into the 
pig-yard, means for raising the slaughtered animals to the 
next floor, — where suspended hooks with pulleys make it 
easy storing them in an adjoining room for cooling, away 
from all dust, — makes a very convenient slaughter. 

If there is one thing more than another that should be 
taught, not only the children, but all employes of a State 
institution, it is system in work of all kinds. 

For the great number of tools used here, there has never 
been a proper place. It has led to disarrangement in many 
other particulars. Last spring, therefore, in a vacant place 
between the woocbhouse and barn, we constructed a tool- 
house for storage and repair of small tools. The system 
inaugurated consisted in a few very simple principles : all 
tools on the place were collected and painted, the different 
combinations of color to represent different places ; on each 
of the fifteen places where tools are used, a card denoting the 
number, kind, and color, is placed. Tools out of place are 
easily recognized. In the tool-house are gathered nightly all 
light tools not thus registered. " Only one place for a tool, 
and only one tool in a place," is the rule. On the second 
floor a repair-shop is located, with duplicate tools and those 
seldom used, such as ice-tools and snow-shovels. The result 
is, all employes have clean, good tools to work with ; they 
take pride in putting them in order after use. The habit of 
thus caring for property — and what is more important to 
teach the young? — is constantly impressed. We seldom lose 
a tool, and those we have are always available. 

The crops on the farm have been excellent. We have no 
apples, but our sixteen acres of corn will harvest one thou- 
sand bushels. Our potato-crop is excellent in quality and 
quantity. Considering the importance of this school, we are 
astonished that so little attention is paid to it by the Legisla- 
ture. A representation of twenty minutes last session, with 
information bearing only on one point, was all that was 
afforded the authorities of this school. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 25 

There is legislation needed on a variety of points of vital 
concern to the welfare of these wards of the State. We 
plead for a good airy room, such as jails, prisons, and insane- 
hospitals have for their inmates, where intellectual and moral 
instruction and amusement can be afforded these children. 

Another point on which we need legislation is to make 
this a school, and not an almshouse. 

The name seems good enough, and the school should be 
what its name implies ; but so long as paupers are kept here, 
they will give character to it. If forty young men at Har- 
vard should be in the habit of becoming intoxicated, the 
disgrace would rest on the nine hundred and sixty who did 
not. I do not believe it to be either just or humane to keep 
women here working without pay, year after year, simply 
because they are poor ; or to send them out with their fami- 
lies to start in life again, without one cent to begin with. 
Somebody must be more humane than the State is, or else 
they will be found in some institution again. The remedy is 
very simple. If a woman comes here, let her work for her 
family as people do outside. If she earns less than it costs 
to support her family, the case would be no worse than now. 
If she earns just enough to support them, she would do her 
work more gladly if she knew she was working directly for 
her children. If she earns more than their expenses, it is 
not only sheer justice to pay her the difference, but it gives 
her capital to start with, which all the sooner takes her off 
the State altogether. If legislation is needed for this change, 
let us have it. 

We ought to own a neighboring plat of land, on which are 
several small buildings in a wretched condition, almost up to 
our door. 

The method of placing out children needs revision badly. 
Whose duty is it? Who is responsible for this large house- 
full? Let the Legislature fix this matter beyond dispute, 
and give all necessary authority to the responsible party. 
My own view, as I have said before, is that the work could 
be done better and cheaper by the authorities at the school 
than by anybody else. 

On the subject of families versus institutions, I have de- 
cided convictions, growing out of a somewhat large and 
varied experience. 



26 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct- 

First, All families are not suitable for all children. 

Second, Drunken, dissolute, profane, shiftless, or exceed- 
ingly poor families cannot properly provide for their own, 
much less for others' children. 

Third, Families where there are young children ought not 
to take evil-minded, profane, dishonest children, such as we 
get, among them, else the whole family will be corrupted. 

Fourth, Families who have never had children are not apt 
to know any better how to train them than the officers of an 
institution who have given years of careful study to the sub- 
ject. 

And, Fifth, No family should take a young child simply 
for its labor. " Out of sight, out of mind," is an old proverb 
which applies well here. 

Families, then, who can take children to advantage, are, 
the temperate, order-loving people, of humane disposition and 
good principles, who are willing to invest some care and pa- 
tience, kindness and money, for what they may bring in the 
future. 

That there are hundreds of such families in this and adjoin- 
ing States, I have not the least doubt, nor that when the busi- 
ness of placing these children in them is arranged on a just, 
systematic, common-sense basis, the work can be accom- 
plished.. 

The Trustees have full control of this matter, except for 
the mere recommendation of places ; and I think no one 
would object very much if they assumed all the control of 
the whole matter, and authorized the head of this institution 
to attend to it. Every possible means should be employed 
for this end. While I thoroughly believe in the discipline 
and education of a well-conducted institution, I know per- 
fectly well that this population must be kept moving ; for the 
supply is by no means cut off, and the State would soon be 
burdened if every young child should be retained in such a 
place, even as long as it would be better for it than to go out. 
Homes should be found, if possible, and persons paid, for 
taking care.of the younger ones or those of deficient physi- 
cal or mental powers. 

1 do not believe it always best for the child ; but it seems 
a necessity, the numbers are so great. The best way would 
be to let no child go out until he or she had a fair educa- 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 27 

tion. My principal reports only twenty-two, out of one hun- 
dred and eighty-six admitted to the school during the year, 
who could read readily (twelve per cent) ; and very few of 
these children go to school after they leave here. 

We must do the best we can, taking all things into consid- 
eration, just as we must with this great wooden building: 
not that it is the best thing, but the necessity is on us, and 
do not let what we say as to what ought to be done, blind 
any one to what is done. 

You will notice in our statistics, that two hundred and 
fifty-three persons have been discharged from the institution, 
in some way, the past year, out of an average population of 
five hundred and one (fifty per cent), which, with the means 
employed, is by no means a small number ; but one hundred 
and eighty-eight have also been received, so that our number 
is still large, though fifty-five less than a year ago. It must 
also be remembered, that we cannot, like the private institu- 
tions, push our children out on somebody else. We have no 
Botany Bay to send them to : so, if they are defective, they 
are very likely to remain. The institution, then, should em- 
brace not only those who are here, but those who are outside. 
When we report on the condition of our whole family of per- 
haps two thousand children, the magnitude of our work can 
be learned. It requires years of experience, and very pecul- 
iar aptitude, to fit one for any department of this work ; and 
only by permanency in it can good results possibly be ob- 
tained. Far better might our large manufactories, when 
they have educated a company of skilful artisans who 
thoroughly understand their business, change and get a new 
set. That no industrial establishment, either in America or 
abroad, does so foolish a thing, shows their feeling about it. 
How much more when mind is to be worked upon, and the 
interests of souls are at stake, and questions to be determined 
that take a lifetime ! 

Annexed, please find a list of expenditures of the special 
appropriation of 1878 for alteration and repairs; also, for 
schools. Of the former there remains 112.73 ; of the latter, 
$37.74 unexpended. 

Besides the ventilating-pipes spoken of elsewhere, this 
money was used in putting in a steam-engine and shafting 
for the silk-industry, and a small engine and shafting for 



28 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

the barn, and carrying steam to both places from the main 
boilers. 

To those who have loyally aided us in the laborious work 
of the past year, we proffer thanks. Those who are willing 
to give their services to this work should be encouraged and 
protected. 

Looking back nearly three years, we rejoice in what has 
been done, and hope that the future may be as fruitful of 
good as the past has been. 

I have the honor to be 

Your obedient servant, 

J. H. BRADFORD, Superintendent. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— -No. 18. 29 



STATISTICS. 

Whole number in institution, Oct. 1, 1878 .... 531 

In State Primary School 484 

In support or pauper department ..... 46 

In custody 1 

"Remaining in State Primary School, Oct. 1, 1878 . 484 

Boys > . 334 

Girls 150 

Admitted during year ending Sept. 30, 1879 . . 188 

From support or pauper department . 114 

Boys 82 

Girls 32 

From temporary custody .... 28 

Boys 21 

• Girls 7 

Placed " on trial " during year, and returned . 29 

Boys 18 

Girls 11 

Keturned, previously placed .... 10 

Boys 8 

Girls 2 

Returned after elopement .... 4 

Boys 2 

Girls .2 

Truants . 3 

Boys 3 

Total number in State Primary School during year 204 468 672 

Whole number discharged during year ... 72 157 229 

Placed by visiting agent " on trial " . . 150 

Boys ....... 105 

Girls 45 

Discharged by Board of State Charities to 

support department ..... 1 

Girl 1 

Discharged by Board of State Charities to 

friends ....... 53 

Boys 36 

Girls . .17 

Discharged by Board of State Charities to 

Tewksbury Almshouse .... 2 

Boy 1 

Girl 1 

Discharged by Board of State Charities to 

Lancaster Industrial School ... 3 

Girls 3 



30 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Elopements (4 have been returned) . . 6 

Boys 4 

Girls 2 

Truants' " Expiration Sentence " ... 2 

'Boys 2 

Deaths 12 

Boys 9 

Girls • " . 3 

Number remaining in State Primary School, Oct. 

1, 1879 . 443 

Boys ....... 309 

Girls 134 

Of this number 

2 boys are truants. 

31 boys and 11 girls came from court. 

276 boys and 123 girls came from support department. 

Whole number in support department, Oct. 1, 

1878 46 

Women 27 

Boys 12 

Girls 7 

Admitted during year ending Sept. 30, 1879 . 118 

From State Almshouse ..... 115 

Women ...... 5 

Boys ....... 80 

Girls 30 

Transferred from Primary School . . 1 

Woman ...... 1 

Births 2 

Boy 1 

Girl . . . . . . . 1 

Whole number in department during year . 164 

W T hole number discharged during year ending 

Sept. 30, 1879 ...... 137 

Discharged by Board of State Charities to 

friends 12 

Women 7 

Boys ....... 4 

Girl 1 

Discharged by Board of State Charities to 

State Almshouse ..... 4 

Boy 1 

Women ....... 3 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 31 

Discharged by Board of State Charities to 

Primary School ..... 114 

Boys . . . . ...... 32 

Girls 82 

Discharged by Board of State Charities for 

labor 3 

Women ...... 3 

Placed " on trial " by visiting agent . 3 

Boys 2 

Girl . . ... . . 1 

Death 1 

Girl . ... . . . 1 

Number remaining in support Oct. 1, 1879 . 27 

Women 19 

Boys •. 5 

Girls ....... 3 

Number remaining in custody Oct. 1, 1878 . . 1 

Boy 1 

Admitted during year ending Sept. 30, 1879 . . 31 

From court ....... 34 

Boys 26 

Girls 8 

Whole number during year 35 

Whole number discharged during year ending 

Sept. 30, 1879 29 

Admitted to State Primary School ... 28 

Boys 21 

Girls 7 

Died 1 

Number remaining Oct. 1, 1879 .... 6 

Boys ....... 5 

Girl .1 

Whole number in institution Oct. 1, 1879 . . 476 

In State Primary School .... 443 

In support ....... 27 

In custody ' ' temporary " 6 

1878. 1679. 
Largest number at any one time in institution during year . 561 547 
Smallest " " " " " " . 518 445 

Average " " " " " " . 537 501 

Largest number at any one time in State Primary School 

during year .......... 487 495 



32 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



1878. 1879. 
Smallest number at any one time in State Primary School 

during year 434 389 

Average number at any one time in State Primary School 

during year 457 444 

Table showing Whole Number of Persons in the Institution Oct. 1, for past 

Eight Years. 

Sept. 30, 1872 398 

" 30, 1873 453 

" 30, 1S74 493 

" 30, 1875 512 

" 30, 1876 540 

" 30, 1877 .525 

" 30, 1878 . 531 

" 30, 1879 ' . 475 



Average Number of Persons supported in the Institution. 





cii turning oepb. 


OKJ, ±OIJ, 

30, 1873 


u 


i' " 


30, 1874 


a 


a n 


30, 1875 


a 


a a 


30, 187G 


u 


a u 


30, 1877 


(t 


a a 


30, 1878 


.. 


a n 


30, 1879 




Number of Children sent to the 


ot ye 


ar ending Sept 


30, 1873 
30, 1874 


i< 


a a 


30, 1875 


n 


a a 


30, 1876 


it 


it a 


30, 1877 


u 


a a 


30, 1878 


11 


11 u 


30, 1879 



431 
424 
481 
496 
515 
535 
537 
501 



71 
61 
33 
54 
48 
44 
34 



Number of Children placed out in Families ' ' On Trial. ' ' 

For year ending Sept. 30, 1873 

" 30, 1874 

" " " 30, 1875 

" " " 30, 1876 

" " " 30, 1877 

" 30, 1878 

" 30, 1879 

Number of Children returned from Places 

For year ending Sept. 30, 1873 
" 30, 1874 



138 
125 
152 
142 
127 
137 
153 



41 
45 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



33 



For year ending 


Sept. 30, 1875 


. 


. 52 


ti a 


" 30, 1876 




. 39 


»< it 


" 30, 1877 


. 


. 39 


u a 


" 30, 1878 


• . . . 


. 47 


a a 


" 30, 1879 




. 39 


Number of Deaths in tl 


xe Institution. 




For year ending 


Sept. 30, 1873 




6 


U it. 


" 30, 1874 




. 18 


a a 


" 30, 1875 


. 


. 23 


it tt 


" 30, 1876 


. 


. 32 


a it 


" 30, 1877 




. 14 


a a 


" 30, 1878 




. 13 


a a 


" 30, 1879 


. . . 


. 14 


One died in asylum at Hartford. 







1877. 1878. 1879. 
No. of children who have been in the institution less 

than 1 year 209 222 117 

No. of children who have been in the institution between 

land 2 years 77 112 117 

No. of children who have been in the institution between 

2 and 3 years 76 59 88 

No. of children who have been in the institution between 

3 and 4 years 45 46 46 

No. of children who have been in the institution between 

4 and 5 years 25 26 33 

No. of children who have been in the institution between 

5 and 6 years . . 12 12 22 

No. of children who have been in the institution between 

6 and 7 years 19 8 11 

No. of children who have been in the institution between 

7 and 8 years 7 6 12 

No. of children who have been in the institution between 

8 and 9 years ........ 5 9 4 

No. of children who have been in the institution between 

9 and 10 years 6 15 

No. of children who have been in the institution between 

10 and 11 years 112 

No. of children who have been in the institution between 

11 and 12 years ........ 1 1 1 

No. of children who have been in the institution between 

12 and 13 years 11 



34 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



DETAILED ACCOUNT OF CURRENT EXPENDITURES. 



epa li- 
ne! 



tel< 



Agricultural tools, seeds, and plants 

Beans and pease .... 

Blacksmitliing, plumbing, and ordinary 

Books, newspapers, postage, stationery, 

Brooms, brushes, and baskets 

Clothing, boots, and shoes 

Coal .... 

Crockery, glass, and wooden- w 

Corn and oats . 

Dry goods 

Furniture, beds and bedding 

Fish of all kinds 

Fruit and vegetables 

Feed and meal (for stock) 

Feed and meal (for table) 

Gasolene. 

Glass and sash, paints and oils 

Groceries, light 

Flour (754 bbls.) 

Molasses . 

Sugar 

Tea . 

Coffee 

Butter and cheese 

Rice 

All other provisions . 



Hardware 

Hulled corn and hominy 

Inspectors 

Improvements and repairs 

Live stock 

Meat of all kinds . 

Medicine and medical supplies 

Milk .... 

Miscellaneous . . . 

Salaries and wages . 

Straw, hay, and pasturage 

Soap and soap stock 

Transportation, express, freight, and passengers 







ai,0Sl 78 






344 99 






940 10 


IS 




583 74 






107 33 






3,151 78 






3,218 14 






437 27 






499 76 






2 420 22 






750 60 






629 97 






215 64 






815 66 
115 37 
595 10 
282 17 


S567 82 


4,443 50 


477 10 


813 75 


200 85 


319 80 


4S5 36 


1S3 45 


1,0 


39 34 






Q o^O Q7 






U,y'JU V i 

896 16 


> 




2S9 25 






360 00 






1,360 38 






573 25 






. 2,062 34 






155 67 






432 50 






328 17 






16,86S 66 






369 34 






365 45 






1,241 63 




850,035 39 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



35 



OFFICERS, ASSISTANTS, AND THEIR SALARIES. 



Rev. James II . Bradford, superintendent and chaplain . 

Julius C. Tibbetts, assistant superintendent and principal 

Sumner A. Andrews, supervisor 

William F. Floyd, cook . 

Stillman J. Baker, watchman 

George H. Bradstreet, watchman . ■ 

J. Michael Sisk, driver . . . 

Edward Goodes, shoemaker . 

John N. Lacy, engineer . 

Frank Duffy, baker 

George H. Fisherdick, farmer 

Dr. William Holbrook, physician . 

E. G. Buss, gardener 

F. B. Shepard, in charge of work-boys 
James C. Lally, boys' nurse . 
Miss S. E. Davenport, girls' nurse . 
Mrs. J. H. Bradford, matron . 
Mrs. J. C. Tibbetts, assistant matron 
Mrs. M. J. Hamilton, assistant matron 
Mrs. Anna Grellett. assistant matron 
Miss Mary E. Duncan, teacher with music 
Miss N. J. Rice, teacher 
Miss Emma C. Dibble, teacher 
Miss Eugenia M. Fullington, teacher 
Miss Sara Hamilton, teacher . 
Miss Josie Hamilton, teacher . 
Miss Clara S. Clark, teacher . 
Mrs. M. E. Metcalf, laundress 
Mrs. R. F. Hoar, laundress 
Miss Fannie Meeney, laundress 
Mrs. Mary Trainor, assistant nurse 
Miss Annie McGowan, girls' supervisor 
Mrs. Jane Darmody, charge of orphans' ward 
Mrs. S. A. Andrews, seamstress 
Margaret Connell, cook . 
James McGowan, painter 
William Kelley, hostler . 
Samuel Kelley, laborer . 
George W. Keyes, teamster 
John T. B. Bailey, teamster 
Thomas Moran, laborer . 
Joseph Morgan, laborer . 
Frank Marcoux, laborer . 
John Keefe, blacksmith . 
Patrick Riley, fireman 
Frank Wood, painter, per day 
George E. Davis, carpenter, per day without board 
J. H. Davis, carpenter, per day without board 



$1,800 00 
1,000 00 
500 00 
360 00 
240 00 
240 00 
240 00 
480 00 
1,000 00 
500 00 
600 00 
400 00 
300 00 
360 00 
180 00 
250 00 
300 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
360 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
130 00 
130 00 
120 00 
104 00 
250 00 
104 00 
96 00 
96 00 
60 00 
270 00 
216 00 
200 00 
200 00 
200 00 
300 00 
120 00 

1 50 

2 25 
2 00 



36 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



FARM PRODUCE FOR 1879. 



Hay . 

Bowen 
Milk 

Rye-straw 

Corn-fodder 

Corn-fodder, g 

Pumpkins 

Corn 

Potatoes 

Mangolds 

Sugar beets 

English turnips 

Ruta-baga 

Carrots . 

Rye 

Wood . 

Lumber . 

Wool . 

Beef 

Pork 

Veal 

Calves raised 

Calves sold 

Pigs raised 

Lambs raised 



een 



GARDEN PRODUCE FOR 1879 



Apples 
Asparagus 
Beans, string . 
Beans, early seed 
Beans, shelled . 
Beans, cranberry 
Beans, Lima . 
Corn, sweet 
Corn, pop 
Cucumbers 
Cabbage . 
Celery 
Currants . 
Melons, musk . 
Melons, water . 
Onions 
Pears 
Pease 
Parsnips . 



154i 


tons. 


40 


u 


137 


a 


2 


a 


56 


u 


45 


t< 


4 


a 


900 bushels 


1,150 


a 


1,500 


a 


650 


it 


650 


Ci 


600 


a 


400 


u 


15 


it 


27 


cords. 


3,000 feet. 


32 


pounds 


6,733 


" 


9,463 


u 


310 


" 


18 




30 




118 




6 




3 barrels. 


7 bushels. 



2 

3 

66 

15 

120 

550 heads. 
45 bunches. 
141 quarts. 
200 
50 
176 bushels. 

4 
35 " 
50 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No, 18. 



3T 



Raspberries 
Squashes, winter 
Squashes, summer 
Strawberries 
Tomatoes 



76 quarts. 
l£ tons. 
1 

474 quarts. 

77 bushels. 



Taken Sept. 



RECAPITULATION OF INVENTORY. 

SO, 1879, by Messrs. D. B. Bishop and Enos Calkins of 

Palmer. 



Real Estate. 



Land 
Buildings 



Personal. 



Live stock ...... 

Produce of farm .... 

Carriages and agricultural implements 

Machinery and mechanical fixtures . 

Personal property, superintendent's department 

Beds and bedding, inmates' department 

Furniture, inmates' department 

Clothing, boots and shoes 

Dry-goods . 

Groceries . 

Library 

Drugs, medicine, &c. 

Fuel .... 

Heating, gas, &c. 
Miscellaneous . 



£22,665 43 
88,980 00 



$6,422 50 
5,793 66 
3,427 33 
7,736 00 
4,920 52 
5,079 31 
4,417 51 
4,915 01 

871 32 
1,306 33 

576 31 

306 50 

3,622 50 

17,000 00 

638 75 



$111,645 43 



$67,033 55 



,678 98 



SPECIAL APPROPRIATIONS. 
Repairs and Alterations. 



Lumber and finish 

Labor, mason, carpenter, and painter 

Paint and varnish 

Bricks, 12 M 

Steam-boiler, engines, and shafting 

Piping, Phillips Manufacturing Co. 

Freight on steam-pipe . 



School Furniture. 
Encyclopaedia and blackboards 
Charts, crayons, cubes, and letters 
"Nursery," 400 copies 20 00 



$127 46 


193 70 


47 55 


54 00 


344 75 


537 99 


13 02 


$16 00 


35 89 


20 00 



$1,318 47 



$71 89 



,390 36 



38 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Receipts. 
Amount received from unexpended appropriation of 187 
Cash received from appropriations of 1879 . 
Amount of September schedule unpaid 



Cash received for board, labor, and sales . 
Paid State Treasurer .... 



$12,184 52 

33,784 36 

4,066 51 

$50,035* 39 
. $603 61 
. 603 61 



STATEMENT OF WORK DONE IX No. 1 SEWING ROOM. 

Average number employed, 18. Girls 13, women 2, boys 3. 



Made. 


Repaired. 


Total. 


Aprons 


3S 


48 


86 


Bibs . . ; . 














25 


- 


25 


Coats 














- 


1,853 


1,853 


Caps . 














96 


16 


" 112 


Chemises . 














72 


25 


97 


Curtains . 














16 


8 


24 


Drawers . 














112 


- 


112 


Dresses 














- 


142 


142 


Frocks 














123 


231 


354 


Holders 














146 


- 


146 


Mattresses. 














4 




4 


Mittens 














279 


- 


279 


Night-dresses 














152 


— 


152 


Napkins . 
















49 


49 


Overalls ' . 














6 


- 


6 


Billows 














- 


22 


22 


Pillow-cases 














34 


43 


77 


Pants (woollen), pairv 
Pants (cotton), pairs 


3 










269} 
540 } 


2,882 


3,691 


Sheets 












- 


92 


92 


Suits . 














- 


32 


32 


Shirts 














752 


1,551 


2,303 


Skirts 














86 


12 


98 


Spreads 














117 


300 


417 


Stockings (pairs 


) 












465 


3,690 


4,155 


Suspenders 














- 


128 


128 


Table-cloths 














- 


18 


18 


Ticks 














93 


287 


380 


Towels 














304 


649 


953 


Waists pants 














52 


- 


52 


Tyers 










268 


- 


268 


Totals 














4,049 


12,078 


16,127 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



39 



PRINCIPAL'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of State Primary and Reform Schools. 
The following school statistics are herewith submitted. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Pupils in school Oct. 1, 1878 


335 


1-50 


485 


Admitted durin? the year . 






131 


00 


186 


Admitted second time 






17 


9 


2G 


Different pupils during the year . 






449 


19G 


G45 


Discharged during the year 






154 


71 


225 


Largest number at any one time . 






347 


145 


492 


Smallest number at any one time 






278 


111 


389 


Average attendance 






284 


123 


407 


Remaining Sept. 30, 1879 . 






309 


134 


443 



Showing Range of Ages. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Over twelve years of age . . 

Under five years of age .... 

Between five and twelve .... 


68 

17 

224 


27 

8 

99 


95 

25 

323 



Average age of pupils, nine years and three months. 



Showing Classification. 



o 1 


TEACHER. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


1 


Miss M. E. Duncan, two divisions 


67 




67 


2 


Miss N. J. Rice, two divisions . 


73 


_ 


73 


3 


Miss E. C. Dibble .... 


56 


_ 


56 


4 


Miss E. M. Fullington 


53 


_ 


53 


5 


Miss S. Hamilton, two divisions 


_ 


67 


67 


6 


Miss J. H. Hamilton 


10 


38 


48 


7 


Miss C. S. Clark .... 


30 


22 


52 




Too small to attend school 


20 


7 


27 



40 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. 

Showing Studies pursued. 



[Oct. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Eead in Anderson's Historical Reader 


6 


7 


13 


Foster's Bible Stories 


18 


_ 


18 


Edwards's Fourth Reader 


44 


19 


63 


Intermediate Reader 


28 


- 


28 


Third Reader . 


90 


40 


130 


Second Reader 


45 


17 


62 


First Reader . 


49 


17 


66 


Study Geography 


117 


27 


144 


Grammar 


- 


7 


7 


Sainton's Language Lessons 


34 


_ 


' 34 


Written Arithmetic .... 


23 


21 


44 


Mental Arithmetic .... 


133 


26 


159 


Study multiplication-tables 


154 


55 


209 


Write in writing-books .... 


219 


44 


263 


on slates ...... 


32 


27 


59 



Showing Progress in Studies when received. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Total. 


Could read books generally .... 


13 


9 


22 


easy reading 






29 


14 


43 


words of one syllable 






29 


9 


38 


Could not read .... 






55 


28 


83 


Had studied arithmetic 






27 


11 


38 


Knew multiplication-tables . 






26 


5 


31 


Had studied geography 






31 


12 


43 



Respectfully, 

J. C. TIBBETTS, Principal. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 41 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of State Primary School, Monson, Mass. 

I herewith present you with the report of the medical 
department of the institution year ending Sept. 30, 1879. 

Number remaining in hospital, Sept. 30, 1878 ... 45 

admitted during the year ..... 516 

births " " " 2 

deaths " «■-«..- 13 

discharged " " " . . . . . 551 

remaining in hospital ..... 27 

No names on the record unless they have been in and 
remained over twenty-four hours. Of the deaths (same 
number as last year) seven died of consumption, one each 
of chronic hepatitis, typhoid pneumonia, typhoid fever, 
meningitis, marasmus, and syphilis. 

The last was hereditary, diseased from birth, and died at 
the age of three months. One of the cases of consumption 
followed from whooping-cough, and one from purpura hem- 
orrhagica, dying six months afterwards. Only three of the 
deaths were from acute disease. All of the others were 
chronic, and nearly all were inmates of the hospital at the 
time of last report. 

Of those now remaining in the hospital, only one is in 
bed, and that one because of a fracture of tibia. All the 
others go to the table, and eat a full ration three times a day 
of good substantial food. 

In the months of December, January, and February, 
there were over thirty cases of typhoid pneumonia, one of 
which proved fatal. There were, during the last of the 
winter and spring months, something over two hundred 
cases of whoo'ping-cough ; and during the year about one 
hundred cases of sore eyes have been treated. Several cases 
of fracture and dislocations have occurred among the boys. 



42 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

I feel warranted in saying that the present sanitary and 
healthful condition of the four hundred and seventy-five 
inmates of State Primary School has never been better, or 
as good, to my knowledge, as at this time. Not a death 
occurred from June 23 until Sept. 26 ; none in July and 
August, the severe months for children. The condition of 
the hospital attests the facts, — none in bed with a single 
exception ; all with a good appetite, not a delicate stomach 
to be pampered with nice delicacies to tempt it to do duty. 

We commence the next year under more favorable circum- 
stances than the last, as there are no consumptive cases now 
under treatment. The sore eyes are few in number, and less 
severe ; less than we have had for some time. 

It is quite possible for children to die under the most 
favorable circumstances and conditions in life, as well as for 
them to live under the most unsatisfactory sanitary condi- 
tion of things. You will bear in mind that a great number 
of these children are offspring of diseased parents ; and the 
curse, pronounced on man for disobedience and sin, is surely 
shown in a great many of these sore eyes, and numerous 
other diseased children, that have to be cared for, watched 
over, and nursed here. 

To the boys' nurse, Mr. James Lally, I feel that too much 
praise cannot be given, for the good care he has taken of 
those under his charge. 

Mrs. St. John, nurse in care of the girls, was obliged by 
ill health, after long and faithful service, to resign her posi- 
tion, which was taken by Miss Keeler, who, not proving 
equal to the duties required, gave way to Miss Davenport, 
who has for years been in charge of the sick in another 
institution, and comes very highly recommended. 

Respectfully, 

WM. HOLBROOK, Physician. 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



43 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



To his Excellency Thomas Talbot, 
Executive Council. 



Governor, and the Honorable 



I respectfully submit the following Report of the re- 
ceipts and expenditures of the State Reform School at West- 
borough for the year ending Sept. 30, 1879: — 





Receipts 








1878 — November 


: Received from State Treasurei 


, $6,730 71 




December, 


" " 


" 


. 4,184 30 




1879 — January, 


" " 


" 


. 2,639 47 




February, 


u u 


<i 


. 6,469 02 




March, 


I i ki 


" 


. 2,563 52 




April, 


a a 


u 


. 4,358 47 




May, 


11 tc 


u 


. 3,561 83 




June, 


a a 


(( 


. 3,951 02 




July, 


u 


tc 


. 8,353 66 




August, 


tc a 


a 


. 5,092 12 




September 


it a 
j 


cc 


. 2,726 06 
. 2,723 83 


$53,354 01 






Received for sales of sleighs, produce, 


&c, and 


labor of bo} 


s> — 


1878 — December: 


Sales of sleighs and p 


•oduce . 


$760 00 




1879 — January: 


Labor of boys 




274 21 


i 


" 


Sales of sleighs, &c. 




1,261 14 




February: 


U Ct u 




147 18 




March : 


tc a a 

Labor of boys 




909 91 
976 14 




April: 


a ii 




233 97 




u 


Sales of sleighs and pi 


oduce . 


580 00 




July 24: 


Labor of boys 




388 24 




September 


: " " 


. 


148 08 




u 


Sales of produce, &c. 




1,101 15 


6,780 02 








$60,134 03 



44 



PEIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 





Expenditures 












1878 — Nov. : Paid bills audited on Schedule No. 


l, 


$6,730 


71 




Dec. " 


" No. 


2, 


4,184 


30 




1879 — Jan. 


" No. 


3, 


2,639 


47 




Feb. " < 


" No. 


4, 


6,469 


02 




Mar. " ' 


" No. 


5, 


2,563 


52 




April " ' 


" No. 


6, 


4,358 


47 




May " l 


" No. 


7, 


3,561 


83 




June " ' 


" No. 


8, 


3,951 


02 




July " ' 


' " No. 


9, 


8,353 


66 




Aug. ' ' ' 


" No. 


10, 


5,092 


12 




Sept. " ' 


" No. 


11, 


2,726 


06 




tt a (. 


No. 


12, 


2,723 83 


• 










$53,354 01 








Paid State Treasurer for sales, and labor of 1 


boys 


» — 






1879 — January ...... 




$1,992 


35 




March 








585 


09 




April 








1,751 


14 




June 








5S0 


00 




July 








233 


97 




August . 








388 


24 




September 








1,101 

148 


15 

08 












6,780 02 








- 


$60,134 03 




S. M 


GRIGGS, 


Treasurer. 



Westbokough, Oct. 6, 1871 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 45 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Honorable Board of Trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — I respectfully submit for 
your consideration my First Annual Report of the condition 
of your school at Westborough, for the year ending Sept. 30, 
1879. 

The statistical tables which follow, though perhaps of 
little interest to the general reader, are of material value to 
one who wishes to investigate the whole subject of "juvenile 
reform. ' 

The social antecedents and moral surroundings out of 
which the necessity of this work springs, together with the 
practical results of the work itself, are herein shown more or 
less distinctly. 

Table fro. 1. 

Showing the Number Received and Discharged, and General Condition of the 

School, for the Year ending Sept. 30, 1819. 

Boys in school Sept. 30, 1878 321 

Received — Since committed . 102 

Recommitted ....... 4 

Returned by master ...... 4 

Returned by Visiting Agent .... 3 

Returned by Superintendent Indoor Poor . . 1 
Returned voluntarily ...... 2 

Returned by police ...... 2 

Returned by parents ...... 2 

Returned by institution officers . . . .16 

— 136 

Whole number in school during the year . . . . . 457 

Discharged — On probation ....... 167 

On trial 42 

Indentured ....... 1 

To seek employment ...... 6 

By elopement (twelve of whom have been re- 
turned) . . . . . . . .16 

Discharged to Overseers of Poor ... 1 
Died 2 

— 235 

Remaining in school Sept. 30, 1879 222 



46 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Table No. 2. 

Showing the Admissions, Number Discharged, and Average Number of each 

Month. 



MONTHS 


Admitted. 


Discharged. 


Average 
Number. 


1878. 








October ...... 


20 


46 


• 307.54 


November ..... 


15 


13 


299.96 


December ...... 


9 


8 


297.61 


1879. 








January ...... 


5 


30 


287.45 


February- 












8 


6 


271.89 


March 












12 


19 


285.54 


April 




, 








5 


43 


251.16 


May . 












6 


20 


222.80 


June . 












19 


23 


214.33 


July . 












16 


8 


217.74 


August 












15 


10 


225.22 


September 


. 








6 


9 


224.30 














136 


235 


258.79 



Table No. 3. 

Showing the Commitments from the Several Counties the past Year, and pre- 
viously. 



COUNTIES. 


Past year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


Barnstable . . . . . 


2 


39 


41 


Berkshire . 










2 


191 


193 


Bristol 










15 


401 


416 


Dukes 










_ 


5 


5 


Essex 










16 


833 


849 


Franklin . 










_ 


4Q 


46 


Hampden . 










5 


269 


274 


Hampshire 










2 


66 


68 


Middlesex 










18 


834 


852 


Nantucket 










- 


16 


16 


Norfolk . 










4 


904 


908 


Plymouth . 










6 


79 


85 


Suffolk . 










17 


1,078 


1,095 


Worcester 


• 






19 


544 


563 












106 


5,305 


5,411 ^ 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



47 



Table No. 4. 

Showing the Disposal of those Discharged the past Year and previously. 



DISPOSAL. 


Past year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


Sent to Eye Infirmary . . 




1 


1 


Discharged by Board of Trustees 


- 


635 


635 


Discharged by expiration of sentence . 


- 


326 


326 


Remanded to alternative sentence 


_ 


134 


134 


Returned to masters ..... 


_ 


21 


21 


Discharged by order of court 


- 


11 


11 


Committed to State Lunatic Hospital at 








Worcester ...... 


- 


3 


3 


Discharged to be tried for burning the Insti- 








tution ....... 


- 


7 


7 


Sentenced to House of Correction at Worces- 








ter ........ 


_ 


18 


18 


Discharged to enter navy .... 


_, 


3 


3 


Released to go to sea ..... 


_ 


2 


2 


Released to enlist in army .... 


- 


4 


4 


Pardoned by the executive .... 


_ 


6 


6 


Delivered to Overseers of Poor . 


1 


4 


5 


Released on probation to relatives 


167 


1,261 


1,428 


Transferred to Nautical School . 


« 


185 


185 


Transferred to Bridgewater State Work^ 








house ....... 


_ 


16 


16 


Transferred to Monson Primary School 


_ 


32 


32 


Eloped ( 12 of whom have been returned) 


16 


280 


296 


Permitted to go home, and did not return . 


_ 


1 


1 


On trial to farmers and other persons . 


42 


568 


610 


To seek employment . 


6 


18 


24 


Died ........ 


2 


74 


76 


Indentured to Barbers .... 


„ 


25 


25 


Blacksmiths .... 


_ 


20 


20 


Boiler-makers 


_ 


2 


2 


Bookbinders .... 


_ 


2 


2 


Brass-founders 


_ 


2 


2 


Brick-maker .... 


_ 


1 


1 


Broom-maker 


T 


1 


1 


Butchers .... 


_ 


7 


7 


Cabinet-makers 


_ 


12 


12 


Calico-printers 


- 


2 


2 


Carpenters .... 


- 


11 


11 


Caterer .... 


- 


1 


1 


Cigar-maker .... 


- 


1 


1 


Clergyman .... 


_ 


1 


1 


Clerks 


_ 


14 


14 


Comb-makers 


_ 


5 


5 


Coopers .... 


_ 


10 


10 


Cotton-manufacturers . 


_ 


10 


10 


Daguerreotypist . 


- 


1 


1 


Engineer .... 


- 


1 


1 


Engraver .... 


- 


1 


1 


Farmers and gardeners . 


_ 


953 


953 


Farmers and shoemakers 


— 


90 


90 



48 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. 

Table No. 4. — Continued. 



[Oct. 



DISPOSAL. 


Past year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


Indentured to File-makers . 




2 


2 


Fresco-cleaner 




_ 


1 


1 


Glass-blower . 




_ 


1 


1 


Gun and lock smith 




- 


1 


1 


Harness-makers . 




1 


6 • 


7 


Hotel-keeper 




- 


1 


1 


Japan ner 




- 


1 


1 


Jewellers 




- 


3 


3 


Lumber-dealer 




- 


1 


1 


Machine card-maker 




- 


1 


1 


Machinists . 




— 


22 


22 


Marble-workers 




- 


4 


4 


Mahogany chair-makers 




- 


2 


o 


Masons . 




- 


21 


21 


Merchants 




- 


8 


8 


Millers . 




- 


3 


3 


Moulders 




- 


7 


7 


Mule- spinner 




- 


1 


1 


Nail-cutter . 




- 


1 


1 


Pail-maker . 




- 


1 


1 


Painters 




- 


21 


21 


Paper-hangers 




- 


2 


2 


Pianoforte-maker . 




- 


1 


1 


Plumbers 




- 


3 


3 


Pocket-book maker 




- 


1 


1 


Printers 




- 


7 


7 


Prussian-blue manufacturer . 


- 


1 


1 


Pump and block maker 


- 


1 


1 


Reed and harness maker 


- 


1 


1 


Rigger .... 


- 


1 


1 


Rope-makers 




- 


2 


2 


Sail-makers . 




- 


4 


4 


Saw-maker . 




_ 


1 


1 


School, &c, attend 




- 


188 


188 


Sea-captains . 




- 


15 


15 


Ship-carpenters and 


boat- 








builders 




- 


6 


6 


Shoe-tool-makers . 




- 


3 


3 


Silver-platers 




- 


7 


7 


Sleigh-maker 




- 


1 


1 


Soap and candle maker 




- 


1 


1 


Spool-makers 




- 


2 


2 


Stone-cutters 




- 


7 


7 


Shoemakers . 




- 


532 


532 


Stereotypers . 




- 


9 


9 


Tack- makers 




- 


2 


2 


Tailors .... 




- 


2 


2 


Tanners and curriers 




- 


19 


19 


Teamsters 




- 


3 


3 


Tin and copper smiths . 




- 


6 


6 


Trunk-makers 




- 


4 


4 


Upholsterer . 




- 


1 


1 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 

Table No. 4. — Concluded. 



49 



DISPOSAL. 


Past year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


Indentured to Veneer-sawyer 
Wheelwrights 
Wire-worker 
Wood-turners 
Woollen-weavers . 


— 


1 

14 
1 

2 
3 


1 

14 
1 
2 
3 




235 


5,746 


5,981 



Table No. 5. 

Showing the Length of Time the Boys have been in the Institution, who left 
the past Year, and since Nov. SO, 1853. 



TIME. 


Past year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


In school less than one month 




5 


5 


1 month 








- 


29 


29 


2 months 












- 


53 


53 


3 " 












_ 


44 


44 


4 « 












_ 


47 


47 


5 " 












_ 


55 


55 


6 " 












— 


71 


71 


7 " 












1 


70 


71 


8 " 












1 


87 


88 


9 " 












- 


108 


108 


10 " 












2 


223 


225 


11 " 












1 


120 


121 


12 " 












6. 


132 


138 


13 " 












6 


109 


115 


14 " 












9 


118 


127 


• 15 « 












5 


115 


120 


16 " 












5 


162 


167 


17 " 












15 


126 


141 


18 " . 












9 


115 


124 


19 " 












3 


111 


114 


20 " 












6 


129 


135 


21 " 












8 


126 


134 


22 " 












3 


202 


205 


23 " 












6 


127 


133 


24 " 












9 


196 


205 


25 " 












10 


119 


129 


26 " 












9 


106 


115 


27 " 












1 


89 


90 


28 " 












5 


76 


81 


29 " 












8 


70 


78 


30 " 












7 


118 


125 


31 " 












4 


77 


81 



50 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. 

Table No. 5 — Continued. 



[Oct. 



TIME. 


Past year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


In school 32 months ..... 


5 


81 


86 


33 " 












4 


76 


80 


34 « 












3 


118 


121 


35 » 












4 


69 


73 


36 " 












2 


132 


134 


37 " 












5 


62 


67 


38 « 












3 


56 


59 


39 " 












3 


37 


40 


40 " 












6 


52 


58 


41 " 












1 


61 


62 


42 " 












6 


50 


56 


43 « 












4 


34 


38 


44 " 












1 


48 


49 


45 " 












4 


39 


43 


46 « 












o 


52 


54 


47 " 












2 


44 


46 


48 " 












2 


61 


63 


49 " 












3 


40 


43 


50 " 












1 


24 


25 


51 " 












2 


30 


32 


52 " 












1 


24 


25 


53 " 












- 


33 


33 


54 « 












1 


22 


23 


55 " 












1 


19 


20 


56 " 












2 


40 


42 


57 " 












_ 


27 


27 


58 " 












1 


26 


27 


59 " 












1 


27 


28 


60 " 












1 


18 


19 


61 " 












- 


14 


14 


62 " 












_ 


21 


21 


63 " 












_ 


12 


12 


64 " 












— 


19 


19 


65 " 












- 


16 


16 


66 " 












1 


10 


11 


67 " 












1 


8 


9 


68 " 












_ 


11 


11 


69 " 












_. 


16 


16 


70 " 












_ 


11 


11 


71 " 












1 


12 


13 


72 " 












_ 


15 


15 


73 " 












_ 


11 


11 


74 » 












1 


5 


6 


75 " 












_ 


6 


6 


76 » 












1 


7 


8 


77 " 












- 


4 


4 


78 " 












_ 


6 


6 


79 » 












_ 


8 


8 


80 " 












_ 


7 


7 


81 " 












1 


5 


6 


82 " 












_ 


2 


2 


83 " 












_ 


2 


2 


84 " 












- 


3 


3 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 

Table No. 5 — Concluded. 



51 



TIME. 


Past year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


In school 85 months ..... 




1 


1 


86 " 












_ 


4 


4 


87 " 












- 


4 


4 


88 " 












1 


- 


1 


89 " 












- 


4 


4 


90 " 












1 


3 


4 


91 " 












— 


2 


2 


92 " 












- 


1 


1 


93 " 












- 


1 


1 


94 " 












_ 


1 


1 


95 " 












_ 


1 


1 


96 " 












1 


5 


6 


97 " 












- 


1 


1 


98 « 












- 


2 


2 


99 " 












_ 


- 


- 


102 " 












— 


1 


1 


104 « 












- 


2 


2 


107 " 












— 


3 


3 


110 " 












- 


1 


1 














219 


4,702 


4,921 



Table No. 6. 

Showing by what Authority the Commitments have been made the past Year. 



COMMITMENTS. 



Past year. 



By Board of State Charities 

By District Court 

By Municipal Court 

By Police Court 

By Trial Justice 

By Superior Court . 



1 
40 
13 
34 
16 

2 

106 



52 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Table No. 7. 
Showing the Nativity of those Committed the past Year, and previously. 



NATIVITY. 


Past year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


Australia ....... 




1 


1 


Canada ....... 


3 


51 


54 


England ....... 


4 


100 


104 


France . 


- 


1 


1 


Germany . 


- 


5 


5 


Ireland ....... 


6 


465 


471 


Italy ........ 


- 


4 


4 


Mexico ....... 


- 


1 


1 


New Brunswick . 


1 


70 


71 


Newfoundland . 


1 


5 


6 


Nova Scotia . 


- 


47 


47 


Prince Edward Island ..... 


- 


1 


1 


Portugal ....... 


- 


1 


1 


Scotland ....... 


1 


14 


15 


Switzerland ...... 


1 


- 


1 


Wales. ....... 


_ 


4 


4 


West Indies ...... 


- 


2 


2 ' 


Total foreign ..... 


17 


772 


789 


Atlantic Ocean . . . 


_ 


1 


1 


California ....... 


- 


4 


4 


Connecticut ...... 


3 


71 


74 


District of Columbia ..... 


_ 


6 


6 


Georgia . 


- 


3 


3 


Illinois ....... 


_ 


11 


11 


Kentucky . . . . . . . 


- 


2 


2 


Louisiana ....... 


- 


8 


8 


Maine ........ 


4 


136 


140 


Massachusetts .... . ■ 


66 


3,276 


3,342 


Michigan ....... 


- 


4 


4 


Minnesota ....... 


- 


1 


1 


Missouri ....... 


_ 


1 


1 


New Hampshire ...... 


7 


115 


122 


New Jersey ...... 


- 


15 


15 


New York ....... 


3 


174 


177 


North Carolina ....... 


- 


2 


2 


Ohio . . . . 


- 


1 


1 


Pennsylvania . . 


- 


18 


18 


Rhode Island ...... 


2 


54 


56 


South Carolina ...... 




2 


2 


Tennessee ....... 


- 


1 


1 


Vermont ....... 


2 


54 


56 


Virginia 


1 


14 


15 


Wisconsin ....... 


1 


3 


4 


Unknown . 


- 


8 


8 


Total American ..... 


89 


3,985 


4,074 


Foreigners ....... 


17 


772 


789 


Total American and foreigners 


106 


4,757 


4,863 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



53 



Table No. 8. 
Showing the Nativity of Parents of Boys Committed the past Year. 



NATIVITY. 


Fathers. 


Mothers. 


Canada ......... 

England . . . . . 

Ireland . . 

Nova Scotia ........ 

New Brunswick ....... 

Switzerland ........ 

Scotland . . . . 

Germany ......... 

Portugal ......... 


7 

4 

52 

1 

1 
1 
3 
1 


8 
4 
50 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 


Total foreigners . . . . ..!'*.. 

Connecticut . '. ' . 

Massachusetts ........ 

Maine ......... 

New York ......... 

New Hampshire ....... 

Rhode Island ........ 

Vermont ......... 


70 

1 

19 

6 

2 
1 

3 


68 

1 

20 
6 
1 
2 
1 
3 


Total American ....... 

Total foreign ....... 

Unknown ........ 


32 

70 
4 


34 

68 

4 


Total American and foreign .... 


106 


106 



Table No. 9. 
Showing the Ages of Boys when Committed. 



Past year. 



Previously. 



Totals. 



Six years 

Seven years 

Eight years . 

Nine years . 

Ten years . 

Eleven years . . • 

Twelve years 

Thirteen years 

Fourteen years . 

Fifteen years 

Sixteen years 

Seventeen years . 

Eighteen years and upwards 

Unknown . 

Total . 
Average age, 14.23. 



3 
10 
12 
13 

12 
21 
22 
11 
2 



106 



5 

25 
116 

229 
427 
594 
615 

706 
852 
722 
772 
247 
54 
23 



5,387 



5 

25 

116 

229 

430 

604 

627 

719 

864 

743 

794 

258 

56 

23 



5,493 



54 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Table No. 10. 

Showing the Domestic Condition, etc., of Boys Committed during the Year. 



CONDITION. 



Number. 



Had no parents 
no father . 
no mother 
step-father 
step-mother 
intemperate father 
intemperate mother 
parents separated 
been arrested before 
been inmates of other institutions 
other members of family arrested 
used ardent spirits . 
used tobacco .... 
Catholic parents 
Protestant parents . 



10 

24 

6 

2 

b' 

51 

24 

3 

83 

32 

49 

24 

67 

71 

35 



Table No. 11. 

Occupation of the Fathers of Boys sent here during the Year, as near as can 

he ascertained. 



BUSINESS. 


Number. 


BUSINESS. 


Number. 


Baker .... 


1 


Overseer 


1 


Blacksmith 








1 


Painter .... 


2 


Carpenter 








4 


Peddler. 


2 


Clerk 








1 


Plumber 


o 


Cooper . 








1 


Puddler 




Currier . 








1 


Soldier .... 




Engineer 








1 


Saloon-keeper 




Farmer . 








5 


Scythe-grinder 




Fisherman 








1 


Sailor .... 




Gardener 








2 


Card- clothier. 




Harness-makei 








1 


Brakeman 




Junk dealer 








o 


Shoemaker . 


11 


Laborer . 








25 


Teamster 


3 


Lithographer 








1 


Watch-spring maker 


1 


Machinist 








2 


Deceased 


24 


Mason 
Mill-hand 








3 
1 












Total . 


106 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



55 



Table No. 12. 

Number of different Towns lived in by Boys Received the past Year. 



TOWNS. 


Boys. 


TOWNS. 


Boys. 


1 . 

2 .... . 

3 .... 

4 . 

5 .... . 


45 
20 

18 

10 

5 


6 

7 .... . 
Total 


5 
3 


106 



Table No. 13. 

Number of different Tenements lived in by Boys Received during the past Year. 



TENEMENTS. 


Boys. 


TENEMENTS. 


Boys. 


1 

2 

s !!.!! ! 

4 .... 

5 .... 

6 .... 


14 
9 

11 
9 

25 
9 


7 

8 . 

9 . 

10 and upwards 

Total . 


3 
3 
3 

106 



Table No. 14. 

Amount of Rents paid by Parents of the Boys received during the past Year, 
as near as can be ascertained. 



AMOUNT PER MONTH. 


Boys' 


AMOUNT PER MONTH. 


Boys' 




Parents. 




Parents. 


|3 00 . 


4 


$9 50 . 


2 


4 00 






9 


10 00 . 


5 


4 50 






2 


12 00 and over . 


2 


5 00 






11 


Own their house . 


23 


6 00 






8 


Unknown 


6 


6 50 






4 


Boarding 


11 


7 00 






7 


Dead .... 


10 


8 00 
8 50 






1 
1 










Total . 


106 



56 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Table No. 15. 

Showing for what those Received during the past Year were Committed. 



CAUSES. 



Xumber of 
Boys. 



Assault ...... 

Assault and battery .... 
Breaking and entering 
Breaking, entering, and larceny 
Escaping from Lawrence Reform School 
Felonious assault and robbery . 
Idle and disorderly .... 

Incendiarism 

Larceny ...... 

Malicious mischief .... 

Stubbornness ..... 

Stubbornness and disobedience 
Vagrancy ..... 

Manslaughter ..... 



1 
1 
3 

20 
1 
1 
1 
1 

55 
1 



106 



Table No. 16. 
Showing the average Employment of Boys during the Year. 



Employed farming and gardening 
seating chairs . 
making shoes . 
in sewing-room 
in laundry 

in baking, cooking, and care of dining-room 
in domestic work 
at the steam-mill 
at miscellaneous work 
in halls and yard 
in paint-shop . 
in sleigh-shop . 
in blacksmith-shop . 

Total .... 



69 
70 

3 
17 

9 
10 
10 

2 
26 
15 

4 
15 



258 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



57 



Table No. 17. 

Showing the amount of Work done in the Work-rooms. 



In the Chair-shop. 
Number of chairs seated . 



In the Laundry. 
Number of articles washed and ironed 

In the Shoe-shop. 
Number of shoes made, pairs . 
Number of shoes repaired, pairs 



55,114 
112,298 



404 
1,514 



In the Sewing-room. 



ARTICLES. 



Eepaired. 



Aprons 

Blankets . 

Bed-ticks . 

Caps . 

Coats 

Curtains . 

Dish-wipers 

Holders 

Ironing-sheets . 

Jumpers . 

Jackets 

Mats . 

Mattress re-made 

Mittens . . 

Napkins . 

Overalls 

Pants, pairs 

Pillow-cases 

Quilts . '. 

Stockings, pairs 

Shirts 

Suspenders, pairs 

Sheets 

Spreads 

Towels . i 

Table-cloths 



55 


34 


_ 


86 


99 


415 


133 


_ 


26 


_ 


1 


_ 


7 


72 


114 


60 


2 


18 


13 


744 


219' 


2 


1 


_ 


72 


_ 


36 


70 


18 


18 


658 


1,716 


237 


193 


_ 


148 


1,007 


7,412 


569 


5,120 


361 


- 


237 


410 


- 


256 


218 


358 


- 


2 



58 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Table No. 18. 



During- the year my average number has been .... 258.79 

Dividing the current expenses ($53, 354. 01) by the average number of 
inmates (258.79), gives an average annual cost of $206.10, equivalent to 
an average weekly cost of $3.96. 

Deducting receipts ($6,780.02) from current expenses ($53,354.01), and 
we find the real cost of running this institution to be, for the past year, 
$46,573.99. 

Dividing this amount ($46,573.99) by the average number, and we find 
an average annual cost of $179.95, equivalent to an average weekly cost 
of $3.46. 



In the general management of the school, and in individual 
discipline, the superintendent has endeavored to keep in 
mind the noble purpose of the originators of this benevolent 
enterprise. 

Mr. Washburn in his inaugural address, Dec. 7, 1848 ? 
declared that " this institution was to present the State in 
her true relation of a parent seeking out her erring children, 
and laying aside the stern severity of justice while laboring 
for their reform." 

It was to be emphatically a Reform School. It was not 
to be simply a place to punish criminals, or to protect the 
community from their depredations. The idea of saving 
the wayward or criminal boy was the grand and paramount 
thought of its early benefactors. There were already jails 
and prisons for the safe keeping and punishment of criminals. 

It was expected that here kind and firm paternal discipline 
Avould restrain, correct, and educate these wards of the State. 
It was hoped and believed that many would become industri- 
ous and worthy citizens. 

To secure this result has been my faithful endeavor 
through the year. 

Antagonizing this effort, I found a class of criminal young 
men not wholly confined to the " Correctional " Department, 
many of them reckless and defiant, striving to create and 
maintain a spirit of determined opposition to that submission 
to proper authority which precedes all permanent reforma- 
tion. 

Hence officers encountered a popular element of insubor- 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 59 

clination, which manifested itself on nearly every occasion of 
individual discipline, especially of the older and favorite 
boys. 

There was little hope of improvement while this combina- 
tion to defy authority, and foment disturbance, continued. 
The first thing, therefore, to be sought, was to secure a per- 
sonal influence, through confidence and friendship, over the 
leaders in these riotous exhibitions. While holding all to a 
strict obedience of the rules, it was necessary to grant such 
favors as would convince them that their rational enjoyment 
was desired, as well as their submission to authority. 

It had not been thought safe to give the same privileges to 
the majority, that were allowed to those in the higher grades ; 
but after a full statement of my plans and wishes, and basing 
the continued enjoyment of favors upon not abusing the trust, 
all were alike given the freedom and privileges of the yard, 
and other pleasures from time to time, as were deemed wise. 

The effect was most salutary. Gradually the lawless and 
clannish combination gave way ; each individual stood upon 
his own merits ; each had a motive to preserve order ; the few 
determined spirits sought in vain for further popular support. 
Isolation and enforced restraint secured obedience and quiet. 
The end desired was gained. One after another worked up 
on his " grade," and was honorably released on probation. 
Most of them are doing well in their chosen field of toil. 

The last six months have been in marked contrast with the 
commencement of the year : and, while there is yet room for 
improvement, I think we may well rejoice at this advance 
towards realizing the hope of the founders of this school of 
reform . 

Industrial Department. 

Believing there is " much in a name " to please and encour- 
age, and that a constant reminder of one's past evil life and 
consequent disgrace tends to confirm and perpetuate the evil 
itself, your honorable predecessors have removed the implied 
censure contained in the old term " Correctional," and have 
given us the " Industrial " as more properly and happily 
defining the relation of the new building to those employed 
therein. 

Here have been placed the older inmates, having the long- 



60 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

est time to remain, and whose evident skill and. taste gave 
promise of greater success, and profitable future employment. 

There are nineteen boys in the sleigh-shop, nine in the 
blacksmith-shop, and seven are engaged in painting, varnish- 
ing, &c. In the selections made for the different trades, 
special care has been taken to adapt the work to the physical 
condition, skill, and choice of the pupil. 

These lads manifest a good degree of interest in their 
respective employments, and some of them promise to become 
superior workmen. 

Though this industry may be attended with considerable 
expense, considering the limited number employed, yet, look- 
ing upon the results, it is questionable whether any part of 
the appropriation is more wisely expended. 

The general character of this department has completely 
changed. It is as free from disturbing elements as any 
other part of the institution. Its inmates are subject to the 
same general rules, enjoy the same privileges, and seem as 
contented and happy in their work and recreation as those 
in the 

Reformatory Department. 

At the present time there are about one hundred and eigh- 
teen boys in this division. The} r are employed in the chair- 
shop, in manufacturing shoes, in the sewing-room, in hall 
and house work, and in outside duties. 

We would invite particular attention to the fact that dis- 
cipline has been maintained, and obedience secured, without 
frequent resort to corporal punishment. Confinement accom- 
panied with faithful admonitions, appealing to a sense of 
duty and right, together with a loss of grade, have been the 
prominent modes of correction. 

As heretofore, deputations from this department have 
made excursions to neighboring towns and to the agricultural 
fair in this place. In every instance they have received the 
praise of the community whom thej r visited, for their good 
behavior. Their hoars of school and labor have been the 
same as last year; and they are encouraged by the assurance 
that they will be recommended for an honorable release on 
probation as soon as they reach their " honor grade." Thus 
they are not soured by disappointment, or " institutionized " 
by a long stay, after being prepared to go. They are cheer- 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 61 

ful and uncomplaining while performing their daily tasks, 
and receive needed admonition with respectful attention. 

A gratifying improvement has been made in this depart- 
ment the past year. 

Family Houses. 

These three families constitute a most important and inter 
esting feature of reform-school work. 

Subjected to the constant supervision of those who feel a 
just pride in their respective households, enjoying almost en- 
tire freedom from physical restraints, and laboring and sport- 
ing under the exhilarating influences of outdoor life, they 
come as near to a good home as can be found away from the 
paternal roof. Here also they enjoy advantages for mental 
and moral improvement of the most promising character. 

Nothing has occurred the past year to weaken my confi- 
dence in the wisdom and efficiency of this work. 

The accompanying reports of the masters of these house- 
holds will acquaint you with the details of their labor, their 
methods, and success. 

These families will accommodate about eighty-eight boys. 

Educational Advantages. 

There are now seven schools taught by six teachers, three 
in the Reformatory Department, one in the Industrial, and 
one in each family-house. 

These schools are continued through the entire year. The 
studies are such as will best prepare this class of boys for 
the common duties and avocations of life. 

Many of the pupils show commendable interest and im- 
provement in study. Their reading, writing, and drawing, 
as well as other common English branches, compare favora- 
bly with our district schools. 

Many of these boys would have passed into manhood with- 
out being able to read or write, had it not been for the in- 
struction here received. 

I take great pleasure in commending the faithfulness and 
success of the respective teachers. 

Instruction in Drawing and Singing. 
Mr. A. A. Munsell has continued his labors in the depart- 



62 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

ment of drawing, giving special attention to the teachers, in 
addition to his weekly lesson to the pupils. 

Mr. Charles B. Hathaway has met the boys twice a week to 
instruct them in singing. The practical value of these efforts 
will be appreciated by those who are familiar with the work 
of the shops and with oar social and religious gatherings. 

The Sanitary Condition of the Institution. 

There is no feature of this work of more vital importance 
than that which regards the health of all concerned. 

I am happy to say that few public institutions have been 
so generously and wisely cared for in this respect. Its ele- 
vated position, insuring good air, rapid and thorough drain- 
age : its nearness to Lake Chauncy, from which an abun- 
dance of soft and pure water for all purposes of cleanliness 
is constantly supplied ; its provisions for ventilation ; its neat 
and spacious hospital, with its manifold accommodations of 
bath-room, kitchen, and side-rooms, furnishing an abundance 
of fresh air and sunlight, and quiet isolation in case of pro- 
tracted and severe sickness, — all combine to make it as 
nearly perfect in this respect as could well be desired. 

It is doubtless owing in a good degree to these provisions, 
together with the watchfulness and painstaking care of our 
most faithful nurse and physician, that the general health of 
the inmates has been so good the past year. For a more 
particular account of the sickness and deaths, I refer you to 
the report of Dr. Harvey. 

Improvements and Repairs. 

Four months' labor has been expended in painting, paper- 
ing, and general repair of the main building and the family- 
houses. Walls and ceilings have been kalsomined ; floors 
have been newly carpeted, roofs painted, and new concrete 
walks laid. Water has been conveyed into two of the family- 
houses, supplying a, great need. 

A new centrifugal wringer has been added to the laundry, 
which is considered a most valuable accession ; and such 
other repairs and improvements have been made from time to 
time, as were thought needful to keep the buildings, fences, 
roads, and walks in good condition. 

The legislative appropriation for new boilers has been 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 63 

wisely expended, in patting into the steam-mill two large 
boilers, in the place of three old ones which were considered 
unsafe ; thereby saving fuel, and doing the work more ex- 
peditiously. 

A permanent building for the storage of coal is greatly 
needed, near the steam-mill ; and a coal-shed or large bins, 
into which the coal can be unloaded from the cars, at the 
41 State Farm Station." This would remedy the inconven- 
ience and extra expense of teaming so large a quantity of 
coal in the busiest season of the year. 

A new and commodious stable and carriage-house should 
be built for the accommodation of the institution. 

Also a team of horses is greatly needed. There is at 
present but one horse that can be relied upon, for any thing 
that requires continued labor, besides the regular farm team. 

The Farm and Crops. 

We think the Board may justly congratulate itself upon 
the substantial success that has attended the management of 
this department the past season. Not only do we reap an 
abundant harvest of a superior quality, but the condition of 
the stock, the well-tilled and neat culture of the crops, will 
attest to the care and interest felt in the diversified labor of 
the farm. 

The full report of the farmer will furnish ample informa- 
tion in regard to the details of this work. 

Religious Services. 

Daily evening worship is held in the chapel and school- 
room of the main building, and in each of the family-houses. 
Catechetical instruction is given to such as desire to attend, 
on Saturday afternoon of each week, for the present. 

The inmates of the institution, as heretofore, gather each 
sabbath morning for Sunday-school instruction, and in the 
afternoon for a preaching-service conducted by clergymen 
from the vicinity. 

The legislative act of the last session, in regard to freedom 
of religious worship, has been fully complied with. 

Expenses. 

The expenses of the past year have been considerably 



64 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

reduced. Departments have been consolidated, officers re- 
leased, vacations dispensed with, and salaries reduced. We 
asked for $5,825 less than was appropriated the year before : 
the legislature gave us $9,125 less. We have endeavored 
to bring all our expenditures within the appropriation. We 
think, however, that tried and efficient officers should be 
well paid. It is no easy thing to secure men really adapted 
to this important and responsible work. The constant con- 
finement, the liability to be called upon at all hours of day 
or night, during the entire seven daj r s of the week, the 
irritating habits of the boys to be cared for, and the rare 
qualities needed to discipline and educate this class, make 
the services of a good officer too valuable to be lost for want 
of a little more compensation. I am happy to say that my 
officers have cheerfully complied with my wishes, and have, 
as a general thing, attempted to perform their respective 
duties in a faithful and acceptable manner. 

Acknowledgments. 

We would here express our thanks to L. J. El well' & Co., 
of Westborough, for their frequent contributions of maga- 
zines, and to those friends who have gratuitously furnished us 
with the " Essex County Mercury," " Salem Register," " Wo- 
burn Advertiser," " Dumb Animals," and " Westborough 
Chronotype." 

Respectfully submitted. 

L. H. SHELDON, Superintendent. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 65 



HOSPITAL DEPARTMENT. 



To the Board of Trustees. 

The duties in this department have been unusually light 
during the greater part of the year, especially during the 
last three months. The following are the names of the dis- 
eases which have appeared within the year, and the number 
of patients treated for each: erysipelas, 2; rheumatism, 
2 ; ophthalmia, 7 ; epilepsy, 1 ; epistaxis, 1 ; anaemia, 4 ; 
laryngitis, 2 ; bronchitis, 8 ; haemoptysis, 2 ; febricula, 26 ; 
diarrhoea, 3 ; abscess, 8 ; colic, 1 ; tonsillitis, 15 ; fracture, 6 ; 
scald, 1 ; necrosis, 1 ; boils, 4 ; eczema, 1 ; herpes zoster, 1 ; 
sprains, 12 ; synovitis, 2 ; urticaria, 1 ; sores, 4 ; flesh-wounds, 
15 ; hernia, 1 ; cold, 15 ; indigestion, 28 ; croup, 2. No 
record is made of slight ailments, nor of patients whose com- 
plaints do not require their detention in the hospital longer 
than twenty -four consecutive hours. There have been only 
two fatal cases. Fred Miller, eighteen years of age, died 
Oct* 13. He was a victim of a deplorable habit which gradu- 
ally weakened his vital energies, and in time resulted in fatal 
anaemia. Jeremiah J. McConologue, eighteen years of age, 
died March 7, after a protracted and exceedingly painful 
sickness. His disease was necrosis, which involved the whole 
shaft of the right femur, and the articulating surfaces of the 
right knee and the right elbow joint. 

The high reputation of the school in years past for clean- 
liness is still maintained. The diet is wholesome and abun- 
dant, and the general appearance of the inmates clearly in- 
dicates that in all respects their physical wants are thought- 
fully cared for. It is due to Mr. Sheldon, the Superintendent, 
to say that he is as watchful for the physical as for the moral 
welfare of those committed to his charge, and that the sugges- 
tions which I have occasion to make in regard to sanitary 
measures receive prompt and considerate attention. 

In my last annual report, the practice of confining incor- 



66 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct 

rigible boys in cells, frequently in solitary cells, as one of 
the authorized modes of punishment in this institution, was 
referred to ; and the deleterious effects upon the health of 
the individual likely to result, and in some instances had 
resulted from this form of punishment, were considered. I 
have nothing new to say upon this subject. I desire, how- 
ever, to re-affirm the opinion given a 3 T ear ago, that such prac- 
tice "is a source of danger to both body and mind ; " that 
" shutting up a boy for days and perhaps weeks, on dimin- 
ished diet as is the case sometimes, in the gloom and stifled 
atmosphere of a sunless cell, is not only to ignore the laws 
of 'health, but completely to reverse them." In loco parentis, 
is the relation the management of this and the other institu- 
tions for juveniles in the State sustains to the erring chil- 
dren placed in its charge. I am glad to state that the 
present board of management of the school appear to be 
in full sympathy with the views here expressed; also that 
recently the number of cases of punishment by cell con- 
finement, in proportion to the number of boys in the 
school, is considerably less than formerly ; and that boys 
so confined are watchfully observed, and, if their condi- 
tion seems to require it, they are given a proper amount of 
exercise daily in the open air. If in the future it should 
be deemed necessary to allow, in extreme cases, this form of 
punishment in order to maintain wholesome discipline, I ear- 
nestly recommend a regulation that no boy so punished shall 
be deprived of full diet for a period longer than twenty-four 
hours, and that the longest time of confinement allowed in 
any case be limited as much as possible. 

Respectfully submitted. 

E. B. HARVEY, Physician. 
Westborough Reform School, Oct. 1, 1879. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 67 



GARDEN HOUSE REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Reform School. 

Gentlemen, — The following Report of the Garden House, 
for the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, is respectfully submitted. 

Average number of boys in Garden House during the year, 
26. 

The labor of the boys may be summed up as follows : — 

DATS. 

Work on farm 2,198 

Work on roads ....... Ill 

Domestic work 1,542 

Miscellaneous work ...... 1,455 

Work in chair-shop ...... 1,926 

7,232 

Have caned 5,336 chairs, as follows : 4,437 " Grecians," 
and 899 " diners." 

The boys have been disposed of as follows : ■ — 

Transferred to Farm. House 2 

Died 2 

Released 18 

Returned to institution 17 

Number in Garden House at present . . . .25 

Whole number in house during the year . . .63 

Respectfully, 

C. W. AINSWORTH. 

Garden House, Sept. 30, 1879. 



68 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



PETERS HOUSE REPORT. 



Westborough, Oct. 1, 1879. 
To the Trustees of the State Reform School. 

Gentlemen, — I respectfully submit the following Annual 
Report of the family at the Peters House for the year ending 
Sept. 30 : — 

The whole number of boys in this department during the 
year has been 41 ; monthly average, 19 ; present number, 15 ; 
17 have been sent to their own homes, or provided with suit- 
able ones ; 6 returned to the main building ; 3 attempted to 
elope, but were returned within eight hours. 

They have been employed four months, eight hours per 
day, and the remainder of the year six hours, as follows : — 





DAYS. 


Gardening 


857 


Koads and walks ..... 


954 


Domestic work ..... 


1,516 


Miscellaneous work .... 


926 


Ornamental gardening .... 


1,178 


Chair-work 


1,258 


Number of chairs caned, 2,725. 





Respectfully submitted. 

PHILIP R. MORSE, Master. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 69 



FARM HOUSE REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Reform School. 

Gentlemen, — I respectfully submit my Second Annual 
Report of the Farm House family. 

During the year the boys have been contented and indus- 
trious, and there has not been an eloper for the past year. 

The whole number of boys in the family during the year 
has been 82 ; average monthly number, 28. 

Thirty-eight have been indentured or sent to their homes, 
and eight have been returned to the main building. 

The boys have performed 8,371 days' labor, of eight hours 
each, divided as follows : — 

DAYS. 

Domestic work ....... 1,847 

Miscellaneous work 1,063 ^ 

Farm work ........ 1,559 

Work on roads ....... 65 

Gardening ........ 2,076 

Chair-work ........ 1,761 

Number of chairs caned, 4,110. 

Respectfully submitted. 

GEO. W. MERRILL, Master, 

Farm House, Sept. 30, 1879. 



70 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



FARMER'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Reform School. 

Gentlemen, — In presenting my Annual Report, I desire 
to acknowledge that kind Providence which has given us 
so favorable a season for success in my department of labor. 
With the single exception of apples, the crops have all been 
very good, and the products of the farm compare favorably 
with those of preceding years. 

Dairy. 

The yield of the dairy, as will appear from the statistics 
herewith furnished, has been as good as could be expected 
from the present stock of cows. 

^ Hay. 

w 

The crop of hay has been nearly equal to that of last year, 
though the amount now on hand is less, as will be shown by 
the report of the appraisers, owing to the fact that less was 
kept over from the last year's product than the year before. 

Piggery. 

The piggery is in good condition, and its products have 
been quite satisfactory. The stock on hand is equal to that 
exhibited at the New England Fair. 

Improvements. 

Some improvements have been made on the farm by mow- 
ing brush, breaking up pasture-land that had become over- 
grown with moss, and unproductive, and by reclaiming 

meadow-land. 

Muck. 

The desirableness of securing a quantity of muck for dress- 
ing upon portions of the farm having been suggested, an 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



71 



attempt was made to accomplish it. A line of bo} r s was 
detailed for the purpose ; but they proved too small to do 
any effectual service, and the larger boys could not be spared 
from their regular and appointed work. An attempt was 
then made to hire men from outside to perform the work; 
but the demand for that class of laborers was so great, and at 
higher wages than the institution is accustomed to pay, that 
men could not be obtained, and the attempt failed. 

The following is a detailed statement of farm operations, 
and products pertaining to the department of labor under my 
charge : — 



Labor of 


Men. 










DAYS. 




First quarter on farm ........ 243 




" " for institution . 




• 






61 


304 


Second quarter on farm 










186 




. " " for institution 




• 






54 


240 


Third quarter on farm . 




, 






. 257 




" " for institution 




• 






62 


319 


Fourth quarter on farm 




„ 






255 




" " for institution 




. 






25 







280 


Total days work . 












1,143 



Labor of Horses. 



First quarter on farm . 
" ** for institution . 












493 

120 

613 


Second quarter on farm 

" ** for institution 












, 15 

56 


Third quarter on farm . 
" " for institution . 












71 

230 
. 44 


Fourth quarter on farm 

" " for institution 












274 

. 222 
. 15 


Total days work . . . 


237 


. 1,195 



72 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. 

Labor of Oxen. 



[Oct. 



First quarter on farm . 
" v ' for institution . 

Second quarter on farm 

" " for institution 

Third quarter on farm . 
" " for institution . 

Fourth quarter on farm 

" " for institution 



Total days work 



In October 
November . 
.December . 
January 
February 
March . 

Total for six months 

In April . 
May . 
June . 
July . 
August 
September . 



Produce Cox 
Milk. 

CANS. 

. 473 (at 25 cents) 
. 616 

199 " 



570 
662 
757 



767 (at 20 cents) 

740 

714 

661 

519 

511 



Total for six months, 3,912 



Beef. 



Consumed in October 

November 
December 
January 
February 
March . 
April . 
May . 
June . 
July . 
August 
September 



172 



178 



90 




15 







105 


200 




20 







220 


150 




8 







158 




661 



Total 
Value 



VALUE. 

$118 25 
154 00 
130 50 
142 50 
165 50 
189 25 

$900 00 

$153 40 
140 00 
142 80 
132 20 
103 80 
102 20 

$782 40 



POUNDS. 


1,261 
1,165 
2,341 
1,656 


1,190 



2,056 

1,326 

476 



11,471 
37 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 73 

Pork. 

POUNDS. 

Consumed in October ........ 1,250 

November 1,280 

December . . . . . . . . 4,475 

January 2,795 

February 2,715 

March 2,880 

April 1,440 

May ■ 

June ......... 

Total 16,835 

Value . . . ... . . . $1,003 20 

Veal. 

Consumed in October ......... 

June 147 

December ........ 125 

Total 272 

Value . . $24 39 

Vegetables. 

VALUE. 

Asparagus $135 00 

Strawberries . . . . . . . . . . 5 00 

Lettuce ........... 8 80 

Rhubarb 2 00 

String-beans 18 75 

Shelled beans . 44 25 

Green peas . . . . . . . . . . 31 85 

Early beets . 46 65 

Early potatoes 91 35 

Green corn 100 00 

Cucumbers . 26 90 

Tomatoes 45 40 

Cabbages 31 00 

Summer squash. . . . . . . . . . 4 50 

Onions 8 00 

Pears . 12 00 

Melons 80 00 

Grapes 30 00 

Total $721 45 

Peoduce Sold. 

Quarter ending Dec. 81. 

Apples, 204 barrels $204 25 

Cabbages 142 02 

Onions, 214 bushels 117 65 

Beets 7 62 



74 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Pigs $60 75 

Calves 21 75 

Total $554 05 

Quarter ending April 1. 

Pigs . $40 15 

Calves 23 73 

Total $63 88 

Quarter ending July 1. 

Asparagus, 154^ boxes $301 24 

Strawberries 133 79 

Pigs 200 00 

Calves 22 95 

Total $657 98 

Quarter ending Oct. 1. 

Pigs . .• $66 75 

Grapes, 94 boxes 

Live Stock on hand, Sept. 30, 1879. 

Horses . . . . .5 

Cattle. 

Oxen 6 

Cows 30 

Yearling - . . . .1 

Bull 1 

Total 38 head. 

Swine. 

Fattening 45 

Breeders .......... 17 

Pigs 85 

Total 147 head. 

Summary of the Above. 
Produce Consumed during the Year. 

VALUE. 

Milk, 7,512 cans $1,682 40 

Beef, 11,471 lbs 8 01 37 

Pork, 16,835 lbs « 1,003 20 

Veal, 272 lbs 24 39 

Vegetables 599 45 

Fruit 122 00 

Total $4,232 81 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



75 



Produce Sold. 

VALUE. 

Vegetables $568 53 

Fruit 338 04 

Animals 436 08 



Total $1,342 65 

The annexed schedule shows the amount of live stock 
and farm-pro ducts on hand as appraised by Messrs. Dexter 
Newton and Moses Pollard. 

Horses 

Jennie ...... 

Bill ...... 

Jack ...... 

Pair red horses .... 



Cattle 



3 pair oxen 

4 Ayrshire cows, .$70 
26 Guernsey cows, $50 
1 Ayrshire yearling 

1 Ayrshire bull 



44 fat hogs, 14,255 lbs. 
17 sows for breeding 
82 small pigs . 



Hogs. 

at 6 cents . 



Miscellaneous 



147 fowls, 50 cents . 
97 tons of English hay, $14 
21 tons of meadow-hay, $9 
9 tons mowed oats, $13 . 
£ ton bedding-hay . 



12 bushels rye, 75 cents . 

6 bushels popping-corn, $1.25 . 

220 bushels field-corn, 70 cents 

4 bushels sweet-corn for seed, $2 

Corn-fodder 

Cabbage-fodder 

61 barrels apples, $2 

20 bushels second quality apples 

80 bushels pears, 75 cents 

\ bushel quinces . . . . 

4,000 lbs. grapes, 2 cents 

1,840 bushels potatoes, 60 cents 

340 bushels small potatoes, 35 cents 

360 bushels beets, 35 cents 

425 bushels onions, 90 cents . 

100 bushels parsnips, 40 cents 



VALUE. 

$100 00 

50 00 

50 00 

350 00 



$510 00 
280 00 

1,300 00 
40 00 
50 00 

$855 30 
264 00 
169 00 

73 50 

1,358 00 

189 00 

117 00 

4 00 
9 00 

7 50 
154 00 

8 00 
60 00 
40 00 

122 00 

5 00 
60 00 

1 00 

80 00 

1,104 00 

119 00 

126 00 

382 50 

40 00 



76 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 





VALUE. 


6 tons carrots, $10 ....... 


$60 00 


24,000 heads cabbages, 5 cents .... 


. 1,200 00 


3 barrels pickles, $5 


15 00 


2 tons' mangel- wurtzels, $4.50 


9 00 


150 bushels ruta-bagas, 25 cents .... 


. . . 37 50 


1,400 lbs. squash, 2 cents 


28 00 


Coal-Sheds. 





Before closing this Report, I wish to call the attention of 
the Trustees, as in my report of the last year, to the great 
need of coal-sheds at the railroad-station. As a matter of 
economy in farm-work, it is of special importance. Eight or 
nine hundred tons of coal usually arrive at the station during 
the haying season, the busiest and the warmest of the year, 
and must be removed at once, however it may interfere with 
the successful and timely gathering-in of the hay-crop, or 
however exhausting the heat ; and a large share of this is 
dumped outside the building to be re-shovelled in fall or win- 
ter, and placed in its proper deposit. With a cheap recep- 
tacle for it near the station, the teaming might be postponed 
until the cooler weather of the autumn, when, without inter- 
ference with other and pressing farm-work, it could be trans- 
ported at less expense, and with a great saving of labor. 
The amount saved would far exceed the cost of the sheds. 



Cows. 

I would respectfully suggest also that an improvement 
might be made in the live stock by disposing of some of the 
cows, and filling their places with those more profitable. A 
judicious selection of cows of the best milking qualities 
would doubtless show a decided gain in the products of this 
department. 

Horses. 

Two of the horses also are too old for profitable service ; 
and a change for younger ones seems very desirable, and 
might probably be more advantageously made now than at a 
later day. 

Plan of Farm. 

Another want of great importance to the interests of the 
institution seems to be a plan of the farm, that the one having 
charge of it may know its exact limits and bounds, and that 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 77 

Fences. 
the fences between it and the adjoining farms should be 
legally divided and put on record ; thus avoiding contention, 
and saving the expense and trouble of fencing where the abut- 
ters should be responsible for it. 

These suggestions are respectfully submitted to the 
Trustees for their consideration, in the hope that the inter- 
ests of the institution in this department may thereby be 
promoted. 

C. GODDARD, Farmer. 

Sept. 30, 1879. 



78 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



STATEMENT OF ARTICLES PURCHASED. 



Provisions and Groceries. 



40,369 pounds beef . 










. $2,559 96 


2,071 " mutton 










194 27 


6,289 " fresh fish 










344 85 


755^ " poultry 










112 94 


Peaches . 










6 00 


Oranges . 










7 49 


Salt fish 










80 17 


15 hogsheads molasses 










579 36 


113 pounds soda . 










4 55 


Soap 










288 13 


501 barrels flour . 










. 2,954 10 


108 hams cured 










21 60 


5 pork-barrels . 










2 50 


45 sacks salt 










40 29 


Bristol brick . 










85 


2 pounds tartaric acic 


L 








1 20 


1 barrel rice 










16 92 


120 pounds candy 










14 40 


7 barrels split pease 










42 25 


261 gallons oysters 










23 30 


697 pounds cheese 










64 21 


1 " citron 










18 


105 " shells . 










4 50 


606 " oatmeal 










27 24 


331 dozen eggs 










66 88 


2,904 pounds butter 










616 35 


3 gross matches 










6 00 


71^ pounds squash 










2 89 


229 " tea 










102 05 


4,512 " coffee . 










715 01 


5 barrels sand . 








7 50 


9 pounds extract lemon 








15 87 


60 " corn-starch 








5 00 


2 " mace . 








2 20 


21 barrels sugar . . 








543 05 


Vinegar . 










70 93 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



79 



61 bags Indian meal 

17 ' ' rye meal . 

1 gross stove-polish 
6 dozen bluing . 

22 boxes raisins . 

2 bushels malt . 

100 pounds ginger 
13 " cloves 

1 " cinnamon 

101 " pepper 
377 " lard . 
112 " soda . 
159| bushels beans 
196 pounds tripe . 

5 ' ' nutmeg 

1 ' i mustard-seed 

1 bushel cranberries 

186 " potatoes 

16 dozen lemons . 

12 pounds nuts . 
10 bunches celery 
38 barrels crackers 

119 pounds prunes 

25 " cream-tartar 

1 dozen horse-radish 

2 pounds oxalic acid 
Yeast-powder . 
Chocolate 

18 pounds cherries 
15 " lobster 

312 " dried apple 

13 dozen shoe-blacking 
1,400 pounds chloride of lime 



Ordinary Repairs. 



Engine repairs 
Telephone 
Door-roll . 

2 pounds rosin . 

3 doors 

3 boilers insured 
Lumber . 
20 gallons lard-oil 
348 pounds sheet-iron . 
968 " fence-wire . 
3 dozen sheets emery-cloth 

3 barrels charcoal 

4 window-stones 



$68 30 


26 00 


5 75 


4 25 


42 73 


3 50 


8 63 


5 54 


40 


15 SO 


25 45 


5 04 


265 63 


17 88 


4 50 


30 


2 00 . 


163 48 


2 94 


1 38 


85 


120 08 


7 14 


6 75 


70 


70 


8 55 


1 30 


3 60 


1 20 


36 04 


17 26 


19 85 

<tt1A 4 ^S 01 


tjp i. V j Tt O O UJ. 


$59 00 


256 28 


50 


10 


8 60 


40 00 


312 14 


13 50 


17 03 


97 45 


1 68 


2 80 


5 00 



80 PRIMARY AND REFORM 


SCHOOLS. 


Locks and keys $36 75 


Butts and hinges 










5 45 


7 brackets . 










2 10 


Steam-pipe and fittings 










. 242 44 


Nails, screws, and bolts 










. 26 46 


Glass 










. 29 18 


10 pounds sash-cord 










2 35 


1 box chimney-cement 










50 


Gutters and conductors 










. 15 22 


106 feet drain-pipe 










. 13 97 


3 gal. cleats 










50 


Mason- work 










. 334 40 


Repairing slate-roof 










4 45 


42 yards paper-border . 










1 26 


Plumbing 










. . 5 75 


60 chestnut ties . 










3 00 


2 trowels 










1 23 


Carpenters' tools 










4 09 


4-i- pounds lead-pipe . 










23 


2 barrels coal 










1 80 


Paint and painters' suppb 


es 








189 19 


Pump-repairs . 










2 16 


6 pounds glue 










1 20 


199 f square feet iron-cloth 










42 55 


Mineral-knobs . 










1 02 


Grate-bars 










12 67 


Laying concrete walks 










304 00 


13 files .... 










1 76 


1351 wire-screens 










5 56 


2 whitewash-brushes . 










7 00 


78 pounds zinc 










7 12 


6| pounds solder . 










1 69 


Tin 










2 90 


Clothing. 


tj 


3 dozen buckles $ 25 


Sewing-machine repairs . 






17 57 


Shoe-laces 






22 60 


Pinking-iron . 






20 


1,268 yards flannel . 






216 92 


3 dozen wax 






1 07 


265|- pounds yarn 






251 56 


£ gross thimbles . 






60 


Knitting-machine repairs 






17 58 


964i feet upper leather 






163 92 


1,404| pounds sole -leather . 






382 63 


Shoe-kit 






107 02 


80 dozen handkerchiefs 
















53 21 



[Oct. 



$2,124 03 



L8T9.] 


public : 




Tacks 


7 


pounds cotton . 


66 


dozen spool thread 


2 


pounds skein thread 


715|- yards drilling . 


110i 


' ' denim 


3 


gross buttons . 


36 


yards linen 


107 


pairs boots, shoes, a 


94i 


yards print 


U-h 


dozen hats 


12 


army overcoats 


179$ 


yards cassimere 


5 


dozen suspenders 


1 


pair mittens 


li 


M needles 


1,035| 


yards cotton kersey 


58 


coats and vests 




Indelible ink . 


31 


shirts 


1 


gross socks 


267^ 


yards shirting . 


2 


pounds beeswax 




Pins 


2 


gross braid 



DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



81 



and slipper; 



Live Stock Purchases. 



3 pair oxen 
28 hens 
12 cows 



Furniture, Beds and Bedding. 



222 quilts 

3 mattress-needles 

Brooms and brushes 

Tacks . 
3^ dozen dusters . 
1 bread-knife 
1 gross spoons 
1 jar-holder 
1 dozen thermometers 

Lanterns . 
902 yards sheeting 
6 mats 

Twine 

Tin and earthen ware 
1 gas-torch . 



$5 99 


5 00 


45 00 


96 


72 41 


12 69 


2 55 


9 36 


99 60 


6 14 


43 72 


44 40 


32 31 


9 50 


1 10 


2 36 


517 62 


189 50 


80 


8 80 


14 40 


25 39 


66 


2 97 


1 41 


$501 00 


14 00 


592 69 


$133 20 


25 


147 67 


72 


26 45 


60 


6 00 


15 


2 25 


3 02 


95 00 


20 25 


4 48 


9 17 


1 50 



$2,389 77 



$1,107 69 



82 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Wooden- ware ....... 


$18 35 


5 dozen jar rubbers .... 


90 


Wringer and repairs 


316 25 


Curtains and fixtures 


6 45 


Stencils ...... 


1 15 


Stove-furniture .... 


86 82 


Lamps and chimneys 


23 83 


Crockery and glassware . 


172 34 


2 pairs scissors ..... 


1 50 


Timing piano ..... 


3 50 


Combs ...... 


5 00 


6 dozen napkins .... 


8 25 


Carpeting and mats 


80 66 


1 dozen silver soap .... 


88 


Wadding . . 


24 


Baskets ...... 


22 33 


Acid and tripoli .... 


75 


Hand-bell ..... 


1 13 


Washing-machine .... 


16 50 


Window-screening .... 


6 55 


Wall-paper ..... 


2 34 


16 yards cambric ..... 


2 35 


Picture-knobs ..... 


25 


6 looking-glasses 


90 


1£ reams wrapping-paper 


8 56 


Repairing sofa .... 


3 00 


Repairing clocks .... 


4 65 


1^2 dozen clothes-lines .... 


5 80 


3 boxes clothes-pins .... 


3 00 


1\ yards table oilcloth .... 


1 12 


1 faucet . 


75 


Stationery . 





,256 81 
101 60 



Drugs and Medical Supplies . 



105 44 



Grain and Meal for Stock. 



416 


bags meal 


883 


" corn . 


286 


" oats . 


28,220 


pounds bran 




Grinding corn 



Burial Expense 



Fuel and Lights. 



910 tons coal . 
96 barrels gasolene 



. $440 


06 






665 


56 






323 


67 






120 


11 






18 


61 


$1,568 


1 1 1 






U J ; 


• 


• 


49 


00 


. $4,003 29 






609 


37 







1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



83 



343 gallons kerosene 

40 " lard-oil 

9 ' 4 alcohol 



Horse and Cattle Shoeing . 

News, Sunday-School, and Waste Paper. 

Newspapers . . . . - . . . • . . $64 90 

Sunday-school papers . . • . . ■ 35 23 

Waste paper . . . . . . . . 50 20 



$47 92 
30 00 
22 55 


$4,713 13 
129 67 





$150 33 



Raw Material and Instruction for Sleigh Manufactory. 

Wood Department 
Lumber 
10 pounds stove-pipe . 
60 files 

Use of sleigh-rack 
Storage . 
619 sets straps 
400 yards oil-cloth 

Freight on sleigh stock 
843 £ feet dash-leather . 
9 dozen pair shaft-tips 
Labor . 
12 dozen whip-sockets 
2 reams sand-paper . 
Nails 
Screws . 



Tools . 
pair wheels 
glue-brush 
glue-kettle 
yards enamel 



cloth 



58i dozen pairs shafts 



$419 90 


1 00 


18 18 


1 25 


25 00 


45 59 


96 00 


6 00 


68 25 


7 30 


528 18 


48 00 


6 38 


25 78 


31 32 


27 25 


21 25 


35 


60 


75 


262 12 



,640 45 



Paint Department. 

Paints and oils . . ... . . . $630 21 

Labor 459 31 

Sand-paper 3 56 

Muslin 52 





Blacksmith Department. 




2 tons coal 




$76 82 


1 die-box 




1 74: 


1 bolt-cutter . 




7 50 


Files . 




12 72 


6 taps . 




3 60 



$1,093 60 



84 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



6 dies . 










. $10 80 


15 dozen bits and drills 










20 22 


2 pounds borax 










60 


5 gallons oil . 










5 50 


100 pounds nails 










8 00 


997 pounds malleable iron 










126 54 


Labor 










68 00 


259 pounds steel 










8 87 


6 screw-wrenches 










2 50 


30,125 pounds of iron . 










923 38 


6 pounds chalk 










35 




$1,277 14 


Postage and Telegrams. 


Postage-stamps $100 12 


Telegrams 26 85 



,011 19 



$126 97 



Farming Tools, Horse and Wagon Furniture, and Repairs to 

Same. 
Horse and wagon furniture and repairs 
Lawn-mower ...... 

Farming-tools ...... 

Doctoring: cattle ...... 



Pens . 
2 gross crayons 

1 gallon ink . 

2 gross slate-pencils 
Paper and envelopes 
School-books 



Repairing drums 
Repairing badges 
Tissue-paper 
Watch-clock dials 
Acid and tripoli 
Oyster-shells 
Use of diagram . 

15 gross combs 

Shelf-paper 
3 base-balls . 

33 pounds bug-powder 
Bristol-board 



School Property. 



Petties. 



$388 53 


13 20 


167 68 


10 00 


$35 18 


2 50 


2 00 


1 30 


3 75 


28 46 


$2 25 


1 30 


1 00 


1 85 


1 45 


1 68 


1 50 


56 25 


1 20 


2 00 


60 00 


16 



$579 41 



$73 19 



$130 64 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



85 



Transportation and 

Expressing . 
Freighting 
Railroad-tickets 
Travelling expenses 
Return of boys 
Expense of bound-outs 



Travel 



Expenses. 
$243 06 
650 86 
131 20 
274 13 
279 80 
51 07 



Salaries, Wages, and Labor . 
Trustee Expense . 
Plants, Seeds, and Fertilizers . 



Summary. 
Provision and grocery supplies 
Ordinary repairs . 
Clothing .... 

Live-stock purchases . 
Furniture, beds, and bedding 
Stationery .... 

Drugs and medical supplies . 

Grain and meal for stock 

Burial expense 

Fuel and lights . 

Horse and cattle shoeing 

News, Sunday-school, and waste paper 

Raw material and instruction for sleigh manufactory 

Postage and telegrams ..... 

Farming- tools, horse and wagon, furniture and repai 
same ...... 

School property '. 

Petties 

Transportation and travelling expenses 
Salaries, wages, and labor . 

Trustee expense 

Plants, seeds, and fertilizers 



s to 



$1,630 12 

22,101 02 

228 85 

339 13 



10,438 01 

2,124 03 

2,389 77 

1,107 69 

1,256 81 

101 60 

105 44 

1,568 01 

49 00 

4,713 13 

129 67 
150 33 

4,011 19 
126 97 

579 41 
73 19 

130 64 
1,630 12 

22,101 02 
228 85 
339 13 



1,354 01 



86 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



SCHEDULE -OF PROPERTY, 



Produce on Hand. 



Wood . 

Vegetables and seed 

Fruit 

Hay, grain, and fodder 



$71 00 
3,423 30 

269 00 
1,952 50 



Live Stock. 




1 bull . . ... . $50 00 


6 oxen . 






510 00 


31 cows . . . . 






1,620 00 


8 horses . 






790 00 


44 fat hogs and 81 pigs . 






1,024 30 


17 breeding-sows 






264 00 


147 fowl . . 






73 50 


Farm and garden implements 


$1,795 55 


Carriages, harnesses, and robes . . . 801 90 


Fire-engine, hose, ladders, and extinguishers 
Personal Property at St 


1,033 50 


eam Mill. 


3 boilers, 3 steam pumps, and fixtures . . $7,000 00 


New lumber . 




130 50 


Gas-pipe, fittings, and tools . 






215 00 


Nails and screws . . . 






26 40 


Fire-rakes and grate-bars 






16 00 


Mechanics' tools 






26 30 


Paints, oil, and glass 






158 84 


1,178 tons coal 






5,301 00 


Oil, gas-generator, and filings 






2,922 00 


Soap and potash 






295 32 


Boxes, barrels, &c. . 






83 20 


Rags 






6 00 


Miscellaneous .... 






825 77 



$5,720 80 



$4,331 80 



$3,630 95 



$17,006 33 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



87 



Furniture, Etc. 

For use of officers . . . . . 
For use of boys .... 
Cooking-apparatus and school-furniture 
Medicine, medicine-case, and dental instru 

ments 

Clothing for boys .... 
Dry goods . ... 
Groceries, crockery, and provisions 
Musical instruments and cases 
Library for boys .... 
School-books in lower library . 
Personal property at Garden House 
Personal property at Peters House . 
Personal property at Farm House . 
Benches, tools, and stock in chair-shops 
Sleigh department .... 

Telephone 

Preserves, jellies, &c. 



19,937 50 




4,296 10 




4,993 74 




75 00 




8,655 69 




2,373 83 




977 45 




157 10 




1,550 00 




269 93 




743 18 




890 84 




1,242 59 




733 54 




8,773 01 




247 49 




94 15 






$46,011 14 






$76,701 02 



Real Estate. 




Buildings 




Main building and new yard fence . 


. $157,000 00 


Farm House . . . 






4,100 00 


Garden House 






6,500 00 


Peters House .... 






2,500 00 


Steam mill, not including boiler 


3 anc 


. ma 




chinery .... 






2,000 00 


Farm barn .... 






6,000 00 


Piggery 






2,000 00 


Chair, tool, and cart house 






700 00 


Hennery ..... 






150 00 


Ice-house .... 






200 00 


Garden tool-house and chair-shop 






500 00 


Greenhouse at Peters House . 






600 00 


Shed at Peters House 






200 00 


Barn at Peters House 






450 00 


Shop at Peters House 






75 00 


Horse-barn, soap-house, and shed 






550 00 


Cottage-house 






1,200 00 


Fruit-house ..... 






50 00 


New cart-house at farm-barn . 






1,200 00 


Gas-house .... 






150 00 


Sleigh store-house . 






1,300 00 

$187,425 00 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Land. 



Home farm, 185 acres 
Warren farm, 30 acres, 35 rods 
Sibley pasture, 28 acres, 120 rods 
Woodland, 19 acres 



Total of real estate 
Total of personal estate 



$16,300 00 

3,500 00 

750 00 

800 00 



DEXTER NEWTON. 
MOSES POLLARD 



$21,350 00 

208,775 00 
76,701 02 

$285,476 02 



N ' I Apprc 



A true copy. 

Attest : L. H. SHELDON, Supt. 
"Westborough, Oct. 1, 1879. 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



89 



LIST 



OF 



SALARIED OFFICERS AND ALL EMPLOYES. 
WITH THEIR SALARIES. 



Luther H. Sheldon, Superintendent 

William Scott, Assistant Superintendent 

Henry L. Chase, Clerk . 

Samuel M. Griggs, Treasurer 

Edwin B. Harvey, M.D., Physician 

Sarah H. Sheldon, Matron . 

Frances C. Ela, Assistant Matron . 

Sarah E. Goddard, Assistant Matron 

Mary W. Cummings, Assistant Matron 

Thomas H. Treadway, Teacher 

John M. Adams, Teacher 

Walter F. Merrill, Teacher . 

Laura Clark, Teacher . 

Margaret W. Perkins, Teacher 

Arvesta M. Wells, Teacher . 

James W. Clark, Engineer and Carpenter 

C. W. Ains worth, > 

Sarah M. Ainswcrth, > 

Philip R. Morse, 

Pamelia B. Morse, 

George W. Merrill 

Lucy M. Merrill, 

Stephen Armitage, Overseer Chair and Shoe Shops 

Chester L. Chamberlin, Baker 

T. B. Adams, Blacksmith 

Weston A. Curtis, Carpenter 

John H. Cummings, Filling Vacancies 

Festus Faulkner, Overseer Sleigh-shop 

Stephen W. Perry, Watchman 

Charles Traverse, Watchman 

Edward P. Sheldon, Watchman . 



charge of Garden House, 30 boys 
[• charge of Peters House, 24 boys 
charge of Farm House, 30 boys 



$1,600 
900 
550 
150 
250 
400 
240 
234 
186 
600 
500 
275 
275 
275 
275 
700 

700 
700 

700 

500 
500 
450 
450 
400 
400 
384 
375 
375 



90 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Ithamar Whiting, Hall-man $375 

Austin R. Adams, Hall-man ........ 375 

John T. Perkins, Man-of- all- work ....... 375 

Lydia J. Perry, Nurse 300 

J. II. Craig, Mill-hand 275 

Jennie W. Rowe, Cook . 247 

Ella I. Gould, Cook 247 

Ellen L. Hutchinson, Seamstress . . . . . . . 228 

Sarah E. Goss, Laundress 228 

Elizabeth True, Assistant Cook ....... 186 

Marion C. Chase, care of Boys' Dining-rooms .... 186 

Charles Goddard, Farmer ........ 550 

Willard O. Benson, Farm-hand 276 

Edward J. Blanchard, Farm-hand 240 

David M. Bailey, Instructor, Sleigh-shop ..... 450 

Albert L. Walsh, Instructor, Paint-shop ..... 450 



SUPERINTENDENTS. 



Date of 
Appointment. 


NAMES. 


Date of 
Retirement. 


1848, 
1853, 
1857, 
1861, 
1867, 
1868, 
Mav, 1873, 
Aug. 1878, 


William R. Lincoln . 
James M. Talcott 
William E. Starr 
Joseph A. Allen 
Orville K. Hutchinson 
Benjamin Evans 
Allen G. Shepherd . 
Luther H. Sheldon 










1853 

1857 

1861 

1867 

1868 

May, 1873 

Aug. 1878 

Still in office. 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



91 



TRUSTEES. 



Names, Residences, Commissions, and Retirement of the Trustees of the State 
Reform School, from its commencement to the present time. 



Date of 
Commission. 


XA1MES. 


Residence. 


Date of 
Retirement. 


1847 


Nanum Fisher* 


Westborough . 


1849 


1847 


John W. Graves 


Lowell 


1849 


1847 


Samuel Williston 


Easthampton . 


1853 


1847 


Thomas A. Green* . 


New Bedford . 


1860 


1847 


Otis Adams* . 


Grafton . 


1851 


1847 


George Denney* 


Westborough . 


1851 


1847 


William P. Andrews* 


Boston 


1851 


1849 


William Livingston* 


Lowell 


1851 


1849 


Russell A. Gibbs* . 


Lanesborough . 


1853 


1851 


George H. Kuhn 


Boston 


1855 


1851 


J. B. French* . 


Lowell 


1854 


1851 


Daniel H. Forbes* . 


Westborough . 


1854 


1851 


Edward B. Bigelow*. 


Grafton . 


1855 


1853 


J. W. H. Page* 


New Bedford . 


1856 


1853 


Harvey Dodge . 


Sutton 


1857 


1854 


G. Howland Shaw* . 


Boston 


1856 


1854 


Henry W. Cushman* 


Bernardston 


1860 


1855 


Albert H. Nelson* . 


Woburn . 


1855 


1855 


Joseph A. Fitch 


Hopkinton 


1858 


1855 


Parley Hammond 


Worcester 


1860 


1856 


Simon Brown . 


Concord . 


1860 


1856 


John A. Fayerweather 


Westborough . 


1859 


1857 


Josiah H. Temple 


Framinghani . 


1860 


1858 


Judson S. Brown 


Fitchburg 


1860 


1859 


Theodore Lyman 


Brookline 


1860 


1860 


George C. Davis* 


Northborough - 


1873 


1860 


Carver Hotchkiss 


Shelburne 


1863 


1860 


Julius A. Palmer* 


Boston 


1862 


1860 


Henry Chickering 


Pittsfield . 


1869 



Deceased. 



92 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Names, Residences, etc., of Trustees — Concluded. 



Date of 
Commission. 


NAMES. | 


Residence. 


Date of 
Retirement. 


1860 


George W. Bentley . 


Worcester 


1861 


1860 


Alden Lei and . 






Holliston . 


1864 


1861 


Pliny Nickerson 






Boston 


1868 


1861 


Samuel G. Howe* 






Boston 


1863 


1862 


Benjamin Boynton* 






Westborough . 


1864 


1863 


J. H. Stephenson 






Boston 


1866 


1863 


John Ayres 




' 


Charlestown ' . 


1867 


1864 


A. E. Goodnow 






Worcester 


1871 


1864 


Isaac Ames 






Haverhill . 


1865 


1865 


Jones S. Davis . 






Holyoke . 


1868 


1866 


Joseph A. Pond* 






Brighton . 


1867 


1867 


Stephen G. Deblois 






Boston 


1878 


1868 


John Ayres 






Medford . 


1874 


1868 


Plarmon Hall 






Saugus . 


1871 


1868 


L. L. Goodspeed 






Bridgewater 


1872 


1869 


E. A. Hubbard. 






Springfield 


1877 


1871 


Lucius W. Pond 






Worcester 


1875 


1871 


John W. 01 instead 






Boston 


1873 


1872 


Moses H. Sargent 






Newton . 


1877 


1873 


A. S. Woodworth 






Boston 


1876 


1873 


Edwin B. Harvey 






Westborough . 


1878 


1874 


W. H. Baldwin 






Boston 


1878 


1875 


John L. Cummings 






Ashburnham . 


June 30, 1879 


1876 


Jackson B. Swett 






Haverhill . 


1878 


1877 


Samuel R. Heywood 






Worcester . 


June 30, 1879 


1877 


Milo Hildreth . 






Northborough . 


June 30, 1879 


1878 


Lyman Belknap 






Westborough . 


June 30, 1879 


1878 


Franklin Williams 






Boston 


June 30, 1879 


1878 


Robert Couch . 






Newburyport . 


June 30, 1879 


1878 


John T. Clark . 






Boston 


June 30, 1879 


July 1, '79 


Lyman Belknap 






AVestborough . 


Still in office. 


"1,1879 


Anne B. Richardson 






Lowell 


Still in office. 


"1,1879 


M. J. Flatley . 






Boston 


Still in office. 


"1,1879 


Milo Hildreth . 






Northborough . 


Still in office. 


"1,1879 


George W. Johnson 






Brookfield 


Still in office. 


"1,1879 


Samuel R. Heywood 






Worcester 


Still in office. 


"1,1879 


Adelaide A. Calkins 






Springfield 


Still in office. 



* Deceased. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 93 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Industrial School. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — I have the honor of submit- 
ting my first report, which is the twenty-fourth in the his- 
tory of the institution. 

During this time 1,053 girls have been committed to this 
school; and I judge from facts obtained from letters and 
from other source's, that a very large per cent are saved to 
society through the salutary training they received while 
here. Of course we should exercise caution, and not over- 
state the benefits derived by these girls ; yet we see great 
progress in some of them : especially is it noticeable when 
we look back a few months, and compare the past with the 
present. We are aware that this class mature early, and that 
the average age of those committed the past year has been 
nearly fifteen years, while in the earlier years of the school 
it was twelve and one-half years. Such a fact mast make a 
very material difference in our expectations, making the 
work less hopeful, although, on the contrary, calling for 
greater zeal and energy. 

General Progress. 

This school was humanely established for the purpose of 
reform. Girls of whatever race or color, whose tendencies 
were bad and whose drift was downward, are placed here 
under wholesome restraint. It is our aim and hope to erad- 
icate old habits, and establish new and better ones. 

Some of these girls are more susceptible of good influ- 
ences than others, yet, taking the school as a whole, we have 
great reason to be encouraged. 



94 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Schools. 

We have two schools (the Senior in No. 2, and the Junior 
in No. 4) of about thirty girls each. The remainder are in the 
afternoon sewing-room. I think we should have a third school 
instead of this sewing-room, as our girls are not sufficiently 
advanced in their studies to graduate. The sewing can all be 
accomplished in the several houses. Our schools compare 
favorably in many respects with any in our State. In read- 
ing and writing many of them are excellent. In this depart- 
ment we have competent and faithful teachers, and we hope 
for great things in the future. 

Homes for Girls. 

Not only should we be very particular ivith whom girls are 
placed at service, but see that parties who take them possess 
the requisite qualifications to train and properly look after 
them. Again, on the other hand, it is indispensable for good 
order, and our credit, that only those be sent out who merit 
the transfer by good conduct. The girls find that a good 
character is considered in this matter of promotion, as well 
as capacity. 

Work. 

Work is a very essential element of reform. " Idleness is 
the parent of mischief." Work of itself is not degrading, 
but ennobling. As a help to discipline, work holds an im- 
portant place, and it is very difficult to correct bad habits 
without work. In this connection I will say that we have 
aimed at a systematic change of house and shop girls monthly. 
In making selections for the field, choice has been made of 
those who need out-of-door exercise. 

We do not propose to demonstrate that any great gain 
arises from employing girls in the field, — that is, finan- 
cially. 

Hosiery Work. 

Since Jan. 1 we have had a hosiery work-room. Beginning 
with five girls, we have increased to twenty-five. Messrs. 
Carter & Wilson of Lawrence have this business in charge ; 
and, while it is fairly remunerative, it is healthful rather than 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 95 

otherwise. We are now earning about eighty dollars per 
month. The arrangement, so far, is satisfactory to all parties, 
and is a success. The fact that we employ twenty-five girls 
steadily at work is to quite an extent solving the problem, 
how shall we discipline girls ? Restlessness will work itself 
off if the hands and head are busy at something useful. 

Change of Officers. 

Quite a number of changes have occurred the past year, 
and we have made it our aim to select persons of character 
and experience to fill the different positions. Success de- 
pends very much upon the character and fitness of subordi- 
nate officers in an institution of this kind. 

Farm. 

We have a farm of 175 acres, capable of keeping fifty cows 
with our facilities for making manure. 

We are giving increased attention to the reservoirs, and 
intend to utilize every thing that can be profitably used to 
enrich the farm. Mr. Whitney, who has been farmer quite 
a number of years, left April 1 ; and he is succeeded by 
Henry E. Swan, of Tyngsborough, a man of energy and 
experience. We are quite sure that new life will be infused 
into this department. There is a great amount of work ne- 
cessary to attain such results as Ave desire, yet you will see 
by the farmer's report that progress in the right direction is 
being made. 

Repairs. 

During the year we have made improvements by painting, 
white- washing, giving attention to drains, putting in new 
traps, &c. 

No. 5 is being renovated at considerable expense. A 
room has been fitted for hosieiy-work, and important repairs 
have been made in the different houses. 

At the barn, changes have been made to accommodate 
eight extra head of cattle. The yard has been enclosed by 
a substantial board fence ; eight strong gates have been put 
up in the lane to the pasture ; a mile of fence has been set, 
&c. Telephones have been put in from the office to the 
different houses and the barn. These and other improve- 



96 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

merits, give matters a thrifty appearance, and increase the 
comfort and convenience of all concerned. 

Conclusion. 

We cannot close without a recognition of that benign 
Providence that has permitted us to pass through the year 
with almost uninterrupted health, and that in so many ways 
has prospered our school. We see a marked change for the 
better in discipline, and an improvement is noticeable, in 
language, upon the play-ground and elsewhere. We wish to 
add a word of appreciation of loyal and faithful officers who 
are working with us for one common end, and we hope that 
in the future we shall see the happiest results from our 
labors. 

Respectfully submitted. 

N. PORTER BROWN, Supt. 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



97 



STATISTICS. 



Number present in the institution, Oct. 1, 1878 
received from indenture 
received from the courts 

Number in the school, Oct. 1, 1879 . 

still under indenture . . . 

at service, on probation 

indentured, and become twenty-one years 

delivered to friends .... 

placed at service, and returned . 

delivered to Board of State Charities . 

discharged as unsuitable 

sent to Tewksbury .... 

sent to Consumptives' Home 

Number under indenture, Oct. 1, 1878 

returned, and placed at service . 
returned, and delivered to Board of State 
escaped from indenture 
returned, and now in the school . 
still under indenture .... 




125 

76 



46 



46 

Of the number now in the institution, there were born, — 

In Massachusetts 53 

Rhode Island .... ...... 1 

Vermont .......... 1 

New Hampshire 1 

New Jersey .......... 1 



Pennsylvania 
Indiana 
Tennessee . 
Canada 
England 
Nova Scotia 
Prince Edward Island 
Ireland 
Unknown . 



76 



Of American parentage ........ 23 

American (colored) '6 

French Canadian . . . . . . . .2 

Nova Scotian ......... 1 

Portuguese . . . . . . . . . . 1 



98 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Scotch 
German 
English 
French 
Irish . 



2 
1 
o 

2 
36 



Of the number now in the institution, — 

Both parents living ......... 32 

One parent living ......... 32 

Orphans ........... 10 

Unknown .......... 2 



Lived at home . 
from home 



32 
44 



Could read and write when committed . . . .55 

read, and not write 12 

neither read nor write ....... 9 



Attended some religious service, 



Kegularly 
Seldom . 
Not at all 



60 

13 

3 



Of those now members of the school, there are, — 

Of ten years of age 1 

twelve 2 

thirteen 4 

fourteen . . . . . . . . . .6 

fifteen 24 

sixteen 19 

seventeen 12 

eighteen 1 

nineteen 4 

twenty . 1 



70 



76 



76 



76 



74 



Average age, 15f years. 

Of those committed this year, when sent to us there 
were, — 

Of ten years of age 2 

twelve 2 

thirteen .......... 3 

fourteen 5 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 



99 



fifteen . . . . . . . . . .11 

sixteen ......... 13 

seventeen .......... 1 



Average age, 14f years. 


* 


Committed on charge, — 




Of stubbornness ....... 

larceny ........ 

lewdness ........ 


. 16 
. 8 
. 4 



vagrancy ..... 
obtaining goods by fraudulent order 



Received this year, — 

From Suffolk County 

Middlesex County 
Worcester County 
Berkshire County 
Bristol County 
Essex County . 
Hampden County 
Franklin County 
Plymouth County 



5 
10 
3 
3 
3 
8 
3 
1 
1 



37 



37 



35 



Of the whole number since the opening of the institution, 
we have received, — 

From Suffolk County 311 

Middlesex County ........ 192 

Essex County . 156 

Worcester County 126 

Bristol County .87 

Norfolk County 56 

Hampden County ........ 34 

Berkshire County ........ 31 

Hampshire County ........ 19 

Plymouth County 19 

Barnstable County . . . ... . . .13 

Franklin County 9 

1,053 



100 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



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PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



101 



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102 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



FARMER'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Industrial School for Girls. 

In accordance with the usual custom I herewith submit, 
for your consideration, a report of the receipts and expendi- 
tures of the farm for the year ending Oct. 1, 1879. 

The apparent net earnings of the farm the past year, as 
shown by the schedule, are somewhat less than its real earn- 
ings, as the decreased value of farming tools and carriages, 
as appraised, is charged to the farm, thus reducing the value 
of its products upward of six hundred dollars. 

We have also labored under a disadvantage in the matter 
of help. The assistance which we have derived from the 
girls is small, owing to the fact that those employed in out- 
side labor have been selected from the smaller class, and 
from those whose health would be benefited by out-door 
exercise. 

The whole number of days' labor performed by the girls 
in out-doors work has been 950 of six hours each, much of 
which time has been expended in labor upon the roads and 
walks, and in various kinds of light work about the grounds. 
One of the farm-laborers has been employed as " chore- 
man " the greater part of each day, which has detracted 
somewhat from the labor of the farm, but which was una- 
voidable. 

The stock has been improved during the past season by 
disposing of some of the older cows, and supplying their 
places with some choice-grade Ayrshires. Six cows have 
also been added to the herd, which I now think will compare 
favorably with other herds in the vicinity. The income 
from the dairy must necessarily be small, owing to the very 
low prices which we obtain for its products. Other things 
are to be considered than the direct proceeds of the dairy. 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



103 



The increase of manure will, of course, increase the products 
of the farm. About fifteen acres have been fertilized and 
seeded with grass the present fall. Some improvement has 
also been made by underdraining. The reservoirs have been 
enlarged, and a new one dug, the contents of which we hope 
to utilize in improving the farm. We have made arrange- 
ments for the throwing out of five hundred loads of muck 
for use as an absorbent another year. 



Produce on Hand. 





Oat-fodder 


44 


tons hay 


10 


" Hungarian . 


4 


" corn-fodder. 




Rye, unthreshed 




Rye- fodder 




Meadow hay 


11 


bushels beans 




Tomatoes . 


325 


bushels onions . 


60 


" beets 


15 


' ' parsnips 


268 


" mangolds 


142 


" carrots . 


62 


" sweet turnips 


330 


" potatoes 


478 


gallons cider 


170 


" vinegar . 


650 


pounds marrow squash 


3i tons Hubbard squash 


1,300 


cabbages . 




Melons 


1,000 


celery 


140 


pounds grapes 


30 


cords manure 




Sundries, produce 



812 


50 


550 


00 


100 


00 


25 


00 


30 


00 


18 75 


10 


00 


17 00 


12 


50 


325 


00 


20 00 


10 


00 


60 


00 


35 


00 


20 46 


228 


00 


47 


80 


28 


90 


9 


75 


140 


00 


75 00 


25 


00 


50 


00 


8 40 


150 00 


192 


25 



12,201 31 
Produce Consumed. 

385 bunches asparagus ....... $30 85 

394 boxes strawberries 52 35 

60,920 pounds milk 769 44 

44 boxes raspberries 6 60 

27 " currants 2 70 

12 bushels pease 15 00 

48 " potatoes 36 00 



104 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



12 
20 
11 
18 
125 



11 

285 



bushels peaches . 
' ' pears 
" tomatoes 
' ' apples 

dozen sweet corn 

Melons 

Cabbage 

Shell beans 

dozen lettuce 

pounds winter squash 

Sundries, vegetables 



Produce Sold. 



96 dozen lettuce 
1,175 boxes strawberries 
17^ bushels peaches . 
Calves 
32,622 pounds milk 



|36 00 


20 00 


8 25 


9 00 


18 00 


15 00 


6 00 


5 00 


6 60 


5 76 


36 91 


$1,079 40 


$55 91 


174 49 


52 41 


35 28 


275 20 



$630 43 



Summary. 

Or. 

Produce on hand $2,201 31 

Vegetables consumed 

Milk used at school ....... 

Amount of sales from April 1 . . . . 

Increase in value of stock ...... 

Labor for school . 

Keeping horses . . ' 



Dr. 

Expenses of farm for the year 

Decrease in valuation of farm tools and carriages 

Salary of farmer 

Labor of girls ...... 

Balance in favor of farm .... 



309 96 


769 44 


630 43 


246 00 


565 25 


316 38 


$5,038 77 


$2,198 04 


677 01 


650 00 


171 00 


1,342 72 



$5,038 77 

Respectfully submitted. 

HENRY E. SWAN. 



Lancaster, Oct. 1. 1879. 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



105 



INVENTORY OF PROPERTY. 



Real Estate. 

Chapel $3,000 00 

House No. 1 8,500 00 

No. 2 . 8,500 00 

No. 4 8,500 00 

No. 5 3,500 00 

Superintendent's house ...... 3,000 00 

Hosiery-shop . . . - 400 00 

Farmer's house and barn ..... 1,200 00 

Wood-house 200 00 

Ice-house 200 00 

Store-house at No. 3 25 00 

Large barn . . 4,000 00 

Reservoir-house ....... 200 00 

Wood-lot, ten acres 250 00 

Farm, 175 acres 6,000 00 









$47,475 00 


Personal Property. 


Property in the house of Superintendent . . $592 75 


in house No. 1 




702 72 


No. 2 






675 00 


No. 4 






593 85 


No. 5 






410 00 


In chapel, including library . 






655 00 


Provisions and groceries . . 






289 00 


Other goods in store-room 






158 00 


Dry-goods .... 






327 25 


Fuel ..... 






850 00 


Valuation of stock . 






1,796 00 


Produce of farm on hand 






2,201 31 


Farming tools and carriages . 




1 


1,276 49 


Amount of personal property . 


10,527 37 


Amount of real estate 






47,475 00 


Total .... 


$58,002 37 


GEO 


. W. HOWE, ) . 




S. R 


. ME 


RRICK, f^P"««*- 



106 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Worcester ss. 



Sept. 27, 1879. 



Then personally appeared the above-named George W. Howe, and S. 
R. Merrick, and made oath that the inventory by them subscribed is to 
the best of their knowledge and belief correct. 

Before me, 
J. L. S. THOMPSON, Justice of the Peace. 



LIST OF OFFICERS, WITH THEIR SALARIES. 



N. Porter Brown . 
Mrs. S. M. Brown . 
Miss S. P. Pearson 
Mrs. Olivia Safford 
Mrs. M. II. Brewster 
Miss A. D. Holmes 
Miss C. C. Chamberlain 
Miss A. C. Darling 
Miss D. A. Thurston 
Mrs. M. A. Sprague 



George M. Morse, M. D 
Henry E. Swan 
Henry C. Greeley . 





Superintendent 


$1,200 00 




Superintendent' 's Assistant 


350 00 




Matron Family No. 1 


350 00 




" " No. 2 . 


350 00 




" " No. 4 . 


350 00 




Teacher No. 1 


300 00 




" No. 2 


300 00 




" No. 4 


300 00 




. Housekeeper No. 1 


250 00 




No. 2 


250 00 




" No. 4 


250 00 




. Physician, without support 


100 00 




Farmer " " 


700 00 




Treasurer " " 


200 00 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 107 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools. 

The health of the inmates of the State Industrial School 
for Girls in Lancaster, during the past year, has been unusu- 
ally good. There has been no death and no very severe 
sickness. 

During the autumn and winter there were a great many 
cases of colds, catarrhs, and sore throats, in House No. 5 ; 
but since that house has been closed, there has been hardly a 
case of the above diseases in the institution. This building 
is an old one, the location damp, the drainage faulty, and 
the water-supply from wells. To a complication of these 
defects I attribute the large amount of ill health in House 
No. 5. The sanitary condition of the three buildings now 
occupied, I consider excellent. 

It is very noticeable that the health of all the girls im- 
proves under the diet and discipline of the school. Girls 
that come in pale and wan soon grow stout and robust. 

I would call your attention to the fact, that there is but 
one staircase to each of the houses ; that the furnace is situ- 
ated underneath this staircase ; and in case of a fire the only 
means of escape would be very likely to be cut off, and the 
result would be disastrous to the life and limb of the in- 
mates. 

Respectfully submitted. 

GEO. M. MORSE, M.D. 

Clinton, Sept. 24, 1879. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18. 

ANNUAL REPORT 



THE TRUSTEES 






State Primary and Reform Schools, 



WITH THE 



ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE RESIDENT OFFICERS, 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING 



SEPTEMBER 3 0, 188 



BOSTON: 

Eatto, ^tberg, & Co., printers to tfje Commonfoealtl), 

117 Franklin Street. 
1881. 



. 






Commontoealtl) of Massattymttt®, 



TRUSTEES' REPORT. 



To his Excellency the Governor, and to the Honorable Council. 

A full year of service of the Trustees of the State 
Primary and Keform Schools having expired, they present an 
account of their stewardship for that period of time. 

The three months succeeding their accession to office and 
immediately preceding the close of the financial year were 
almost entirely devoted to learning the condition of the insti- 
tutions. Since Sept. 30, 1879, there have been held twelve 
regular and eleven special meetings of the full Board, nearly 
all of them at the institutions, and usually occupying a large 
part of two days. Besides these the several committees 
assigned to the more detailed work of each institution 
have held monthly and in some instances bi-monthly meet- 
ings. They, have endeavored faithfully to perform their 
duties ; and, if there have been shortcomings, it has not been 
from a want of personal attention to the interests com- 
mitted to them. To " make haste slowly " has been their 
motto, only because they wished to make progress surely. 
As no individual can lay claim to the name of Christian who 
disregards the important command of the Founder of 
Christianity, — " Love thy neighbor as thyself," a command 
inculcating the individual duty of charity and charitable 
work, — so has no community or state a right to the name 
which does not recognize in the injunction a " higher law " 
than its own, and one that should underlie its own. 



4 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Believing that the establishment by the State of these insti- 
tutions was the outward expression of a recognition of this 
"higher'' than the common law, the Trustees have endeav- 
ored never to forget that they were the servants of the State, 
to discharge its imperative duty to its unfortunate and erring 
children. — the duty of trying to prevent the unfortunate 
from becoming the criminal, and to arrest the career of the 
criminal. This delegated duty was paramount to all others, 
or they were unworthy of the. trust reposed in them. Sym- 
pathizing with that correct tone of public sentiment which 
sees no real charity in extravagance, they have made an 
attempt to retrench all expenses not necessary to the prose- 
cution of the work they were appointed to further, and to 
bring all officials subject to their direction to a realizing 
sense of the necessity for such a course. But all retrench- 
ment is not economy, and it has been their purpose to avoid 
that false economy which is extravagance in the end. 

If the results of their course in this respect are not sat- 
isfactorily apparent, the failure must be attributed to the 
necessity of conforming, with reduced numbers, to a system 
intended for much larger ones. 

With this preface the Trustees will first call attention to 
the 

STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL. 

Numerically this school remains much the same as for the 
last few years; and so it must remain for some time to come, 
unless Massachusetts with an increasing population can so 
stem the tide of ignorance, intemperance, and other vices, as 
to present all its people so industrious, self-reliant, and self- 
supporting as, except in misfortune, to need no assistance. 
Until this can be accomplished, the school at Monson must 
continue large, and must demand large appropriations from 
the State treasury. The work of caring for the orphaned, 
the forsaken, and the destitute, appeals at once to the hearts 
of all; and the justice and wisdom of providing for those 
who, through no fault of their own, are dependent, and who, if 
not thus cared for, will become worse than dependent, — 
criminal, — is apparent to the common sense and good judg- 
ment of legislatures and communities alike. There can be 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 5 

but one opinion of the duty of the State to the unfortunate 
and innocent children finding a shelter at Monson. 

But to award a shelter only would be but to do a small 
part of the work to which these children are entitled by 
their unmerited misfortunes and their inevitable helplessness. 
The decree that the sins of the fathers will be " visited upon 
children and children's children,-" does not preclude that 
service of humanity which will arrest some of their ills. 

The early attention of the Trustees was called to the 
crowded condition of the institution, and to the evils result- 
ing from the congregate system in operation, at Monson. 
One remedy for this state of things was found in the help 
afforded by the newly appointed Board of Auxiliary Visitors 
in securing homes, and in watchful care of them after they 
were placed in these homes. This new branch of charitable 
work was referred to in last year's report, at which time prom- 
ise had been given of its organization. The promise was ful- 
filled before the beginning of the calendar year. It has more 
than realized the expectations of those most sanguine of its 
success, and to-day it forms an important branch of the 
Massachusetts system of charities. 

An act authorizing the " boarding out " of younger, defec- 
tive, and helpless children passed the legislature of last year, 
and thus another means was offered of reducing the numbers 
at the school. A selection of such children has been made, 
and they are about to be placed in respectable private 
families, where, by the payment of the small sum the act 
permits, they will be insured the care and influences they 
need. These younger ones and all girls will be subject to 
the visitation of the women of the Board of Auxiliary Visit- 
ors, while the boys will be as hitherto under the care of the 
male visitors of the Department of In-door Poor. 

To modify somewhat, while they cannot change, the pres- 
ent system, and to lessen some of its evils, the school has 
been separated into four divisions, with intelligent supervision 
over each. The effect of this watchful care of the younger 
children is already apparent to those who had before observed 
their entire ignorance of even the decencies of family life. 
By giving to each child something to belong exclusively to 
him or her, by furnishing to each necessary toilet-articles, 



6 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct, 

with the place in which to keep them, with a regulation that 
the rights of ownership are to be strictly observed, a sense of 
personal responsibility has been realized not attained by years 
of precept without the practice. An attempt has been made, 
and with some degree of success, to eliminate the element of 
pauperism from the institution. The children have been 
removed from its influence, except in the cases of mothers 
and infants, just as far as they can be while the law permits 
adult paupers for any cause to be sent to Monson. The Trus- 
tees still question the wisdom of sending, except in rare cases, 
those known as "court children" to the Primary School. 
Their influence is often most undesirable ; and they respect- 
fully request the consideration of this subject by the Superior 
Board, which alone has the power to transfer to the two 
institutions where they undoubtedly belong. 

Diet. 

The food of the children has been considered, and the 
superintendent has arranged a dietary commending itself as 
nutritious and economical, while it is sufficiently appetizing 
to be eaten with relish. Milk to a larger quantity than the 
farm will supply has been provided, the Trustees believing 
that to be cheapest which most conduces to health and 
strength. The arrangements of the tables have been im- 
proved, attention given to serving the food, and to the man- 
ners of the children there. Attention to details like these 
has a humanizing and an educating effect, and every move- 
ment in this direction by the superintendent consistent with 
proper economy has been encouraged. It must be remem- 
bered that the children of the Primary School are for no fault 
of their own deprived of the advantages of other children 
in more fortunate circumstances; and that to raise them up 
strong, intelligent, self-reliant, and well-ordered citizens for 
the State that provides for so doing, nothing should be 
neglected, even if apparently of trifling importance, which 
tends to that result. To send them forth again no wiser, no 
more self-supporting, and no better than those through whose 
vice or thriftlessness they have become dependent, would be 
folly indeed. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 7 

Employment. 

The Trustees found two industries, so called, at Monson. 
To both they soon took exception, and both were discon- 
tinued from causes fully set forth in the report of the super- 
intendent. It was thought far better to give the children 
instruction and daily practice in the domestic work of the 
house, the out-door work of the farm and the garden, than 
to waste their growing strength on employments neither 
profitable to the State nor to them. The sewing for the 
establishment is done by the boys and girls under competent 
instruction. The boys, under a tailor, have acquired a degree 
of proficiency in making their own clothes not to be expected. 
The rooms formerly used by the silk-work and for the chair- 
seating have been utilized as reading and recreation rooms, 
thus supplying a most pressing want. 

After the day's work is over, instead of wearing the weary 
hours away till bedtime in the dingy, ill-lighted, and ill- 
ventilated basement, as they had hitherto done, the children 
now sit in well-aired, light, and cheerful rooms, to read a 
magazine or library-book, or to play the simple games which 
have been provided for them. The basements, renovated, 
made lighter, better ventilated, still serve a useful purpose, 
as will be seen by reference to the superintendent's report. 

The Schools. 

The most important change in the schools has been the 
appointment of a woman as principal, the office having 
formerly been filled by Mr. Tibbetts, the assistant superin- 
tendent. She is to teach the most advanced school, and to 
have the supervision of the others. If equal to the position, 
it is expected she will so bring all to her standard of excel- 
lence that an inevitable improvement will be made in all, and 
a striving to reach to her requirements. 

Music is taught by one of the teachers, and the schools 
seem to be moving and working harmoniously. Early in the 
year a Kindergarten was started for those so young that be- 
fore that time they had simply been kept out of harm's way 
from one meal to another, and then till bedtime. Thus 
with no occupations, with no play except that of the rudest 
kind, they were as innocent of any mental development as 



8 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

the calves or the kittens, and much more troublesome than 
either could be. When they entered the school for the 
youngest pupils, it required much energy, as well as inge- 
nuity, to awaken their dormant faculties. The Kindergarten 
has supplied the much-needed occupation and recreation, 
and the effect is already apparent in the ideas it has im- 
planted of mutual helpfulness and in a general awakening of 
mental powers. 

Repairs. 

Repairs have been made, resulting in important improve- 
ments, in the parts of the building devoted to the officers and 
teachers, as well as in those parts devoted to the children. 
These repairs have been made from the appropriation for 
current expenses, but should largely come under the head of 
extraordinary ones. They will, of course, increase the per 
capita cost of support ; but it is believed they have been 
made in the interest of true economy, and that little will be 
required in this way during the next year. In this year, how- 
ever, no repairs have been made or changes effected in the 
hospital, where most important ones are imperatively needed. 

The Hospital. 

This department of the institution has been unsatisfac- 
tory to every one connected with it, and its unsuitable- 
ness, nay, its unhealthfulness, is apparent on even a hasty 
visit to its illy contrived rooms. The health officers of the 
Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity, have pronounced it 
unfit for occupancy; and their opinion has been confirmed by 
all medical men who have examined it. A plan is now 
under the consideration of the Trustees for a reconstruction 
of the old building, or for an entirely new one, which has 
been recommended by the physicians of the Board of Health, 
Lunacy, and Charity. A special appropriation will be neces- 
saiy for either; and it is hoped it may be secured at an 
early day, as, though the health of the institution as a 
whole is good, there can never be a time when hospital 
quarters of considerable size are not needed for the con- 
stantly recurring cases of slight illness or accident incident 
to so large a number of children. Among the children 
resident at Monson — some of them for a long time — are 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 9 

a considerable number of cases of chronic disease, which 
need the attention of specialists, and which have not in 
the past been considered, either from the supposition on the 
part of those in charge that they were hopeless cases, or 
from the belief that they were not warranted in spending 
the money necessary for their required treatment. The 
Trustees of the present Board dissent from either conclusion, 
and believe it to be their duty to ascertain what may be done 
for the restoration of bodily health to those to whom its loss 
is the loss of their only heritage, and to take such measures 
as shall ameliorate their condition, if there can be no com- 
plete restoration. They have therefore taken steps to have 
an examination of all the children; and treatment in accord- 
ance with the advice of competent surgeons and specialists 
will be given. 

There are many other subjects connected with this most 
interesting branch of the State work which might with pro- 
priety find place in this report ; but all of importance will 
be found in that of the superintendent. 

The Trustees have endeavored to secure to the helpless 
little ones of the Primary School the whole benefit of an 
institution so generously supported by the State, and to 
carry out as far as practicable the suggestions made by them 
in their last year's report. 

They have removed them, as far as can be done without 
further legislation, from pauper influence ; they have secured 
to them intelligent supervision ; they have considered and 
improved the dietary ; they have « abolished the so-called 
industries, because they believed them hurtful to the children 
and of no pecuniary profit ; they have caused them to be 
instructed in household labors, domestic duties, and farm and 
garden work ; they have established a Kindergarten ; have 
authorized a female principal' of the schools ; have encour- 
aged interesting and profitable chapel services ; and have 
constantly endeavored to instil into the minds of all who 
are in charge of them, that they are to be regarded as 
individuals having a name and an identity, to which they have 
a right as well as to a number in the record-books or to a 
place assigned them in schoolroom, dormitory, or chapel. 
This individuality, with ideas of ownership and the rights of 
ownership, is to be considered, just as far as the congregate 



10 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

system will permit, as a most important step towards a sense 
of responsibility and independence. They have encouraged 
the superintendent in his plans for recreation and reading 
rooms, and for the improvement of their condition generally. 
All this, and more than can be enumerated here, they have 
considered only their duty as the servants of the State, 
to do for those who, if rescued now from poverty, from igno- 
rance, and from crime, shall in their maturer years of honesty, 
industry, and self-reliance, pay back to the State both the 
principal and interest of its expenditure for them in their 
years of helplessness and need. 



THE STATE REFORM SCHOOL AT WEST- 
BOROUGH. 

The design of this institution is the "reformation of ju- 
venile offenders." "It is to take those who might otherwise 
be subjected to the degradation of prison discipline, and sep- 
arate them from vicious influences, to teach them their duty 
to God and their fellow-beings, prepare them to earn an 
honest livelihood by honorable industry in some trade or 
agricultural employment, and to give them such an intel- 
lectual education as will fit them properly to discharge the 
common business of life." This quotation from the Report 
of the Commissioners appointed by the Governor of Massa- 
chusetts to erect a "State manual-labor school" embodies all 
the objects of this institution to-day as then. As trustees of 
an institution with such avowed objects, the first duties were 
to give attention to the boys themselves, and to consider as 
subordinate all other work not directly bearing upon their 
welfare. One of the first subjects demanding their consid- 
eration was 

Discipline. 

To secure proper discipline without severe punishment was 
the earnest desire ; and at each visit to Westborough a por- 
tion of time was spent in examining the records of punish- 
ment, the offences for which such punishment were given, 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 11 

and in conference as to a course which would render them 
less frequent and less severe if they could not be altogether 
avoided. 

Severity was altogether discountenanced, and as large lib- 
erty as could be granted with safety recommended. If this 
liberty has sometimes been abused, it does not disprove the 
value of a lenient policy. Privileges and pleasures as in- 
ducements to good conduct, with the deprivation of them for 
lapses from obedience, are more conducive to good feeling 
than an assertion of absolute authority, from which the aver- 
age boy in any class rebels. The leniency shown in several 
instances has resulted, in some cases, in an effort to improve, 
which, incited by gratitude, would not probably have other- 
wise been made. 

That is a safe method, in moral as well as in physical dis- 
ease, which tries the gentler remedies, sometimes even the 
remedy of letting alone, before resorting to that heroic treat- 
ment which should be a last resort in both. That there are 
cases requiring this last resort, is not to be denied, and the 
last year has proved no exception to former years in this re- 
spect ; but the cases have been less numerous than in some 
previous years, and the Trustees consider the fact a subject 
for congratulation. Punishments justly inflicted, and in pro- 
portion to the offence, will not excite vindictiveness, and are 
recognized by the boys themselves as a necessity. But pen- 
alties or rewards are not all that is required in the work at 
Westborough. They m?ij secure a degree of order neces- 
sary to the institution; but the study of individual character, 
to adapt to it just the treatment it needs, and at the same 
time preserve a uniformity of discipline suitable to the 
whole, is a difficult task, and one that requires genius for its 
thoroughly successful performance. It is not claimed that 
this is, or can often be, clone ; but something approaching 
such a discharge of duty must be attained, or the work is a 
failure. 

To effect the moral changes necessary — to bring the dis- 
honest to an appreciation of strict integrity, the brawling 
and brutal to a condition of quiet and gentleness, the lawless 
and disorderly to obedience and order, the idle to industry, 
the mischievous to usefulness, the stubborn and ignorant to 
submission and docility, and the whole to a conformity to the 



12 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

general rules — requires no common, ability, and the employ- 
ment of the most varied resources; and yet this must to 
some extent be done, or, as has been before said, the work is 
a failure. It was not part of the expectation of the early 
friends of this school, that the reformation of the boys com- 
mitted to it could be effected by precept alone or by the 
constant teaching of the rules of morality. Other agencies 
were to be employed ; and the very name, " Manual-Labor 
School," by which the projected institution was called by the 
commissioners, is an indication of what many of those agencies 
were to be. Among these, work upon the farm has always 
been considered first in importance. 

The Farm. 

The last year has been no exception to former ones in the 
interest felt in, and the attention given to, agricultural labor 
for the boys. More work has been done by them than in 
many previous years, a larger number of acres were brought 
under cultivation, and there has been a consequent increase 
of crops. The small fruits and vegetables have been culti- 
vated with great success, and have been a source of good 
profit, besides contributing to the necessary amount and 
wholesome variety of food for the institution. Indeed, it is 
believed that the proportion of food raised upon the farm this 
year to the whole amount used, is larger than ever before, and 
that, with careful cultivation of the reclaimed portions as 
well as of that hitherto used, it may in the future be the prin- 
cipal source of the food required by the institution. It is no 
unimportant result to bring about this state of productiveness 
as a matter of economy; but this increase of farm-work, as 
considered in its effect upon the boys, becomes a still more 
important consideration, if we may trust the judgment of 
those most learned in the work of juvenile reform. 

Industrial Pursuits. 

In the school at Westborough there are many boys who 
are, from various causes, unfit for farm or garden work ; and 
for these the work of the shops must be the main resource. 
The report of the superintendent will give the number thus 
employed, with the results of their labor. To those having 
an aptitude for mechanics, the shops afford ample opportunity 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 13 

for ordinary work, and the instruction received there is often 
the means of securing remunerative and honest employment 
after leaving the institution. But it is the desire of the 
Trustees to give some who show special ability for such 
work, some elementary instruction, which, in the words of 
Mr. Atkinson, who has prepared a paper on this subject at 
the request of the Committee on Prisons, shall " so train the 
eye, hand, and muscles intelligently to accuracy and readi- 
ness," as to secure for them, on their going out from West- 
borough, employment in some department of skilled labor. 
It has been thought that a part of the income of the Lyman 
Fund might most profitably be employed in this direction ; 
and it is proposed at no distant day to secure its benefit to 
the boys in this manner. No employment tending to an 
honest living should be overlooked ; but, if peculiar excel- 
lence can be attained, no means should be neglected leading 
to such a result. 

Schools. 

The schools are two less in number than last year. With 
one or two exceptions they have been presided over by the 
same teachers, who are doing their work faithfully. Im- 
proved appliances for instruction are supplied, and every 
incentive offered for the acquirement of useful knowledge. 
Valuable additions to the library have been made, and the 
boys have been abundantly provided with good and whole- 
some magazine-reading. 

Trust-Houses. 

The " Trust-houses " have been doing the work for which 
they were opened, and with but one change in their adminis- 
tration. The master and matron of the " Peters House " 
resigned during the winter, and their places have been sup- 
plied. The Trustees cannot but express continued satisfac- 
tion with these houses as offering some of the advantages of 
that family system they consider superior to all others. 
They consider the present sleeping accommodations of these 
houses as insufficient, and are now considering the subject of 
improved ones, which, they are of opinion, may be arranged 
without large expense. 



14 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Health, Diet, etc. 

The health of the boys has been almost without an excep- 
tion good this year. But one death has occurred, and to this 
reference will be made in the report of the physician. The 
regular life, the simple, nutritious food, and healthful occu- 
pations all contribute to this result. 

Attention has been given to the diet of the boys, and some 
alterations and some improvements made. The milk, which 
had formerly been skimmed, and butter made from the cream 
for the use of the institution, has been given unskimmed to 
the boys, the Trustees believing that no use could be made of 
it so profitable as this. 

The dishes for table use, which, since the disturbance 
occurring in 1877, had been of tin, have been substituted by 
those of crockery, with knives, forks, and spoons of improved 
quality. The tables have also been divided into smaller 
ones, accommodating but six at each, presenting a more home- 
like and attractive appearance. The boys have appreciated 
the change, and expressed their gratification. It is- believed 
even matters of apparently trifling importance are indirect 
agencies in the work of reform, and should not be disre- 
garded. 

Entertainments. 

Among these indirect agencies the Trustees have recognized 
the gratification of the innocent desire for recreation and 
amusement. 

To this end they have provided games and the oppor- 
tunities for playing them ; have encouraged athletic sports 
of various kinds ; and have caused several evening entertain- 
ments to be given in the chapel, consisting of music, of the 
exhibition of stereoscopic pictures, with other exercises inter- 
esting to the boys. 

Consolidation, Expenses, etc. 

The amount appropriated for Westborough by the legisla- 
ture of last year, forty-six thousand dollars, was smaller than 
in any year since 1863, and for the coming year a smaller sum 
still will suffice. It is a delicate and a difficult matter for 
one not entirely familiar with the peculiar circumstances 



Table referred to on p. 15, line 18. 



YEARS. 


Average 

Xo. of Boys 

in the 

School. 


Amounts drawn 

from the State 

Treasury. 


Gross 

Average 

weekly cost 

of each Boy. 


Amounts 

returned to 

State Treasury. 


Net 

Average 
weekly cost 
of each Boy. 


1873 . 


289.03 


$56,961 10 


$3 78 


$11,366 87 


$3 03 


1874 . 


323.07 


54,179 02 


3 22 


13,085 59 


2 44 


1875 . 


334.46 


53.913 29 


3 10 


12,001 69 


2 41 


1876 . 


347.79 


43,395 27 


2 40 


7,632 64 


1 98 


1877 . 


327.08 


52,650 57 


3 09 


5,702 59 


2 76 


1878 . 


316.41 


82,431 62 


5 01 


6,756 41 


4 60 


1879 . 


258.79 


53,354 01 


3 96 


6,780 02 


3 46 


1880 . 


206.88 


49,185 94 


4 57 


8,988 07 


3 73 


Total 


2,403.51 


$446,070 82 


$29 13 


$72,313 88 


24 41 


Av erage each year 
for eight years. 


300.44 


55,758 85 


3 64 


9,039 21 


3 05 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 15 

and conditions of each year, to institute comparisons be- 
tween one year and another. Special causes, not apparent 
or easily ascertainable by those having no personal and prac- 
tical acquaintance with the transactions of the whole period, 
may operate to increase or lessen the expenses of different 
years. But it is evident that the continued decrease in the 
number of inmates in the school, while materially diminish- 
ing the aggregate expense of maintaining the institution, has 
also the effect of increasing the average weekly cost of each 
inmate. 

All the general expenses of the school — such, for instance, 
as the salaries of the superintendent, clerk, engineer, baker, 
farmer, and overseers of the several workshops, also the 
expenses of heating and of the water-supply — are nearly 
the same for two hundred as for four hundred boys ; and 
the distribution of these expenses among the smaller num- 
ber greatly increases the relative weekly average cost. 

It will be seen by the following table that for the past 
eight years the average yearly expenditure was $55,758.85 ; 
the average number of boys in the institution in each year, 
800.44 ; the average weekly gross cost of each boy, $3.64 ; 
and the average net cost of each boy, $3.05 ; while for this 
year, with an average attendance of only 206.88 boys, the 
average gross weekly cost has been $4.57, and the average 
net weekly cost has been $3.73. The Trustees, during the 
past year, have endeavored, by a consolidation of the institu- 
tion, to meet this difficulty. By discontinuing the use of 
such parts of the buildings as could be dispensed with with- 
out detriment to the usefulness and efficiency of the school, 
and by diminishing the number of its officers and employees, 
they have attempted to reduce the running expenses of the 
establishment to the lowest possible limits, and to contract 
the scale of the institution in correspondence with its 
diminished numbers. 

The details and the immediate results of this contraction 
will fully appear in the report of the superintendent. The 
full effect of these measures of retrenchment will not be 
clearly evident until the close of the next financial year, 
when the Trustees hope that, notwithstanding the smaller 
number to share the expense, the per capita cost will more 
nearly approximate to that of former years. 



16 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



A special appropriation was made for boilers by the legis- 
lature of 1878. The boilers were in process of setting at the 
time of the writing of last year's report. Two are now doing 
the work formerly done by three. The following schedule, 
from the auditor's report for 1880, will give the items of 
expense : — 



AUDITOR'S REPORT, JANUARY, 1880. 
Detail No. 90, State Reform School. 



(Resolves 1879, Chap. 13, Chap. 296.) 



Boilers and repair 
Steam-fittings 
Mason -work 
Fire-brick . 
Teaming 
Freight 



,|1,933 65 

345 11 

180 39 

22 82 

10 00 

2 61 



82,494 58 



The old boilers were sold for $250, and that sum returned 
to the State treasury. 

A large coal-shed, for the storage of six hundred tons of 
coal, has been erected from the appropriation of last year. 
This improvement in the interest of economy, being a per- 
manent addition to the value of the property, would more 
properly be a matter for a special appropriation, and, being 
included in the amount expended for ordinary repairs and 
alterations, seems to increase the per capita average. 

The act of last year, chapter 208, abolished the offices of 
Treasurer of the State Reform and State Industrial Schools; 
and the duties of these offices, which had been previously 
performed faithfully and efficiently by Hon. J. M. Griggs of 
Westborough and Hon. H. C. Greeley of Clinton, were 
transferred to the superintendents at Westborough and Lan- 
caster, who were appointed by the Trustees to act as treas- 
urers of their respective institutions without increase of 
salary. 

These duties, which are not onerous, are satisfactorily 
performed ; and the present arrangement is less complicated, 
equally safe, and more economical. 

The consolidation of schools, the dismissal of officers 
under such a reduced system, and other curtailments, have 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 17 

not, it is believed, injured the school in any way ; and the 
Trustees are desirous to continue still further this work of 
lessening expenses. They have no sympathy with that 
laxity of principle which permits the spending the money of 
the State with more freedom than their own ; but in the short- 
sightedness of parsimony they would not forego a necessary 
expenditure to accomplish the object for which the school 
was instituted. 



STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL AT LANCASTER. 

In the history of this school for the past year there is 
much which may justly be considered subject for congratula- 
tion, while there is also some cause for regret, perhaps dis- 
couragement. Looking at the work from the standpoint of 
those who founded the school, and regarding steadfastly the 
object they had in view, the Trustees cannot but rejoice in a 
fair degree of success. In chapter 75, section 20, of the 
General Statutes, are set forth the duties of trustees to the 
girls under their care. In the review of their last year's 
work they feel that they do not claim too much when they 
state that they have conscientiously and unitedly labored to 
fulfil every condition of the statute. If the results have 
not been all they or the public could have desired, it will be 
regretted by none more than by themselves. From 1856 
until to-day this work "for the instruction, employment, and 
reformation of exposed, helpless, evil-disposed, and vicious 
girls," has been going on with greater or less degree of 
success. Since the fire of 1877, destroying one house at a 
time when all were filled to their utmost capacity, the school 
has never risen to its maximum numbers. Some of the causes 
for this decline are obvious. Immediately after the fire it 
became necessary at once to reduce the school to limited 
quarters, which was accomplished by placing out all for 
whom places could be found, whether deemed really suitable 
or not, and by discharging all who were near majority. Then 
the remaining houses were filled to an extent entirely disap- 
proved by the early friends of the school, and by the then 
existing Board of Trustees. 



18 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Commitments, from necessity, almost entirely ceased, and 
the girls who would have been sent to Lancaster were other- 
wise disposed of. Since that time commitments have varied 
from no distinctly traceable cause. The increase has been 
considerable for weeks at a time, and then for a correspond- 
ing period entire cessation would ensue. 

At the writing of the report of last year, the school num- 
bered, at the institution, seventy-six. Between its writing 
and the printing, an addition of twelve was made to the num- 
bers. One of the houses "had been vacated, and the three in 
use were crowded to such an extent as to warrant, in the 
opinion of the Trustees, preparations for re-opening No. 5, 
which, while in disuse, was undergoing repairs. 

But the policy advocated by the Trustees, of placing the 
girls in families as soon as could be done with safety to 
employer and employed, again reduced the numbers ; the 
commitments became again less frequent ; and the house has 
not yet been opened, though the school has several times, 
during the year, been larger than could be conveniently 
accommodated in the three houses. 

No. 5 is ready, in excellent condition, its drainage sound, 
its one large room converted into a convenient schoolroom, 
and all its interior arrangements much improved. How 
many girls in our towns and cities are wandering at will 
about the streets, thriftless and unemployed, exposed to all evil 
influences, and fast drifting into a criminal career, who, once 
within its walls, would begin a life of wholesome restraint, 
learn the homely duties of domestic life, receive the regular 
instruction of the school, training in some industrial pursuit, 
and, better than all, would learn to control their vicious 
desires, and take their first steps in a correct, honest, and 
useful life ! 

Who is responsible for the fact that they are permitted 
thus unchecked to follow their downward career while the 
State has provided just the refuge from temptation, just the 
discipline and the instruction, they need, it is not easy to say. 
Has the fact that one dollar per week is now required, where 
formerly but half that sum was exacted, from the town to 
which the girls belong, any significance as connected with 
this fact of fewer complaints and fewer commitments? If 
public complaints are less from the above-cited cause, are not 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 19 

the private ones from parents and relatives less because they 
realize, more surely than formerly, that they are to be 
deprived of all benefit from the wages of the girls, and all 
control over them during minority ? 

It is almost certain that both these causes have operated 
to diminish the numbers at Lancaster, that parents will 
not make a complaint until obliged by complete inability to 
control a child, and that from the former cause authorities 
are slow to convict and commit to the school. It has taken 
a long time to make the parents of girls sent to Lancaster 
understand that their control ceases with their entrance there; 
and almost incessant trouble is caused by their efforts for 
their release on the plea that they need the wages they might 
earn. They will stop at no obstacle to attain their object ; 
and it is no uncommon occurrence for petitions, signed by 
respectable and responsible persons, to be presented to the 
Trustees for the release or discharge of girls who have been 
at the school less than a year, and of whose improvement or 
progress towards reform these persons know absolutely noth- 
ing, except from the statement of the person most interested. 
A case has occurred during the last year where a petition, 
signed by numerous prominent and influential citizens, was 
sent to the Trustees for the release of a girl whose conduct 
had been any thing but correct during her stay at the school, 
who ran away after having been there less than four months, 
was secreted by her relatives, who systematically deceived and 
misled the police for three months, and who, when returned to 
the school at the end of that time, soon made a plan, which 
was fortunately frustrated, for another escape. 

The Trustees do not learn that a single inquiry was made 
by one of the gentlemen signing that petition, as to the 
merits of the case, either of the police who could have 
given them correct information in regard to the girl or her 
record (which, alas ! was too well known to them), or to other 
persons in the immediate vicinity fully cognizant of the facts ; 
and this is but one of many similar instances,, every year, 
of the thoughtlessness of well-meaning individuals, who, 
moved by an impulse of pity and sympathy for a misfortune, 
take this way to relieve it. If the judges of the courts before 
which these offenders are brought, if the officers who arrest, 
and the community which suffers from the influence of these 



20 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

unrestrained and unfortunate girls, would inform themselves 
fully in regard to the remedy the State has provided in the 
Industrial School at Lancaster, would visit it, and would 
closely scrutinize all its workings, it is believed that there 
would be little difference of opinion as to the value of an 
institution thought by wise and good men to be an imperative 
necessity twenty-five years ago, and still believed to be such 
by wise and good men to-day. 

It was said by a gentleman high in authority within a few 
days, that, if but one girl in a year was thoroughly reformed, 
the cost of such reform was of comparatively small impor- 
tance. It was refreshing to hear this expression of the 
opinion that an individual soul is of higher cost than can 
be computed by dollars and cents. Let it be made known 
to him and to others who regard this question of the saving 
of these girls as of more importance than any saving of in- 
come to the State, that not one alone, it is believed, but 
more than one.-half of those committed, are saved from lives 
of immorality and vice, and are restored to respectability and 
to usefulness, — usefulness to themselves and to the com- 
munity. But, in the matter of dollars and cents, which is 
the cheaper to the State, — to keep them for a few years, even 
at a considerable cost, until they are " mentally and morally 
able to stand alone," and then to send them out to take their 
places as self-supporting citizens, or to let them drift on and 
on until they cannot be arrested in their course, and are 
to be forever a State charge, either as incompetents or as 
criminals ? The answer is too plain to require demonstra- 
tion. Another cause operating to keep down the numbers 
at Lancaster is the course adopted by the Board of Health, 
Lunacy, and Charity, which is present by its agent at the 
trials of all juvenile offenders, and takes into custody all 
who, in the judgment of that agent, can with safety be 
placed in the Primary School or in families. The policy is a 
wise one in most instances ; but there have been cases where 
the result has proved that the safer course would have been 
to give the offender a period of preparation for family life 
at the Industrial School. The expediency of sending this 
class to Monson has been commented on in the report of 
that institution. Discrimination of the offences and of the 
offenders is respectfully recommended, as also a consideration 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 21 

of the fact that there is no desire on the part of any con- 
nected with the schools to retain those committed to them 
longer than is necessary for a preparation, by training in 
work, in neatness, and in obedience, for homes in well-ordered 
families. The Trustees sympathize entirely with the work 
outside, and are firmly of the opinion that the best work of 
the schools is a preparation, not a substitute, for the home- 
training, of which their inmates have had the misfortune to 
be deprived, and from which, if it can now be given, there is 
the greatest hope of continuance in well-doing. While ref- 
erence is made to the comparatively small number now in 
the school, it must be borne in mind that the number to- 
day represents less than one-half of those, under its jurisdic- 
tion and care. With a conscientious desire to further their 
best interests, none of the girls have been allowed to remain 
in the institution after being considered fit for domestic ser- 
vice, and opportunities for such service presenting them- 
selves ; so that to-day, including those still under the care 
and subject to the direction of the school, but placed " on 
probation," with the number inside, there are a hundred and 
fifty. The fact must also be borne in mind, that the expense 
of outfit for all the girls so placed is paid from the yearly 
appropriation, and thus apparently increases the per capita 
cost of those who are retained in the school. Facilities for 
placing out the girls have increased since the appointment of 
the Board of Auxiliary Visitors by the superintendent of the 
Department of In-door Poor ; and this visitation and watch- 
fulness has resulted in good to those placed out. 

Family System. 

The family system inaugurated with the opening of the 
school has been always strictly regarded, and is believed 
to-day, as then, to be the only true system for the reform of 
girls of the class sent to Lancaster. The opportunity for 
care and special attention to individuals could scarcely be 
found in any other, and in this opportunity lies one great 
element of success in the work. In the desire to save 
expense, there is a temptation to reduce the number of 
houses and officers ; but this cannot be safely done, it is 
believed. One who has become a valued authority in 
matters of this kind says, " Economize with what penny- 



22 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

wisdom we may, the separate sleeping-room is a vital requi- 
site to reformation of all offenders, and proves, in the end, 
pound-saving instead of foolishness." The number of 
separate dormitories in the houses, as they were originally 
constructed, will not admit of a larger number than at 
present in each, and though, if remodelled or added to, 
might be increased with no more officers than at present, it 
is still a question if the work, with proper attention to indi- 
viduals, could so well be done. Within a few months an 
Industrial School has been started in England for a class 
similar to that at Lancaster, in which the number for each 
house is limited to twelve, it being stated that the chances of 
reform, with a number not larger than that named here, were 
much greater than with more. 

Classification. 

There have always been those of the opinion that a strict 
classification should be made at Lancaster, and that the 
comparatively innocent should be saved from the risk of 
contamination from the older and more vicious girls. That 
it is desirable to bring about such a result, no one can doubt ; 
but it is a grave question, still unsolved by those truly 
skilled in the work of reform, whether this can be success- 
fully done, and whether, if done, the loss of the good 
element in a house mio'ht not result in greater detriment to 
those who would be influenced by it, than any injury the 
comparatively good would receive from association with the 
bad. 

The girls whose written record is best at the school, who 
need the least correction, are not always the farthest on the 
way to reform ; and often those who tax the patience and the 
ingenuity of teachers and matrons, to keep them within 
the bounds of order and obedience, are really trying the most 
sincerely to overcome the evil within them ; and a classifica- 
tion must be based somewhat upon outward behavior. To 
exclude from the better ones the latter class would be mani- 
fest injustice, but would almost certainly be done. As an 
illustration, the cases of three or four girls who, two years ago, 
were deemed almost if not quite " incorrigible,"' may be 
cited. A recommendation from those having them in charge, 
that they might be sent to Bridgewater as- a unsuited to 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 23 

the discipline at Lancaster," was seriously considered by the 
Trustees, and, but for the objection of one or two of the 
Board, would have been acceded to. As it was, they were 
retained at Lancaster, and to-day every one of these girls is 
reported as " doing well " in the family where she has since 
been placed. 

Had a strict system of classification been in operation, 
who can tell what would have been the result to these 
girls, who, by the rules of any such system, must have 
been included amonsf those shut out from the association of 
the better class? The encouragement they have had, the 
helps they have received, the experiments that have been 
tried until a right course was found, have all been means to 
bring them to their present condition. They remained un- 
stigmatized members of the common family until "patience 
had its perfect work," and to-day they bear voluntary and 
cheerful testimony to the value of the discipline to which 
they were subjected. As a still further illustration of the 
fact that the basest and most depraved might, by outward 
fair seeming, be still retained, while the less guilty are 
punished, attention may be called to the two attempts 
by girls at the Industrial School to burn the buildings, — the 
first, a successful one, occurring in 1877 ; the other, fortu- 
nately discovered in time, during the last year. In neither of 
these cases were the perpetrators of the act exceedingly 
troublesome girls, or those who would have been thought 
capable, under any circumstances, of such a diabolical deed. 
In the former instance, indeed, the girl who planned and 
successfully carried out her plan was on the "roll of honor," 
and for long-continued good conduct was acting as a monitor 
in the house to which she set fire. In neither case would 
these girls have been withdrawn from association with those 
known to be correct. These last cases prove that repression 
is not reform, and this fact must constantly be borne in mind. 
Mistakes which arise from that appearance of reform are the 
greatest objections to a system of useful classification. 
Those who are capable of doing the greatest harm to com- 
panions are those who can so hoodwink matrons and 
teachers as to create a belief in an actual reformation ; and it 
is only by careful study and constant watchfulness that their 
real characters are found out. If they stand well on the 



24 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

books of the teacher ; if they obey the rules of the house, 
commit no overt act, — it will at once be seen that there will be 
difficulty in assigning them to a house where perhaps those 
really troublesome, but far less vicious ones than themselves, 
have already been placed, and, with less of the good to coun- 
teract than in the other houses, are to be the victims of their 
corrupting influence. 

A discriminating matron, sensitive to both good and evil 
influences, should attempt to make the good the preponderat- 
ing ones by constant recognition, while watchfulness will 
prevent in a measure the ill effects of the bad. This subject 
has received the serious consideration of the present Board 
of Trustees, but they find themselves no more competent to 
grapple with its real difficulties than their predecessors have 
been. They can only enjoin the constant care which is 
necessary even in real family life, and far more so in that at 
Lancaster, which can be at best but an imperfect type of such 
life. 

Separate Workrooms. 

As one means of discipline, an occasional isolation is se- 
cured by the large, cheerful, and well-ventilated workrooms 
prepared during the last few months for those who are un- 
influenced by other methods. Placed in one of these rooms 
with an allotment of work for each day, allowed exercise at 
stated hours in the company of a matron or teacher, with the 
same diet as the rest of the family, and occupying their dor- 
mitories at night, these girls are subject to no severity of 
discipline, but are prevented, for a time at least, from injur- 
ing their companions, and, by engrossing labor of hand and 
head, are saved from themselves and their own evil passions. 

Remunerative Labor. 

Another direct and important agency in the work at Lan- 
caster has been secured in the knitting-shop, to which refer- 
ence was made in last year's report, the promise then of its 
continued usefulness being fulfilled by this year's experience. 
It has been a source of considerable profit, as will be seen 
by the superintendent's report, and has been a still more 
valuable aid in discipline by providing work necessarily 
occupying both the mind and the hand, and by exciting an 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 25 

interest in its performance no. other industrial pursuit intro- 
duced at Lancaster has been able to do. The opportunity 
offered by the proprietor for the girls, after their allotted work, 
to earn daily something for themselves, has created a health- 
ful stimulus, and the little sums placed to their credit have in 
several instances grown to considerable amounts. At the end 
of each quarter a certain number of girls are taken from the 
shop for the work of the houses, for which a corresponding 
number supply their places in the shop. 

The Schools. 

Three hours of each day are devoted to the schools, in the 
exercises of which all participate. 

They are in as satisfactory condition as can be expected, 
made up, as they are, of those who, until their entrance there, 
have rarely known continuous and systematic instruction, and 
whose lives have not been of a kind to give them any taste 
for learning. Then they are constantly drawn upon by the 
removal of the oldest and most intelligent girls, as they are 
placed in families. 

To teach what will be directly useful to them as they go 
out into the world, and to teach that thoroughly and effec- 
tively, is the main object. To impart general intelligence, 
to awaken the mind to a quick apprehension of what is pre- 
sented, is of far more importance than to crowd it with facts 
of no practical use, and which will preclude the attainment 
of more valuable knowledge. The opportunities for this 
acquirement are far better here than any this class have 
probably had or would have outside, and should be improved 
to a degree proportionate to their probable future needs. 
But that which can only be learned from text-books and 
school-teachers is far from being the most valuable part of 
their education. To give them the knowledge of domestic 
affairs — of cooking and other household work, sewing, of 
knitting, of cutting, making, and mending their own clothes, 
and of all other work with which women ought to be familiar 
— becomes a duty of the first importance, and is never to be 
lost sight of even in view of that which, though remunera- 
tive to the State now, may, if exclusively taught, prove very 
costly in the end. 



26 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Health. 

There have been no serious cases of acute diseases, and no 
death during the year at the institution. Two girls belong- 
ing to it, but in other homes, have died of consumption, — 
the common ending of the lives of those whose constitutions 
are impoverished and weakened by the hereditary transmis- 
sion of the seeds of disease. 

Dr. Francena Porter, formerly physician to the institution, 
has been re-engaged, and is again doing good service in a 
way too obvious to those cognizant of the antecedents of 
these girls, and of their inherited tendencies, to need any 
explanation. The simple facts that none are confined to their 
beds with acute illness, that all look robust, and are improved 
with the regularity of their lives at Lancaster, do not imply 
that the regular visits of a female physician are unnecessary. 

To those most deeply concerned in the welfare of these 
girls, the work of the physician is considered a most valuable 
aid, not only to the physical but to the moral health of those 
under her care. 

Repairs, Farm, etc. 

The reports of the superintendent and farmer will give all 
information in regard to repairs, to the farm and its earnings. 
Suffice it to say that the repairs have been quite extensive, 
and necessarily so ; some of them in consequence of the 
inevitable wear of twenty-five years, and others necessitated 
as measures of health, and suggested by the health-officers of 
the Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity. 

As has been stated, the report of the farmer will speak for 
itself; but the Trustees cannot forbear expressing their grati- 
fication at the results of this year. It is believed that its 
earnings have been greater than ever before ; and that, had 
there not been a most exceptional drought, seriously affect- 
ing the crops from the light dry soil of which a large part 
of the farm is composed, they would have been still more 
considerable. The stock has been improved and increased, 
with little demand beyond the farm production for its support. 
With another and more favorable year, still larger results 
may be looked for. As it has been omitted from its appro- 
priate place in the report, it may not be out of order here to 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 27 

state that girls have still, to a considerable extent, been em- 
ployed upon the farm, a selection being made from those who 
most needed the out-door life. 

In conclusion, the Trustees feel that there is cause for 
satisfaction in the present condition of the Lancaster School, 
— in the evidently sincere desire often expressed by many of 
the girls to lead a better life ; in the effort to improve the 
advantages offered to them ; in the good order and discipline 
maintained without severe punishment, and with little pun- 
ishment of any kind ; in the faithful discharge of duty by 
superintendent, matrons, and teachers ; in the industry which 
has resulted in pecuniaiy profit, with no omission of duties in 
other departments ; and in the success which has attended 
the labors on the farm. 

They regret with deep concern the attempt made in the 
early spring by three of the girls to burn the house in which 
they were living; but, great as was the crime, they do 
not, under the circumstances, consider it more a source for 
discouragement than some other offences less disastrous in 
results. They also regret, that, with great economy and 
entire faithfulness in management, the expenses of carrying 
on the institution have been large, because they cannot 
decrease proportionally with the numbers. If it were be- 
cause the institution is not needed that its numbers are small, 
there would be real cause for gratification ; but no one who 
takes an interest in these matters can believe such a state of 
things has arrived in Massachusetts as that ; and, if all who 
would be benefited by its influences were sent to Lancaster, 
its three houses would be more than full, while its expenses 
would scarcely be more than at present 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18. 



REPORT OF THE OFFICERS 



STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL 



AT 



MONSON. 



1880. 



BOSTON: 

ttao, gtoerg, Sc Co., Printers to tjje Commontaltfj, 

117 Franklin Street. 
1881. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the Slate Primary and Reform Schools. 

I herewith respectfully submit a report of the affairs of 
the State Primary School for the year ending Sept. 30, 1880. 

My term of service does not go back to the beginning of 
the year to be reviewed, as I became Superintendent Dec. 
11, 1879, less than ten months ago. 

By the records, there were in the institution, Oct. 1, 1879, 
475 persons as pupils or inmates, 19 of whom were adults, 
they being mothers of children here. During the year, 233 
persons were admitted, 6 of whom were adults ; 265 were 
sent out into homes found for them, or were discharged to 
friends, 10 of whom were adults; and 5 have died. There 
are remaining 437 persons, 15 of whom are adults. The 
largest number at any one time was 487 ; the smallest num- 
ber, 407; the average number, 448 + . 

During the year, there have been changes in the buildings 
and upon the premises, by alterations and additions, — 
changes in officers and organization. All the changes were 
undertaken with a view to promote economy and efficiency 
in administration ; the enjoyment, freedom, and improve- 
ment of the children under care. 

Changes in Buildings and upon Premises. 

A commodious room for meat, milk, butter, and other pro- 
visions, with space for six tons of ice, has been built. The 
storerooms for edibles have been rebuilt and made accept- 
able, and such stores are assembled therein. To the officers' 
department has been added a spacious and welbarranged 
pantry and wash-sink for dishes. The clothing-rooms have 
been remodelled and newly appointed, and the scattered 



32 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

clothing assembled in kinds. One bath-tub, water-closet, 
and slop-sink have been put in for the use of officers, one 
bath-tub and four water-closets for the use of the children, 
and one bath-tub for the use of adults. New rooms for 
employees are nearly completed, and minor changes have 
been made for personal comfort and general convenience. 
These beside ordinary repairs. 

For the Enjoyment, Freedom, and Improvement of 
the Children. 

New recreation-rooms, for both boys and girls of the sev- 
eral ages, have been fitted up in attractive style, with 
pictures, games, papers, magazines, &c. The wash and 
bath rooms of the girls have been improved by uncovering 
the old retaining-wall some feet from the building, removing 
the intervening dirt, putting in large windows, re-laying the 
floor, painting the walls, and providing each girl with hair 
and tooth brushes, combs and mugs, with a separate place 
for them for each girl. A similar improvement of the boys' 
washroom is nearly completed. This improvement involved 
the discontinuance of the cells in the basement, heretofore 
found necessary. The boys have been fitted with slippers 
for house wear, in place of going barefoot therein. A grand 
piano has been purchased for the chapel. 

Four verandas have been built upon the playgrounds of 
the girls, smaller boys, and hospital-children, the larger of 
which is 120 feet long. The high, tight fences, dividing and 
hiding the playgrounds, have been taken down, and low, 
open ones substituted therefor. The high fence in front of 
a portion of the main building has been removed. The 
hospital has received a set of blinds. 

Change of Officers. 

Since the 11th of December, 1879, twenty-one officers and 
employees, then here, have gone from the service of the 
institution, and tAVO who were subsequently appointed. 
Some of these went upon their own motion, and some upon 
invitation. Five of the places made vacant have not been 
refilled. The assistant superintendent and principal of the 
schools, Mr. J. C. Tibbetj:s, retired after a service of more 
than five years, because it was determined to employ a lady 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 33 

principal and have the assistant-superintendency remain 
vacant. Mrs. M. H. Brewster, the matron, resigned to give 
attention to her personal affairs. The other changes were 
with teachers, assistant matrons, and less important officers 
and employees. 

Although some of those who have gone filled their places 
well, we have been fortunate in securing other competent 
persons, some of whom are superior to those who went away. 

Change in Organization. 

The employment of a lady principal, the separation of 
the children into divisions, the increase of supervisors from 
two to four, and greatly improving the quality of the super- 
vision of the girls and the smallest boys, in the services of 
two educated and refined ladies, make the important changes 
in organization. 

The children's kitchen, dining-hall, and the laundry have 
been united in management, and put in charge of a man, his 
wife, and a female assistant, with good result. 

The work of the assistant matrons has been re-arranged, 
and their duties newly defined, 

The organization of the hospital force has been deter- 
mined upon, but is not yet in operation. It will consist of a 
nurse in charge, with two assistants and kitchen- woman. 

The organization of the institution is now represented by 
a superintendent, principal of schools, seven teachers beside 
the principal, who teaches; four supervisors of children, a 
matron, three assistant-matrons, a housekeeper, a seamstress 
in charge of sewing-room; three officers in charge of chil- 
dren's and inmates' kitchen, dining-hall, and laundry; a chief 
nurse, with two assistants and kitchen-woman, at hospital ; a 
watchman, clerk, an engineer and fireman, a baker, carpen- 
ter, painter, shoemaker, a driver, a farmer and assistants. 
The physician is a non-resident. He visits the institution 
daily, or oftener if there is occasion for so doing. 

Religious Services. 

Religious services are had in the chapel Sunday mornings. 
They include a sermon. The preaching is by clergymen of 
different denominations. During the ten months past, 23 
different clergymen have conducted the services; many of 
them prominent preachers. 



34 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

The Catholic clergyman of Palmer has a large class to 
which he gives catechetical instruction on Sunday after- 
noons, often with the assistance of his parishioners. He has 
also met them a few times on Saturday. 

The several teachers hold Sunday sessions of their schools 
an hour each, afternoons, at which times they give moral 
instruction and readings, and prepare concert-exercises for 
Sunday evenings, they taking turns in furnishing such exer- 
cises each week. A chapel service is held each evening, 
singing being an important part of it. It is conducted by 
the Superintendent. 

The coming of different clergymen on Sundays gives to 
the service zest and special interest. I am of opinion that 
the service thus conducted is better for the children than 
it could be by a chaplain or stated supply. 

Schools. 

The Kindergarten which was begun in March has been a 
success. It has given direction, employment, and fair deport- 
ment to twenty-five rude, uncouth children, who, for the 
lack of better opportunities, gave exercise to good health and 
exuberance of spirit in honest rioting and mischief. 

It may be early to speak of the change in the principalship 
of the school from a man to a woman. The difficulties I 
anticipated have not come. The benefits do appear. The 
prospect is encouraging. The schools are considered to be 
prime factors in the administration of the institution. It is 
the purpose to have the work of the supervisors complement 
that of the teachers. The means for recreation and enjoy- 
ment now at command are intended and used as helps to 
the schools, as rewards of merit, — the withholding of them 
as means of discipline. 

One evening in each month is made the occasion, in the 
chapel, of presenting the rewards of good conduct to two 
pupils of each school whose behavior has been most satis- 
factoiy for the month previous in and out of the schools. 
The rewards are substantial, — standard books of biography, 
natural history, works of fiction, &c, — suited to ages and 
capacities. Good effects from such gifts are realized. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 35 



Industries. 

At the beginning of my term the outside industries of 
cleaning silk and seating chairs were in operation. With 
your approval they were soon after discontinued. 

In the silk-work between 60 and 70 boys were employed a 
half of each day. The institution contributed their labor, 
a room with steam-power, and the board of the company's 
overseer, The largest gross sum received therefor per month 
was 121.90. 

At the chair-work between 40 and 50 boys were employed 
one-half of each day, in charge of an institution officer. The 
institution not only failed to receive a farthing for the work 
done, but was brought into the contractor's debt by his 
reckoning. The objection to the continuance of these indus- 
tries was not mainly on account of the lack of revenue there- 
from, but it was to their infringement on the boys' schooling. 

At present all the children fit to work, 135 boys and 44 
girls, are employed on the farm, and about and in the build- 
ings, as follows : — 

In the sewing-room . . .32 girls. 

In the wards and other parts of the house 12 " 

In the tailor-shop . . . ... . . . .18 boys. 

In the dining-hall . . , 18 " 

In the kitchen . . 3 " 

In the shoe-shop . . . . . . . . 5 " 

In the bakery 5 < ' 

In the laundry and washroom 8 " 

In the hospital 2 " 

In the wards and at miscellaneous work in and around the house 

and grounds . . . . . . . . . 26 " 

On the farm and at the barns . . . . . . . 50 " 

A tailor's shop has been established, in which the boys' 
clothing is mended and their new garments are made. The 
outgoing of the children to places makes frequent changes 
among the workers. 

The Children. 

The average age of the children is about nine years ; the 
number under seven years of age is nearly two hundred. It 
will thus be seen that a large proportion of the children 



36 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

cannot be self-caring, but must be cared for in nearly all their 
personal wants. Nearly all of them, before coming to the 
care of the State, had been without wholesome restraint or 
correct training; yet they take quite readily to better tilings, 
and in their strivings and attainments there is much of prom- 
ise. The few bring discouragement ; the many, encourage- 
ment. It must be considered that the restraints and require- 
ments of behavior are necessarily much greater in an institu- 
tion than in a family. The noise and freedom of a house- 
hold of children, which may be allowable and right, cannot 
be permitted in proportion in an institution a hundred times 
greater in numbers than a household. Yet, with the stricter 
judgment and standard of an institution, the children of this 
school compare well with those of families in behavior. 
Altogether they are worth the expenditure, and worthy the 
care of the State. 

The Farm. 

The farm is viewed and used as the " commissariat ' r of 
the school. Its products and yield for the year have been 
satisfactory. A statement of them will appear herewith. 
The neat-cattle are a few less than a year ago, but are more 
valuable, because the older and poorer ones have given place 
to younger and better ones. The yield of hay is within a 
few pounds of last year, and the yield of potatoes and roots 
much larger. Other yields compare favorably with those of 
former years. 

The bo}^s have done good service upon the farm during the 
season. There are now several boys who can milk. 

Health and Living. 

For a remarkable record of mortality, sickness, and health, 
I refer you to the annual report of the physician. Only five 
deaths for the year. 

Good living, regular habits, and cleanliness, skilful treat- 
ment and nursing, with Divine favor, have brought such 
unusual health and restoration. 

It may be well to observe in this connection, as cause of 
health, that the children have had, this year, on an average, a 
quart of pure full milk a day, or an aggregate amount of 
nearly a hundred and seventy-five tons in the year. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 37 

Remarks. — Conclusion. 

The accompanying statistics will give additional and quite 
full information concerning officers, children, farm-products, 
industries, ,&c, as will the reports of the physician and 
principal of the schools of their departments. 

In submitting my report to you, I have to acknowledge the 
favor of God, your generous support and personal kindness 
to me, the help of the officers and employees of the institu- 
tion, and to say that the work here given me to do, grows to 
me in magnitude and importance; and I am often led to ask 
myself, Am I sufficient lor it ? To have such an intimate 
relation with so many human beings needing special help and 
guidance, is impressive and yet inspiring. 

I try to guide my administration by that golden rule of 
action, " Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do 
ye even so to them." 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

GARDINER TUFTS, Superintendent. 



38 



PKIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



STATISTICS. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Women. 


Number in the institution Oct. 1, 1879 


318 


138 


19 


admitted from State Almshouse at 
Tewksbury .... 


64 


34 


6 


received from Superintendent In- 
door Poor 


31 


15 


- 


returned, having been released on 
trial in previous years 


25 


16 


- 


returned, having been released on 
trial since Sept. 30, 1879 . 


15 


20 


- 


returned, after eloping from place . 


4 


- 


- 


recaptured, after eloping from in- 
stitution 


3 


- 


- 


discharged by Board of Health, 
Lunacy, and Charity . 


30 


24 


10 


placed out on trial during the year, 


118. 


75 


- 


released on expiration of sentence 
(truants) ..... 


2 


- 


- 


eloped 


7 


- 


- 


died 


3 


2 . 


- 


remaining Oct. 1, 1880 . 


300 


122 


15 


Total . . . . . .437 









Note. — The seven elopements here reported were all prior to Dec. 
11. No successful elopement has since taken place, and in only one 
case was an eloper absent over night. 



Whole Number of Persons in Institution. 

Sept. 30, 1880 437 

" " 1879 475 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



39 



Average Number of Persons supported in the Institution. 
For the year ending Sept. 30, 1880 ..... 
" 30, 1879 

Number of Children placed out in Families on Trial. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1880 

" " 30, 1879 

Number of Children returned from Place. 
For the year ending Sept. 30, 1880 



448+ 
501 



181 
153 



76 



35 of these were placed ont during the year, 41 during previous years. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879 39 

29 of these were placed out during the year, 10 during previous years. 

Number of Children sent to the Institution by Superintendent of In-door Poor 
(taken from Court). 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1880 46 

" 30, 1879 34 



Number of Deaths in the Institution. 
For the year ending Sept. 30, 1880 
" " 30, 1879 



5 
14 



Largest number in the institution at any one time during the year, 487 

Smallest 407 

Average 448+ 



Correspondence. 
Number communications received since Dec. 11, 1879 . 

" " written and sent since Dec. 11, 1879 

Note. — No record of correspondence prior to that date. 



2,570 
2,486 



DETAILED ACCOUNT OF CURRENT EXPENSES. 



Blacksmithing . . . • . 

Books and school supplies 

Brooms, brushes, baskets, and wooden ware 

Cereals for table 

Clothing, boots and shoes ... 
Coal 

Dry-goods 

Express, freight and passenger fares 

Fish — all kinds 

Fruit and vegetables .... 
Furniture, beds and bedding , 



$147 30 

589 28 

175 65 

177 88 

3,165 05 

3,320 71 

3,205 05 

1,120 89 

628 69 

371 35 

1,157 68 



40 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



Gasoline 

Glassware, crockery, and table-ware 
Grain, feed, and meal for stock 
Ice ...... 



Improvements and repairs — extrao 
Wages .... 
Materials .... 



Improvements and repairs — ordina: 
Wages 
Materials . 



Leather and shoe-findings 



Meat — all kinds 

Medicines 

Milk . 

Miscellaneous . 

Piano . 

Provisions and groceries: 

Butter and cheese . 

Coffee . 

Flour 

Light groceries 

Molasses . 

Pease and beans 

Eice 

Sugar 
. Tea . 

All other provisions . 



dinary: 



£2,473 43 
4,003 23 



|873 00 
1,107 64 



,321 97 
233 23 
,549 46 
534 77 
450 92 
75 10 
123 95 
743 64 
139 06 
871 61 



Salaries and wages, other than those classed under the head of 
improvements and. repairs .... 

Seeds, plants, and agricultural implements 

Soap and soap-stock ...... 

Stationery, postage, telegrams, and newspapers 
Straw, hay, and pasturage ..... 



$306 45 
230 25 

1,450 54 
336 79 



6,476 66 



1,980 64 
219 87 

2,095 11 
137 79 
622 08 
953 43 
300 00 



9,043 71 

15,099 50 

222 75 

289 12 

332 07 

239 12 

$54,425 41 



Note. — This institution is wholly supported from the State treasury 
by annual legislative appropriations. It has no fund from which to 
draw for any expenditure whatever. The appropriations of the State 
are made for calendar years. The reports of institutions are for years 
ending Sept. 30. Although the expenditures are kept within the annual 
appropriations, they may be larger for the parts of the two years which 
make "the institution one, than for either one of the calendar years; as 
they are for the institution year now reported upon, which embraces 
three months of 1S79 and nine months of 18S0. 

The weekly per capita cost of the institution, including all ordinary 
and extraordinary expenses, and excluding all receipts, is $2.33-]-; 
including receipts, $2.31; excluding extraordinary expenses, $2.02-f-. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 41 

Superintendent and Disbursing Officer of (lie State Primary School, 
in Account loitli State Treasury. 

Dr. 

To cash received from appropriation for 1879 . . . $14,205 99 

" " " " " 1880 . . . 40,219 42 

" " for board, labor, and sales . . . 618 96 



$55,044 37 



Cr. 



By disbursements for the three months from Sept. 30, 1879, 
to Jan. 1, 1880, as per schedules on file in State Au- 
ditor's office $14,205 99 

disbursements from Dec. 31, 1S79, to Oct..l, 1SS0, as 
per schedules on file in State Auditor's office . . 40,219 42 

payments to State Treasurer, as per his receipts . . 618 96 



)5,044 37 



FARM PRODUCE. 

Hay 154 tons 

Rowen 30 " 

Rye-straw li » 

Hungarian ......... 3 " 

Mowed oats . . . 10^ " 

Corn-fodder . . . . . . . . . 2 " 

" " green. 100 " 

Rye-fodder, " 20 " 

Milk 1441. " 

Potatoes 1,771 bushels 

" sweet 20 

Mangolds . . . . . . . . . 2,400 

Sugar-beets ......... 200 

English turnips . . . . . . • . 780 

Carrots 700 

Rye 10 

Wood . . 20 cords 

Lumber ] ? 000 feet 

Beef 5,330 poim ds 

Pork 12,997 " 

Veal 957 " 

Poultry . . . 339 " 

E §'gs 429 dozen 

Calves raised ......... 5 

" sold . 39 

Pigs raised 93 



42 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



GARDEN PRODUCE. 



Apples — winter . 
" early 

' ' cider 

Beans' — string 
" shelled . 

Corn — sweet 

Cucumbers 

Cabbage 

Beets — turnip 

Celery 

Currants 

Onions 

Pease 

Parsnips 

Rhubarb 

Raspberries . 

Strawberries . 

Squashes — winter 
' ' summer 

Tomatoes 

Asparagus 



200 barrels 


71 bushels 


400 ' 




H ' 




9 < 




70 < 




48 ' 




1,337 heads 


173 bushels 


450 bunches 


198 quarts 


46 bushels 


12 " 


50 " 


2,000 pounds 


50 quarts 


256 " 


4 tons 


1,150 pounds 


81 bushels 


13 " 





STATEMENT OF WORK DONE IN SEWING-ROOMS. 



Garments Made. 

Aprons 144 

Caps 343 

Chemises 211 

Curtains 55 

Drawers 385 

Dresses 407 

Elastics 103 

Holders .56 

Hoods . 56 

Mittens 188 pairs 

Napkins 72 

Nightdresses 144 

Overalls ........... 9 pairs 

Pants, cotton 64 " 

Pants, woollen 293 " 

Pillow-slips 71 

Pillow-ticks 50 

Ruffs . 48 

Sacks 27 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 43 

Sacks, waterproofs . . . .• . . . . . ♦ 48 

Sheets . . . .324 

Shirts . 863 

Skirts 186 

Spreads, hemmed ......... 105 

Table-cloths 6 

Ticks 50 

Tiers 416 

Towels ........... 354 

Towels, roller 48 

Under-vests . 16 

Under-waists .11 

Waists . . 216 

Waterproof capes 48 

5,417 ■ 
Winter jackets for boys ........ 125 



In addition to the above work, the mending and repairing, 
amounting in the aggregate to about 12,000 pieces, was done 
in the sewing-rooms, except that for the smallest children, 
which was done in the wards. 



44 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



[Oct. 



5Q 






0- 

| 

6 






02 

s 


Also acted as chaplain. 
Office abolished Sept. 15. 




Office established Aug. 1. 
Discontinued. 

Discontinued. 


Discontinued. 
Discontinued Jan. 1. 


1 


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1, 1879, to March 1 

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1, 1879, to Jan. 1 

1, 1879, to Oct. 1 

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1, 1879, to Oct. 1 

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" 1, 1879, to March 1 

1, 1879, to Feb. 1 

1, 1879, to Jan. 1 

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19, 1880, to Aug. 12 

April 14, 1880, to May 15 

July 19, 1880, to Oct. 1 

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H 

lis 




John N. Lacy 
George H. Fisherdic 
S. A. Andrews . 
0. A. Flint . 
J. M. Sisk . 
William F. Floyd. 
Elon G. Buss 
George Bradstreet 
Stillinan J. Baker 
B. A. Hunt . 


Joseph F. Scott . 
Edward Goodes . 
F. B. Shepard 
E. G. Buss 
Stillman J. Baker 
Frank Duffy 
John Kcefe . 
Frank Woods* . 
Walter S. Haskell 
John T. B. Bailey . 
George W. Keyes 
Walter J. Pierce 
Jamf.s Lalley 
Thomas Moran 
Frank Marcoux . 
Joseph Morgan 
Samuel C. Rogers 
Andrew Warriner 
Charles N. Green . 
Wesson W. Pierce 
James McDowell 


pej 


888 




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1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



45 



Established July 19. 

Non-resident. 
Established Sept. 1. 

Established May 1. 

Also music for chapel ser- 
vices, &c. 

Kindergarten. 
Also music for chapel ser- 
vices, &c. 


59 00 

230 33 

34 83 
72 00 
Oli 00 
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399 00 
240 00 
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May 15, 1880, to " 1,1880 

Aug. 4, 1880, to " 1, 1880 

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1, 1870, to Oct. 1,1880 

1, 1870, to " 1, 1880 

1,1870, to " 1,1880 

Feb. 1, 1880, to " 1, 1880 

Sept. 1,1880, to " 1,1880 

Oct. 1, 1870, to Dec. 11, 1870 

Dec. 15, 1870, to Aug. 10, 1880 

Aug. 22, 1880, to Sept. 8, 1880 

Sept. 22, 1880, to Oct. 1, 1880 

Oct. 1, 1870, to Sept. 15, 1880 

Sept 1, 1880, to Oct. 1, 1880 

Oct. 1, 1870, to April IG, 1880 

1, 1870, to Feb. 10, 1880 

Feb. 15, 1879, to Oct. 1, 1880 

Aug. 15, 1880, to " 1, 1880 

May 3, 1880, to June 30, 1880 

Oct. 1, 1870, to Nov. 25, 1870 

Dec. 24, 1870, to Feb. 0, 1880 

Feb. 0, 1880, to June 15, 1880 

June 13, 1880, to Oct. 1, 1880 

Oct. 1, 1870, to June 1,1880 

1, 1870, to Oct. 1,1880 

1,1879, to " 1,1880 

1,1870, to " 1,1880 

1, 1870, to April 24, 1880 

1, 1878, to Sept. 1, 1880 

" 1, 1870, to Oct. 1, 1880 

Jan. 1, 1880, to Sept. 1, 1880 

March 1, 1880, to Oct. 1, 1880 

Aug. 1, 1N80, to " 1, 1880 

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3 man 

schools 
ttron 

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tron 

L* 


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Fireman 
Assistant fir 
Laborer 

&c. 
Hostler 
Laborer 
Phvsician 
Clerk . 
Principal of 
Matron . 

Assistant im 

Hospital ma 
Housekeepe 

Teacher 
<< 




Simon Katz . 
Patrick Riley 
Thomas Flynn 
Frank Whittemore . 
.lames McGowan . 
William Kklley 
Samuel Kei.lkv . 
William Holbrook, M.D. 
Charles S. Hart 
Miss Genevieve Mills 
Mrs. J. H. Bradford . 
Mrs. M. H. Brewster . 
Mrs. Lucy B. Cook 
Mrs. Eliza Howe 
Mrs. J. C. Tibbetts 
Mrs. A. S. Daniels . 
Mrs. M. J. Hamilton . 
Mrs. Anna Grellett 
Miss Addie Swikerton 
Mrs. L. R. Winston . 
Miss E. J. Doubleday . 
Mrs. M. C. Piatt . 
Mrs. C. A. St. John . 
Mrs. A. S. Daniels 
Mrs. A. M. Flint 
Miss M. E. Duncan 
Miss N. J. Rice . 
Miss E. M. FULLINGTON 
Miss Sara Hamilton . 
Miss Josie Hamilton . 
Miss Clara S. Clark- 
Miss Emma C. Dibble 
Miss Ellen S. Dibble 
Miss Miriam M. Smith 
Miss Helen J. Barrett . 
Mrs. A, S. Daniels 


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46 



PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 



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1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No, 18. 



47 



RECAPITULATION OF INVENTORY. 



Taken as of Sept. 30, 1880, by Messrs. D. 
Calkins of Palmer. 



B. Bishop and Enos 



Real Estate. 






Land ....... 


$22,665 43 




Buildings ...... 


90,600 00 


$113,265 43 






Personal. 






Products of farm on hand 


$5,735 22 




Carriages and agricultural tools 




3,590 75 




Machinery, &c. .... 




7,727 20 




Personal property, superintendent's an 


d offi 






cers' department 




5,132 68 




Personal property, inmates' department 




5,870 23 




Beds and bedding, inmates' department 




4,667 79 




Clothing, boots and shoes 




3,867 72 




Dry-goods 








1,561 32 




Groceries and provisions . 








1,462 14 




Medicines 








270 00 




Fuel .... 








3,144 00 




Heating, water, and gas . 








17,000 00 




Library and school supplies 








681 00 




Live-stock 








6,026 20 




Miscellaneous . 








529 28 








67,265 53 







,530 



48 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 



PRINCIPAL'S REPORT. 



To the Superintendent of the State Primary School. 

I present for your consideration the following report of 
the schools for the rear ending Sept. 30, 1880 : — 

The number of children in the schools is 403. Of these, 
115 are girls, 288 boys. 

The average age is about nine years. The first, second, 
third, and fourth schools number boys only ; the fifth school, 
girls only; the sixth, seventh, and eighth are mixed schools. 
From the first five are drawn the workers. In the first 
school all are half-day pupils ; in the second, all with one 
exception ; in three others, a number of the pupils attend 
both sessions. 

The first school was, for eiodit months of last year, taught 
by Miss M. E. Duncan, who resigned her position early in 
June, after five years of most efficient service. Mrs. A. S. 
Daniels supplied the vacancy temporarily. On the 1st of 
September the schools came under the direction of the pres- 
ent principal of the schools. 

There are in the first school 53 boys. The average age is 
thirteen years. The afternoon school has two grades ; the 
morning school one, corresponding to the second grade in the 
afternoon. Admission to the second grade requires the 
Franklin Elementary Arithmetic, completed to long division ; 
Harper's Primary Geography, to map of Europe ; Sheldon's 
Fourth Reader, half finished. 

The second school, Miss N. J. Rice, teacher, numbers 57. 
The average age of boys is twelve years. The school is 
divided into two morning, two afternoon grades. In this 
school the Franklin Elementary Arithmetic is commenced^ 
and completed as far as long division : Harper's Primary 
Geography is commenced, and completed as far as map of 
Europe : Appleton's Third Reader is finished ; and Sheldon's 
Fourth Reader, half finished. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 49 

The third school, Miss E. C. Dibble, teacher, numbers 48. 
The average age is ten years. There are three grades in 
reading ; three in arithmetic. The only text-book used at 
present is a reader, but a primary arithmetic will soon be 
introduced. First lessons in geography are given in general 
exercises. 

The fourth school, Miss E. M. Fullington, teacher, num- 
bers 58. The average age is nine years. There are two 
grades. All read, spell, write, and have oral and written 
exercises in notation, numeration, addition, and subtraction 
of simple numbers; also general exercises. 

The fifth school, Miss E. S. Dibble, teacher, Mrs. H. E. 
Dart substituting, numbers 53 girls. The average age is 
eleven years. In this school, under one instructor, are gath- 
ered girls of the ages and capacity of boys in the first, second, 
and third schools. There are four grades at the present time. 
What was the first grade, and the most advanced in all the 
schools, was broken up a short time ago ; the girls, with one 
exception, having left the institution. For admission to this 
school are required addition and subtraction of simple num- 
bers, and Second Reader finished. The advanced grade are 
studying fractions in Eaton's Intellectual Arithmetic, review- 
ing the Franklin Elementary Arithmetic, and beginning geog- 
raphy with books, which have just been supplied. 

The sixth school, Miss S. Hamilton, teacher, numbers 46, 
— girls, 21; boys, 25. The average age of girls is eight 
years ; boys, seven years. The girls are prepared for the 
fifth, the boys for the fourth school. The number of grades 
is three. All reach write on slates, and spell. The first and 
second grades have oral and written exercises in addition and 
subtraction. The third grade are beginners. 

The seventh school. Miss H. J. Barrett, teacher, numbers 
48, — girls, 21; boys, 27. The average age is six years. 
There are two grades. The first read in Edwards's First 
Reader, spell, write on slates, and count. The second grade 
read from charts, and are taught objectively. 

The eighth school, the Kindergarten, Miss M. M. Smith, 
teacher, opened March 8, 1880. with 22 children. It now 
numbers 85. Of these, 15 are girls, 20 boys. The average 
age is four years. The method of instruction is the usual one 
in the Kindergarten, — object-teaching. The older children 



50 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 

have had, and still use, the first, second, third, seventh, 
eighth, and ninth " gifts; " also bead-work, chain-work, sew- 
ing, weaving, paper-folding, and clay-modelling. The younger 
children use the first, second, eighth, and ninth ''gifts," bead- 
work, chain-work, and modelling. Singing and games are 
also introduced. 

The children in all the schools, with the exception of the 
Kindergarten, write either in copy-books or on slates. 

One Friday in each month is given to letter-writing. 
General exercises are introduced in each school, so far as 
there is time for them. Instruction in the third, fourth, and 
fifth schools is attended with special difficulty, from the fact 
that in the first two something over one-half of the pupils, 
and in the last a smaller proportion, are in school during both 
sessions, while the rest attend only half the day. 

An attempt is being made to re-classify the children in the 
schools, but the work is not completed. Some difficulties 
arise which are not found in the ordinary public school. 
These are frequent change among the pupils, the average 
time a child remains in the institution being two years ; the 
occasional overcrowding of the lower schools by an arrival 
of ten, fifteen, or twenty small children, and consequent 
irregular promotion in all the schools ; and the presence of a 
few children mentally deficient. One boy in the fourth, and 
two in the third school, cannot be classified, because of their 
inability to acquire. However, there is no doubt something 
can be done towards a proper grading of the schools, and 
that clearly defining the work of each school, and establish- 
ing a system of regular promotions, will greatly aid both 
teachers and pupils. 

The schools are in session six hours in the day, recesses 
included ; five days in the week ; forty-seven weeks in the 
year. Also, the children assemble in their respective schools 
for an hour on Sunday. The method of instruction varies in 
the different schools, each teacher choosing that which in her 
judgment best meets the needs of her pupils. The Inter- 
national Series of lesson-papers is furnished to two of the 
schools. For the Sunday-evening chapel-service some one 
of the schools prepares a concert-exercise, which occupies ten 
or fifteen minutes in the recital. These are carefully selected 
and arranged by the teachers ; and the work of preparation, 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 51 

even more than the recital, has proved a benefit to those 
participating. A teacher acts as monitor at all chapel- ser- 
vices, and in the children's dining-room at dinner and supper, 
each in turn assuming the duties for a period of a week. 
Though not obliged to be with the children during recrea- 
tion-hours, the teachers find it both pleasant and expedient 
to spend an occasional hour with their pupils in the play- 
rooms. 

I believe my acquaintance with the schools, though brief, 
is long enough to permit me to say that each teacher makes 
the happiness and highest good of her pupils her first consid- 
eration, and will give, without stint, of both time and 
strength to aid you in your good work. 
Respectfully, 

GENEVIEVE MILLS, Principal. 



52 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. [Oct. 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Primary School, Monson, Mass. 

I have the honor to present you with the annual report 
of the medical department of this institution for the year 
ending Sept. 30, 1880 : — 

Number remaining in hospital Sept. 30, 1879 ..... 27 

Number admitted during the year ....... 534 

Number deaths .......... 5 

Number discharged 532 

Number remaining in hospital 34 

No name recorded, unless they remained in hospital over 
twenty-four hours. Of the deaths, one each occurred in 
December, March, June, July, and September. One died of 
acute congestion of the brain ; one, of Pott's disease of the 
spine ; one, of hereditary syphilitic disease ; one, of consump- 
tion ; and one, of pyasmia. 

The mortality report shows that this is the smallest that 
there has ever been in the institution. Only two of the 
deaths were from acute disease. Of the most prevalent, or 
the largest number of cases treated, measles lead off with a 
hundred and seventy-five cases, introduced by a boy from the 
district court at Palmer. From this one case the rest soon 
followed, and there were over a hundred cases at one time. 

Great credit is due to the superintendent for the timely 
preparation of suitable wards for this great number of sick 
children that required so much care day and night ; and to 
the faithful nurses, and a kind Providence, we are under pro- 
found gratitude for bringing all safely through, not losing 
one of them. 

Of sore eyes, about sixty cases this year against over a 
hundred last year, twenty cases of fever, six fractured bones, 
sprains, mumps, chicken-pox, croup, sore heads, running ears, 
coughs, colds, diarrhoea, diphtheria, teething, and about all 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 53 

the diseases children are heir to, we have had here, and prob- 
ably shall have so long as this is a home for children. 

I would earnestly recommend the Trustees to do all that 
lies in their power to furnish better accommodations for the 
sick, so that the acute can be separated from the chronic 
cases ; the contagious, from the non-contagious. All must 
be aware of the real necessity of having acute cases of 
typhoid-fever kept in a still, quiet place, to give the physician 
.and nurse an equal chance with the disease ; and in the 
present hospital there is no place where proper care can be 
given to acute cases. 

With the exception of a few cripples and chronic cases, 
the children as a whole seem to be in excellent condition in 
health and spirits. 

Respectfully, 

WM. HOLBROOK, Physician. 

Palmeb, Sept. 30, 1880. 






i/iV'sOiiji^ ■ .■: :•• .-.. 







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PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18. 



REPORT OF THE OFFICERS 



STATE REFORM SCHOOL 



WESTBOROUGH. 



1880. 



BOSTON : 
t&anti, Ifoetg, Sc Co., printers to tfje Ccmtmonfoealtjfc 

117 Franklin Street. 
1881. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



To his Excellency John D. Long, Governor, and the Honorable Executive 
Council. 

I herewith submit the following report of the receipts 
and expenditures of the State Reform School from Sept. 30, 
1879, to April 20, 1880 : — 

Receipts. 



1879. 

Nov. 11 


Received from State Treasurer 


13,050 45 




Dec. 1 




2,961 18 




1880. 

Jan. 5 




12,291 21 




12 




518 34 




March 1 




2,445 29 




15 




1,999 94 




April 15 




4,242 23 


$27,508 64 






1879. 

Oct. 


For sundry Sales and for I 
of Boys. 

M. Hildreth, sale of old boilei 


.abor 

•8 


$250 00 




- 


For sales of sleighs 




390 00 




1880. 

Jan. - 


" labor of boys . 




1,000 00 




Feb. 


it t< „ ' ' 




558 02 




- 


" sales of sleighs . 




1,400 00 




March - 


<< it a 




157 00 




- 


u a u 




755 00 




April - 


(< a (( 




492 40 




- 


" " produce 




363 39 


5,365 81 














$32,874 45 



58 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



Expenditures. 



1879. 

Nov. 


Paid bills audited on schedule No. 1 


13,050 45 




Dec. 

1880. 

Jan. 


No. 2 
No. 3 


2,961 18 
12,809 55 




March - 


" " " No. 4 


4,021 26 




- 


" " " No. 5 


1,999 94 




April 


No. 6 


2,666 26 


$27,508 64 






1879. 

Nov. 

1880. 

Jan. - 


Paid State Treasurer for Sales and 
Labor of Boys. 

For sales old boilers and sleighs 
' ' labor of boys .... 


$640 00 
1,000 00 




March - 


it a a 


558 02 




- 


1 ' sales of sleighs .... 


1,400 00 




April 


a tl (< 


1,404 40 




- 


" " produce 


363 39 


5,365 81 








$32,874 45 



"Westborough, April 22, 1880. 



S. M. GRIGGS, Treasurer. 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



59 



ACTING TREASURER'S REPORT. 



To his Excellency John D. Long, Governor, and the Honorable Executive 
Council. 

I respectfully submit the following report of the re- 
ceipts and expenditures of the State Reform School at 
Westborough from April 20, 1880, to Sept. 30, 1880 : — 



Receipts. 



1880. 








April 


Received from State Treasurer 


$2,721 53 




May 


" " " 


2,369 88 




June 


(( u u 


6,788 02 




July 


11 It u 


3,133 20 




Aug. 


a a a 


3,209 54 




Sept. 


a u u 


3,455 13 


$21,677 30 








For sundry Sales and for Labor of 






1880. 


Boys. 






May 


For sales of sleighs .... 


$180 00 




July 


t< it n 


584 50 




- 


" " produce 


815 50 




Sept. 


tt a a 


1,202 98 




- 


" " hand-carts . 


93 50 




- 


" labor of boys .... 


745 78 


3,622 26 








$25,299 56 



60 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 

Expenditures. 



1880. 








April - 


Paid bills audited on schedule No. 7, 


$2,721 53 




May 


8, 


2,369 88 




June - 


9, 


6,788 02 




July 


10, 


3,133 20 




Aug. 


11, 


3,209 54 




Sept. 


12, 


3,455 13 


$21,677 30 








Paid State Treasurer for Sales and 






1880. 


Labor of Boys. 






May 


For sales of sleighs . 


$180 00 




July 


C< (( 11 


584 50 




- 


" " produce 


815 50 




Sept. 


U (« U 


1,202 98 




- 


11 " hand-carts . 


93 50 




- 


" labor of boys .... 


745 78 


3,622 26 








$25,299 56 



L. H. SHELDON, Acting Treasurer. 



Sept. 30, 1880. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 61 



LYMAN FUND. 

Milo Hildretii, Treasurer, in Account with Income of Fund. 

Dr. 

1879. 

Oct. 1. Balance on hand .... $2,225 57 

Dec. 1. Interest on town of Marlborough note, 

Dividend, Boston and Albany Railroad 

stock ...... 

Dividend, Boston and Maine Railroad 
stock ...... 

1880. 

Jan. 9. Interest on 4 per cent government 
bonds ...... 

Feb. 7. Dividend on Fitchburg Railroad stock, 
Interest on Boston and Albany Rail- 
road bonds 

Coupon Old Colony Railroad bond . 

April 1. Interest on 4 per cent government 

bonds ...... 

Interest on Marlborough town note, 5 
months 12 days .... 

Dividend, Boston and Albany Railroad 

stock . . . 
Dividend, Boston and Maine Railroad 

stock 

June 8. Marlborough town note paid; due 

May 12 15,000 00 

Balance of interest on Marlborough 
town note ..... 
July 1. Interest 3 months, 4 per cent govern- 
ment bonds ..... 
Dividend, Fitchburg Railroad stock, 

60 shares 

Aug. 5. Interest on Boston and Albany Rail- 
road bonds 

Coupon Old Colony Railroad bond 



450 


00 


400 


00 


30 


00 


20 


00 


180 


00 


70 00 


30 


00 


20 


00 


405 00 


400 00 


35 


00 







20 00 




180 00 




70 00 




30 00 






$19,579 38 



62 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



Cr. 

Payments as authorized by vote of the Trustees: 



1879. 

Oct. 



1. Charles B. Hathaway, musical service, 

2 weeks 

31. United-States bonds, 4 percent, $2,000 

at 2*. 

Nov. 6. Railroad- tickets .... 

Ward & Gay's bill .... 

Frost & Adams, for drawing-material, 
Frost & Adams, drawing-material 
A. H. Munsell, teaching drawing 
S. R. Leland & Co., bill . 
Banfield, Forrestall, & Co., bill. 
William J. Marshall, illustrated lec- 
ture ...... 

Charles B. Hathaway, musical ser- 
vices, 1 month .... 

Dec. 3. R. H. Smith & Co., stamp 
S. R. Leland, singing-book 
P. H. Perrin, 100 ornamental trees . 
P. H. Perrin, 9 ornamental trees 
Frost & Adams, pencils . . 
S. R. Leland & Co., drum-head 
Railroad-tickets .... 

C. L. Gorham & Co., repairing piano, 

Charles B. Hathaway, musical service, 

&c 



1880. 

Jan. 



. Smith & Co. , table for Trustees' room, 
A. H. Munson, drawing services, 3 
months . . . ... 

N. H. Ensley, lecture 
Christmas entertainment for school 
Railroad-tickets 

Charles B. Hathaway, musical ser 
vice, 1 month 
Feb. 17. Charles B. Hathaway, musical sei 
vice, 1 month .... 

March 12. Charles B. Hathaway, musical sei 
vice, 1 month .... 

A. H. Roffe & Co., books for library 
A. W. Lovering, agent, books for 
library ..... 

Lee & Shepard, books for library 
Estes & Lauriat, books for library 
Carried forward 



$16 67 

2,042 50 

15 30 

85 

8 72 
50 

62 50 
12 75 
12 40 

23 00 

33 34 

2 00 

5 25 

100 00 

9 00 

4 80 
1 25 

17 00 
50 00 

36 08 
45 00 

62 50 

5 00 
29 00 
15 30 

33 33 

33 33 

33 33 

74 75 

25 95 
36 00 
52 90 



$2,900 30 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



1880. Brought forward . 

March 12. Moses H. Sargent & Sons, books for 

library ..... 

J. T. Gardiner, lecture 

Mrs. Emma Malloy, paper, "The 

Morning" .... 

April 9. Knight, Adams, & Co., bill 

A. H. Muusell, drawing services, 3 

months ..... 
Charles B. Hathaway, musical ser 

vices, 1 month 
C. L. Gorham & Co., tuning piano 

and string .... 
Entertainment for boys 
May 7. Charles B. Hathaway, musical ser 
vice, 1 month 

E. H. Bigelow, lithographic view of 
Westborough .... 

F. H. Pope, chapel entertainment 
Railroad-tickets 

June 5. Charles B. Hathaway, musical ser 
vice, 1 month 
8. Town of Marlborough loan 

40 shares Citizens' National Bank 
stock ..... 

July 1. Charles B. Hathaway, musical ser 
vice, 1 month 
A. H. Munsell, drawing service, ! 
months ..... 

Railroad-tickets 
19. Frost & Adams, drawing-material 
Entertainment July 4 
Security Safe Deposit Company, box 
in vault ..... 

30. Alfred Clifford, musical instruction 
1 month ..... 

S. S. Ashley, Johnson's Cyclopaedia, 4 
vols. ..... 

Aug. 27. Entertainment for boys 

De Wolfe, Fiske, & Co., Dr. Wines 

book 

Alfred Cfifford, musical services, 
month ..... 
30. Balance carried forward 



No. 18. 
$2,900 30 



63 



43 26 
10 00 

5 00 
14 00 

62 50 

33 33 

2 70 
17 00 

33 33 



3 00 


8 


00 


17 00 


33 


33 


10,000 


00 


4,400 00 


33 


34 


62 


50 


15 


30 


22 


13 


25 


00 


10 


00 


33 33 


43 


00 


10 


00 



4 50 

33 33 
1,704 20 



Northborottgh, Sept. 30, 1880. 
Examined, and found correct. 



$19,579 38 

MILO HILDRETH, Treasurer. 

Boston, Oct. 5, 1880. 
ELIZABETH C. PUTNAM. 



64 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct, 



MARY LAMB FUND. 

Milo Hildreth, Treasurer, in Account with Income of Fund. 

Dr. 

1879. 

Oct. 1. Cash on hand SI, 509 41 

1880. 

Jan. 1. Interest on 4 per cent government 

bonds, 3 months .... 
April 1. Interest on 4 per cent government 

bonds, 3 months .... 
July 1. Interest on 4 per cent government 



bonds, 3 months 



10 00 
10 00 
10 00 



Cr. 



Payments as authorized by vote of the Trustees: — 

1879. 

Oct. 31. United-States bonds, 4 per cent, $1,000 

at 2£ . ' $1,021 25 

Balance carried forward . . . 518 16 



:l,539 41 



Northborough, Sept. 30, 1880. 
Examined, and found correct. 



$1,539 41 

MILO HILDRETH, Treasurer. 

Boston, Oct. 5, 1880. 
ELIZABETH C. PUTNAM. 



Northborough, Mass., Nov. 5, 1880. 
Inventory of Lyman Fund, Sept. 30, 1880. 



100 shares of Boston and Albany Kailroad stock 

60 shares of Fitchburg Railroad stock .... 

10 shares Boston and Maine Railroad stock 

Two $1,000 bonds of Boston and Albany Railroad Company 

One $1,000 bond of Old Colony Railroad Company 

40 shares of Citizens' National Bank stock, Worcester . 

Note of town of Marlborough ..... 

Two $1,000 government bonds, 4 per cent . t 

Sept. 30, 1880, cash 



PAR VALUE. 

<10,000 00 
6,000 00 
2,000 00 
2,000 00 
1,000 00 
4,000 00 

10,000 00 
2,000 00 
1,704 20 



Inventory of Mary Lamb Fund, Sept. 30, 1880. 
One $1,000 government bond, 4 per cent .... SI, 000 00 

Sept. 30, 1SS0, cash . . . . . ... . 518 16 

Yours respectfully, 

MILO HILDRETH, Treasurer. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 65 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Honorable Board of Trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — I respectfully submit for your 
consideration my second annual report of the condition of 
your school at Westborough for the year ending Sept. 30, 
1880. 

The history of this Reform School for the past year pre- 
sents many marked changes, and in some respects radical 
improvements. In order to give clearly the most important 
facts confirming the above statement, I will group what I 
have to say under such headings as will indicate the more 
striking features of the past year's administration. 

Consolidation. 

The decrease of commitments, and the prompt release of 
boys when reaching their Honor Grade, if they have suitable 
homes, early began to reduce our numbers. In fact, it be- 
came evident the previous year that this would be the re- 
sult of these agencies, and it at once became necessary to so 
curtail expenses that the per capita cost should not exceed 
that of the past. 

It requires a certain number of employees to perform the 
duties demanded while occupying the entire building; and, 
to materially lessen the expenses of the institution, certain 
portions of the building must be vacated, fewer officers em- 
ployed, and more work put upon those retained. 

In carrying out this work of consolidation the past two 
years, sixteen employees have been dismissed, and the labor of 
others has been augmented. For example: one night watch- 
man in the sleeping-hall is doing the work which previously 
occupied three ; all the boys in the Reformatory Department 



66 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 

being transferred to the Industrial sleeping-hall. The same 
union was made in the new dining-room, releasing one lady 
overseer. Three Schools were placed under two teachers ; 
two sewing-rooms were united, and one seamstress dismissed; 
one chair-shop was abolished, one hall-man is dispensed with, 
one assistant matron released ; the two dining-rooms for offi- 
cers are united, thus saving the expense of one cook and 
several helpers, the fuel of one range, and the heating and 
lighting of a number of rooms, especially the two large sleep- 
ing-halls formerly occupied by the Reformatory boys. 

Though these and other changes have increased the amount 
of labor required of remaining officers, and in some instances 
interfered with the order and quiet of the inmates for a time, 
no serious evil has resulted therefrom. 

This work has progressed as rapidly as the circumstances 
would permit ; and, wherever any further union of labor can 
be made without detriment to the institution, it will be 
cheerfully accomplished. 

In the same interest of economy, not only have departments 
been united, and the salary and board of many officers saved, 
but the wages of all, with one or two exceptions, have been 
reduced. 

The official duties of treasurer, one-half the expense of the 
chaplain, a considerable part of the work formerly attended 
to by the assistant superintendent, now devolves upon this 
office, saving to the State in this one officer $1,110.00. The 
reduction in the amount paid for "salaries and labor" is 
$7,352. The whole sum expended for the school in 1878 
was $63,687.55. The amount appropriated in 1879 was $55,- 
875. Deducting the sum paid into the State treasury, viz., 
$8,988.07, as the earnings of the institution for the year end- 
ing Oct. 1, 1880, the actual expense to the State the past 
year has been $40,197.87. This makes the net per capita 
cost $194.30 a year, or $3.73 a week. It would reduce it 
somewhat, if we should deduct from this expenditure the 
cost of coal-house and other permanent fixtures. 

The appropriation for this legislative year is $46,000. Up 
to the present time $30,364.76 have been used. If the same 
ratio of expense should continue for the remaining three 
months, there would be a balance of between five and six 
thousand dollars to be returned to the State. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 67 

While we make this exhibit we see some 

Dangers in this Direction to be avoided. 

Judicious economy should be earnestly sought in every 
department ; yet there is danger of crowding so much work 
upon men employed three hundred and sixty-five days in the 
year, under the pressure of almost ceaseless anxiety, that 
good officers will be driven from their position, and new and 
inexperienced men will have to take their place, often to 
make an entire failure after a short trial. So many changes 
have been necessitated here the past season, that many boys 
have taken advantage of the fact, and as a result we have 
had more than our usual number of successful escapes, though 
doubtless many of them will be gathered up as cold weather 
comes on. We cannot expect that new men, with little or 
no knowledge of this class of boys, will exercise the same 
watchfulness and care as the one who has grown cautious 
and sharp through personal oversight and experience. 

It is wise, in this matter, to " make haste" with caution, 
if not " slowly," as the old proverb hath it. 

Discipline. 

It has been the constant aim of the administration to 
educate those placed in this Reform School to appreciate and 
act upon the principle that well-doing secures not only 
universal approbation, but freedom from punitive regula- 
tions. Hence a system of discipline which subdues passion, 
convinces the conscience, and secures the acknowledgment 
of wrong done and efforts for a better life, has taken the 
precedence over merely coercive expedients. While superior 
physical force may compel submission, and personal fear 
hold the wayward one in check for the time being, they 
produce no permanent reform. Remove the pressure, and 
the old habit, intensified by revengeful passion, breaks out 
with redoubled force. Therefore we have relied more upon 
direct personal effort, and the power of a sympathetic, kind, 
and firm hold upon mind and heart, than upon the infliction 
of physical pain or protracted confinement. In fact, chas- 
tisement is well-nigh a relic of the past. I do not say that 
no age, or disposition, or circumstances, can ever justify such 
a resort ; for that would not be wise or true. There are 



68 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 

exceptions to every general rule. But I do say : secure the 
conscience and the heart of the child, and a good foundation 
for the work of reform has been laid, and any thing besides 
this is only temporary. 

The conviction of each boy that the length of his stay 
here depends upon himself; that good conduct advances, and 
bad conduct retards, the time of his release ; that obedience 
and a right course of behavior secures favors, and an opposite 
one subjects him to suspicion and discipline, — and you have 
an ever-present motive pressing its claims upon the mind of 
the boy. 

I know this idea is not popular with those who find it less 
irksome to throw a disobedient boy into a cell, or to subject 
him to a severe chastisement, and then leave him to his own 
reflections, or turn him loose with body and mind smarting 
under this summary disposal of his case. I know this 
personal effort with the wayward and stubborn child is a tax 
upon time and patience ; but if you can save him, and make 
an industrious, virtuous, and kind-hearted son and brother 
and worthy man of him, it certainly is time and patience 
well employed. If you fail, you will ever have his conscience 
on your side, and the conviction that you have firmly and 
kindly done your duty. 

Such has been our earnest purpose ; and that such efforts 
have not been entirely fruitless, the general spirit and con- 
duct of the boys, as well as the rejDorts from one hundred 
and seventy-nine released on probation, plainly show. Out 
of this number one hundred and fifty-six have been spoken 
of as doing well, working steadily, and earning very good 
pay. Twelve were reported as doing " poorly," and eleven 
decidedly bad. 

A false impression is often made on the public mind by the 
notoriety given to the few who pursue a criminal life after 
their release, while the many who return to their homes, or 
are bound out and do well, are lost sight of. The reports of 
the Visiting Agency show a more reliable and satisfactory 
result. 

Improvements. 

The idea of making the whole institution as homelike as 
possible has led to many important changes. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 69 

Boys committed to the school may be divided, according 
to temperament and character, into three classes. The first 
are comparatively mild-tempered and well-disposed, but have 
been enticed into some indiscretion or criminal act by others. 
Such are at once placed in the Trust-Houses, and come 
immediately under the social and elevating influence of a 
well-regulated family. There are no prison surroundings. 
It is a remarkable fact, that these boys seldom ever attempt 
to escape, but become the best inmates of the family. 

The second class are more advanced in evil-doing, and need 
more restraint and supervision. They are placed in the 
Reformatory division. The third are older, for the most 
part, and are better fitted for the labor of the blacksmith, 
sleigh, and paint shops. They are at once placed in the 
Industrial Department. This division is not based upon 
grades, as formerly, but upon personal characteristics which 
naturally fit them for these places and the kind of labor 
there required. 

Again, the long prison-like tables in the boys' dining-room 
have been divided and changed about, so that six boys sit at 
each table ; and the tin-ware heretofore used has been 
exchanged for neat and suitable crockery. 

The luxuries of the farm, such as asparagus, strawberries, 
grapes, melons, apples, &c, have been freely distributed to 
the entire school. Pure and unskimmed milk has been 
given them for their coffee in the morning, and for their 
evening meal. And no pains have been spared, by social 
entertainments and otherwise, to make their lives as pleasant 
as possible while remaining in the institution. 

Improvements in the buildings and surroundings have not 
been overlooked. A very essential and useful coal-shed, one 
hundred feet long and twenty-four feet wide, has been built 
at the " State Farm Station." This will enable us to transfer 
the large amount of coal needed at the institution, at a time 
when the men and teams are at leisure, and save much waste 
and expense in the transportation. The ice-house has been 
shingled, the horse-barn and shed repaired, and such other 
minor improvements made as have been deemed necessary 
from time to time. 

The locks in the new sleeping-hall have been so altered 
that all the doors on each corridor can be thrown open in a 
moment, and every boy released in case of danger. 



70 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



The Industries of the School. 

The major part of the work in the various requirements 
of housekeeping has been performed by the boys under the 
supervision of their respective officers. The entire clothing 
of the school, together with other sewing for the need of the 
institution, numbering over 14,000 articles made and repaired, 
has been attended to in our sewing-room. About 89,000 
pieces have been washed and ironed in the laundry ; 541 
pairs of shoes have been made, and 1,046 repaired ; about 
32,000 chair-seats have been caned. The work in the sleigh 
and paint shops has progressed steadily and successfully ; 
and, although the blacksmith-shop was closed for a time on 
account of the resignation of Mr. C. B. Adams, it is now 
accomplishing all we can wish. 

About 300 sleighs have been completed, and 145 are nearly 
finished, and will be ready for sale when the season opens. 

These various industries have gone forward without any 
serious interruption. The few cases of disorder requiring 
notice have been for comparatively mild offences, involving 
no one beside the individual reproved. The general aspect 
of these rooms for labor has not differed materially from 
similar toil by paid employees. 

The boys in the Trust- Ho uses have worked in their own 
shops during the inclement season, and on the farm in all 
suitable weather. The labor performed by these families, 
both as to character and amount, deserves special commen- 
dation. In this connection we may properly speak of 

Farm Labor and Farm Products. 

One of the most important factors in the problem of juve- 
nile reform is the well-managed farm. 

The absence of physical restraints, and the constant press- 
ure of personal oversight, the stimulus of steady progress 
in the growth of crops, in cleanliness of soil, in neatness and 
perfectness of culture, have a marvellous tendency to edu- 
cate in the right direction both mind and habits of life. 

A field of plants, with the rows as straight as a line can be 
drawn, with no unsightly weeds, daily pushing on towards 
perfection, is a constant reminder of what each boy has to 
do for mind, heart, and character. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 71 

It was in view of this fact that we were led to give unusual 
prominence to farm operations the past season ; and I think 
I may truthfully say, with very gratifying results, both as to 
the improvement of the boys and the increased products of 
the soil. 

Especial pains have been taken to cultivate such crops as 
would most profitably employ the labor of children and youth, 
and so follow each other as to furnish work for the entire 
season. 

It is no easy matter to arrange a succession of vegetable 
growth, and adjust the amount to be cared for to the hands 
employed, so as to have just enough to do, and all neatly and 
thoroughly attended to and judiciously marketed or consumed. 
This has been the aim so far as the labor of the Trust-Houses 
has been employed. At the same time the roads and walks 
have been kept in good repair ; the lawns and flower-gardens 
have afforded a constant source of pleasure both to visitors 
and to ourselves. From early spring to late autumn the 
market and our own tables have been supplied with a series 
of farm products ; 2,666 bunches of asparagus were sent to 
market, — besides the large amount consumed at home, — 
bringing in $310.73. 

4,622 quart boxes of strawberries were gathered from the 
vines planted last year, which, after supplying our own 
tables and giving the boys a liberal feast, sold for 1452.65. 
Nearly three acres have been set for the next season. About 
nine hundred bushels of onions have been finely harvested, 
which sell for a dollar a bushel delivered, three tons of 
superior marrowfat squashes, and large quantities of beets, 
carrots, turnips, cabbages, potatoes, and nearly ten acres of 
corn, each of which have amply repaid the clean and thor- 
ough culture bestowed upon them. 

While the crops of the season have engrossed so much 
attention, farm improvements have not been neglected. 

Shade-trees have been set along the entire line of the farm 
on the main road, and securely protected by stakes and straps, 
and the ground enriched with compost about each tree. 

An unsightly and unproductive marsh, in full view of all 
who visit or pass the institution, has been drained, covered 
with soil, enriched, and seeded down, so as to give us two 
heavy crops of grass a season and of fine quality. The brush 



72 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 

in pastures is being removed, and old pasture-land rejuvenated 
by culture and a liberal supply of compost. A large quan- 
tity of absorbents has been deposited in the cesspools and 
wherever they can be utilized,* which will supply a bountiful 
harvest of plant-food for the next year. The saving of this 
great institution waste is an important item in our farm his- 
tory. 

In the special attention given to the culture of crops, other 
departments of farm husbandry have not been overlooked 
The herd of cattle has been improved by fattening the least 
valuable, and the selection and purchase of extra milk stock. 
The attention paid to the increased supply of green food 
by raising two soiling-crops in one season from the same 
piece of land has greatly augmented our supply of milk, and 
left our herd in a far better condition for winter service. As 
good milk enters so largely into our " bill of fare," this de- 
partment of the farm is one of especial importance. I am 
gratified by the interest awakened in this direction. 

Neither should I overlook the piggery in this connection. 
The sales from this essential requirement of every good farm 
have been confined to the young stock. They amount to 
1327.45. The large amount of pork fattened here is mostly 
consumed in the institution. This is still further -worthy of 
notice as the source of a considerable proportion of our 
compost for increasing farm products. 

One most marked and pleasing feature of farm work this 
season has been the manifest improvement in the methods of 
culture. This has not only secured the most remunerative 
crops, but has delighted the eye, and educated the boy to the 
idea of doing every thing in the best possible manner. 

The plaudit of " well done " has not only been sought as 
the fruit of moral training, but also in this branch of youth- 
ful toil. The commendations of visitors must have been 
especially gratifying to those who have manifested such a 
laudable pride in this work. 

For more specific notice of our hay-crop, fruit, and vege- 
tables, I must refer you to the tabular statement which 
accompanies this report. 

Health of the Inmates. 
It is a matter for profound thanksgiving that the founders 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 73 

of this Reform School were led to select this particular 
location for the experiment. The pure air, the abundance 
of water, the splendid drainage, the pleasant surroundings, 
all conspire to impart vigor and freedom from disease to the 
physical system. The particular attention paid to cleanliness 
of person, to sufficient and nutritious food, to regular habits 
of labor, recreation, and rest ; the constant use of disin- 
fectants where offensive odors are likely to generate ; and the 
close scrutiny and faithful attention of the hospital-physician 
to all matters pertaining to the sanitary welfare of the 
institution, — have secured to us, under a favoring Providence, 
our entire freedom from any protracted disease the past year. 
The one case of fatal sickness, and the slight and tempo- 
rary illness of others, are fully noticed under the " Physician's 
Report." 

Educational Interests. 

These are by no means confined to our six schools, which 
have not differed materially from those maintained the last 
year. The selection of a valuable assortment of instructive 
and entertaining books, and of a number of deservedly popular 
magazines by your committee, have awakened a new interest 
in reading among the older boys, and have done much toward 
improving their minds. 

Popular lectures and familiar talks on practical and scien- 
tific topics have aided in this work. Especial attention has 
been given to writing, drawing, and music, while the usual 
branches taught to this class of pupils have not been 
neglected. There being no vacations in these schools, it will 
be seen that those who wish to improve have as good a 
chance to gain knowledge as they would be likely to have at 
their own homes. 

Commendable improvement has been made by most of the 
scholars, and but a few have shown a positive disinclination 
to apply themselves to the work of the schoolroom. 

It is a happy thought, that many of this class gain here, in 
this mental training, what they never would have known if 
they had pursued their own chosen way of idleness and 
truancy. 



74 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



Moral and Religious Instruction. 

While the physical, educational, and industrial welfare of 
the youth committed to this school have been so well pro- 
vided for, their moral and religious training has not been 
overlooked. 

In addition to the usual sabbath and chapel service, all 
such boys as have been disposed have assembled in accord- 
ance with the wish of Rev. Father Chronin for catechetical 
instruction on the weekday, and once in two weeks for their 
usual service on sabbath morn. These general exercises have 
been supplemented with private efforts to instruct and guide 
in the paths of virtue and truth. It is to be hoped that this 
labor has not been wholly in vain, but that the future life of 
many a boy may prove that much good seed has been sown. 

General Review. 

In looking over the entire work of the past year, I think 
we may congratulate ourselves that some progress has been 
made in the right direction. While it is true that not all has 
been accomplished in this work that we could desire, yet the 
general quiet of the school, the cheerful spirit, and the 
absence of any combined manifestation of sympathy with 
wrong-doing, has been very gratifying. 

I would also, in this connection, express my thanks to 
those friends who have generously supplied us with reading- 
matter : the " Essex County Mercury," " Salem Register," 
" Woburn Advertiser," " Dumb Animals," and fc< West- 
borough Chronotype." 

Respectfully submitted. 

L. H. SHELDON, Superintendent. 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No, 18. 



75 



STATISTICS. 



Table No. 1. 

Showing the Number received and discharged, and General Condition of 
the School, for the Year ending Sept. 30, 1880. 



222 



in school Sept. 30, 1879 


. 


ived — Since committed ...... 


. 95 


Re-committed 


5 


Returned by institution officers 


15 


Returned by police 


8 


Returned by parents 


5 


Returned voluntarily ..... 


2 


Returned by Superintendent of In-door Poor 


1 



131 



Whole number in school during the year 



353 



Discharged — On probation . 79 

On trial 32 

To seek employment ...... 5 

To almshouse ....... 2 

To State Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity, 1 

Eloped (seventeen of whom have been returned),* 38 



Died. 

Expiration of sentence 



1 
1 
— 159 



Remaining in school Sept. 30, 1880 



194 



* Since this report was written, two more boys have been returned. 



76 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



Table No. 2. 

Showing the Admissions, Number discharged, and Average Number of each 

Month. 









MONTHS. Admitted 


Discharged. 


Number. 


1879. 








October 




8 


5 


223.32 


November . 




12 


7 


225.60 


December . 




7 


20 


221.67 


1880 










January . 




7 


10 


215.09 


February 














11 


/ 


216.10 


March 














10 


23 


209.64 


April 














14 


19 


205.13 


May . 














12 


31 


195.45 


June . 














14 


5 


186 10 


July . 














15 


11 


193.19 


August 














15 


14 


197 45 


September 












6 


7 


193.86 




131 


159 


206.88 










T^ 


BLE 


N 


"o. 3. 







Showing the Commitments from the several Counties the past Year and 

previously. 



COUNTIES. 


Past Year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


Barnstable ..... 


3 


41 


44 


Berkshire . 












- 


193 


193 


Bristol 












12 


416 


428 


Dukes 












- 


5 


5 


Essex 












13 


849 


862 


Franklin . 












- 


46 


46 


Hampden . 
Hampshire 
Middlesex . 












16 
12 


274 

68 
852 


290 

68 

864 


Nantucket 












- 


16 


16 


Norfolk . 












1 


908 


909 


Plymouth . 
Suffolk . 












4 
14 


85 
1,095 


89 
1.109 


Worcester . 












20 


563 


583 














95 


5,411 


5,506 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



77 



Table No. 4. 

Showing the Disposal of those discharged the past Year and previously. 



DISPOSAL. 


Past Year. 


Previously 


Totals. 


Sent to Eye Infirmary .... 




1 


1 


Discharged by Board of Trustees 


- 


635 


635 


Discharged by expiration of sentence . 


1 


326 


327 


Remanded to alternative sentence 


- 


134 


134 


Returned to masters ..... 


- 


21 


21 


Discharged by order of court 


- 


11 


11 


Committed to State Lunatic Hospital at 








Worcester ...... 


_ 


3 


3 


Discharged to be tried for burning the insti- 








tution ....... 


- 


7 


7 


Sentenced to House of Correction at Worces- 








ter ........ 


_ 


18 


18 


Discharged to enter navy ... 


_ 


3 


3 


Released to go to sea ..... 


_ 


2 


2 


Released to enlist in army .... 


_ 


4 


4 


Released to State Board of Health, Lunacy, 








and Charity ...... 


1 


_ 


1 


Pardoned by the executive .... 


_ 


6 


6 


Delivered to Overseers of Poor . 


_ 


5 


5 


Released on probation to relatives 


79 


1,428 


1,507 


Transferred to Nautical School . 


_ 


185 


185 


Transferred to Bridgewater State Work- 








house ....... 


_ 


16 


16 


Transferred to Monson Primary School 


_ 


32 


32 


Transferred to Tewksbury Almshouse 


2 


_ 


o 


Eloped . . . ' . 


38 


296 


334 


Permitted to go home, and did not return . 


_ 


1 


1 


On trial to farmers and other persons . 


32 


610 


642 


To seek employment . 




5 


24 


29 


Died 




1 


76 


77 


Indentured to Barbers 




_ 


25 


25 


Blacksmiths . 




_ 


20 


20 


Boiler-makers 




_ 


2 


2 


Bookbinders 




_ 


2 


2 


Brass-founders 




_ 


2 


2 


Brick-maker . 




_ 


1 


1 


Broom-maker 




_ 


1 


1 


Butchers 




__ 


7 


7 


Cabinet-makers . 




_ 


12 


12 


Calico-printers 




_ 


2 


2 


Carpenters . 




_ 


11 


11 


Caterer 




_ 


1 


1 


Cigar-maker 




_ 


1 


1 


Clergyman . 




- 


1 


1 


Clerks . 




_ 


14 


14 


Comb-makers 




„ 


5 


5 


Coopers 




_ 


10 


10 


Cotton-manufacturers . 




_ 


10 


10 


Daguerreotypist . 




- 


1 


1 


Engineer 




*~ 


1 


1 



78 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. 

Table No. 4 — Continued. 



[Oct. 



DISPOSAL. 


Past Year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


Indentured to Engraver .... 




1 


1 


Farmers and gardeners 


- 


953 


953 


Farmers and shoemakers 


- 


90 


90 


File-makers .... 


- 


2 


2 


Fresco-cleaner 




- 


1 


1 


Glass-blower 




- 


1 


1 


Gun and lock smith 




- 


1 


1 


Harness-makers . 




- 


7 


7 


Hotel-keeper 




- 


1 


1 


Japanner 




- 


1 


1 


Jewellers 




- 


3 


3 


Lumber-dealer 




- 


1 


1 


Machine-card maker 




- 


1 


1 


Machinists . 




- 


22 


22 


Marble-workers . 




- 


4 


4 


Mahogany-chair makers 


. 


- 


2 


2 


Masons 




- 


21 


21 


Merchants 




- 


8 


8 


Millers . 




- 


3 


3 


Moulders 




- 


7 


7 


Mule-spinner 




- 


1 


1 


Nail- cutter . 




- 


1 


1 


Pail-maker . 




- 


1 


1 


Painters 




- 


21 


21 


Paper-hangers 




- 


2 


2 


Pianoforte-maker . 




- 


1 


1 


Plumbers 




- 


3 


3 


Pocket-book maker 




- 


1 


1 


Printers 




- 


7 


7 


Prussian-blue manufacturer . 


- 


1 


1 


Pump and block maker 


- 


1 


1 


Reed and harness maker 


- 


1 


1 


Rigger .... 


- 


1 


1 


Rope-makers 




- 


2 


2 


Sail-makers . 




- 


4 


4 


Saw-maker . 




- 


1 


1 


School, &c, attend 




- 


188 


188 


Sea-captains. 




- 


15 


15 


Ship-carpenters and 


boat- 








builders 




- 


6 


6 


Shoe- tool makers . 




- 


3 


3 


Silver-platers 




- 


7 


7 


Sleigh-maker 




- 


1 


1 


Soap and candle maker 




- 


1 


1 


Spoon-makers 




- 


2 


2 


Stone-cutters 




- 


7 


7 


Shoemakers . 




- 


• 532 


532 


Stereotypers . 




- 


9 


9 


Tack-makers 




- 


2 


2 


Tailors . 




- 


2 


2 


Tanners and curriers 




- 


19 


19 


Teamsters 




- 


3 


3 


Tin and copper smiths 




— 


6 


6 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 

Table No. 4 — Concluded. 



79 



DISPOSAL. 


Past Year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


Indentured to Trunk-makers 
Upholsterer . 
Veneer-sawyer 
Wheelwrights 
Wire- worker 
Wood-turners 
Woollen-weavers 








- 


4 
1 
1 
14 
1 
2 
3 


4 
1 
1 
14 
1 
2 
3 


Totals ....... 


159 


5,981 


6,140 



Table No. 5. 

Showing the Length of Time the Boys have been in the Institution who left the 
past Year, and since Nov. 30, 1853. 



TIME. 


Past Year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


In school less than one month 


3 


5 


8 


1 month 








2 


29 


31 


2 months 












4 


53 


57 


3 " 












3 


44 


47 


4 " 












2 


47 


49 


5 " 












4 


55 


59 


6 " 












3 


71 


74 


7 " 












2 


71 


73 


8 " 












2 


88 


90 


9 " 












4 


108 


112 


10 " 












4 


225 


229 


11 " 












4 


121 


125 


12 " 












9 


138 


147 


13 " 












6 


115 


121 


14 » 












11 


127 


138 


15 » 












10 


120 


130 


16 " 












13 


167 


180 


17 " 












9 


141 


150 


18 « 












9 


124 


133 


19 " 












6 


114 


120 


20 " 












4 


135 


139 


21 " 












5 


134 


139 


22 " 












3 


205 


208 


23 " 












3 


133 


136 


24 « 












3 


205 


208 


25 " 












6 


129 


135 


26 " 












4 


115 


119 


27 " 












1 


90 


91 


28 " 












3 


81 


84 


29 " 












3 


78 


81 


30 " 












3 


125 


128 


31 " 












— 


81 


81 



80 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 

Table No. 5 — Continued. 



TIME. 


Past Year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


In school 32 months ..... 


2 


86 


88 


33 " 










1 


80 


81 


34 " 










. - 


121 


121 


35 " 










_ 


73 


73 


36 " 










- 


134 


134 


37 " 










2 


67 


69 


38 " 










- 


59 


59 


39 " 










1 


40 


41 


40 " 










- 


58 


58 


41 " 










1 


62 


63 


42 " 










1 


56 


57 


43 " 










1 


38 


39 


44 " 










1 


49 


50 


45 " 










- 


43 


43 


46 " 










- 


54 


54 


47 " 










- 


46 


46 


48 " 










- 


63 


63 


49 " 










_ 


43 


43 


50 " 










_ 


25 


25 


51 " 










- 


32 


32 


52 " 










_ 


25 


25 


53 " 










- 


33 


33 


51 " 










_ 


23 


23 


55 " 










- 


20 


20 


56 " 










- 


42 


42 


57 " 










- 


27 


27 


58 « 










- 


27 


27 


59 ',< 










_ 


28 


28 


60 " 










- 


19 


19 


61 " 










_ 


14 


14 


62 " 










_ 


21 


21 


63 " 










_ 


12 


12 


64 " 










_ 


19 


19 


65 " 










- 


16 


16 


66 " 










- 


11 


11 


67 " 










- 


9 


9 


68 " 










- 


11 


11 


69 " 










_ 


16 


16 


70 " 










- 


11 


11 


71 " 










- 


13 


13 


72 " 










_ 


15 


15 


73 « 










- 


11 


11 


74 " 










- 


' 6 


6 


75 " 










_ 


6 


6 


76 " 










- 


8 


8 


77 " 










- 


4 


4 


78 " 










- 


6 


6 


79 " 










- 


8 


8 


80 " 










- 


7 


7 


81 " 










_ 


6 


6 


82 " . . 










_ 


2 


2 


83 " 










- 


2 


2 


84 " . 










~ 


3 


3 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



81 





r 


rABLE NO 


. 5 — 


-Con 


cl 


uded. 






TIME. 


Past Year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


In school 85 months 




1 


1 


86 














_ 


4 


4 


87 














_ 


4 


4 


88 














_ 


1 


1 


89 














_ 


4 


4 


90 














_ 


4 


4 


91 














_ 


2 


2 


92 














1 


1 


2 


93 














_ 


1 


1 


94 














_ 


1 


1 


95 














_ 


1 


1 


96 














._ 


6 


6 


97 














_ 


1 


1 


98 














_ 


2 


2 


102 














_ 


1 


1 


104 














_ 


2 


2 


107 














_ 


3 


3 


110 " 












- 


1 


1 
















159 


5,224 


5,383 



Table No. 6, 

Showing by what Authority the Commitments have been made the past Year. 



COMMITMENTS. 



Past Year. 



By State Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity 
Police Court 
District Court 
Trial Justice 
Municipal Court 
Superior Court . 



7 
34 
25 
15 
10 

4 

95 



82 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



Table No. 7. 
Shoiving the Nativity of those committed the past Year and previously. 



NATIVITY. 


Past Year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


Australia .... 




1 


1 


Canada 














5 


54 


59 


England 














3 


104 


107 


France 


. 












- 


1 


1 


Germany 














1 


5 


6 


Ireland 














7 


471 


478 


Italy . 














- 


4 


4 


Mexico 


, 












- 


1 


1 


New Brunsw 


ick . 












1 


71 


72 


Newfoundland 












- 


6 


6 


Nova Scotia 












1 


47 


48 


Prince Edward Island 












_ 


1 


1 


Portugal 












- 


1 


1 


Scotland 












1 


15 


16 


Switzerland . 












_ 


1 


1 


Wales .... 












_ ■ 


4 


4 


West Indies 












1 


2 


3 


Total foreign 


20 


789 


809 


Atlantic Ocean . 












_ 


1 


1 


California . 












- 


4 


4 


Connecticut 












1 


74 


75 


District of Columbia 












— 


6 


6 


Georgia 












- 


3 


3 


Illinois 












- 


11 


11 


Kentucky . 












- 


2 


2 


Louisiana . 












_ 


8 


8 


Maine .... 












2 


140 


142 


Massachusetts 












61 


3,342 


3,403 


Michigan 












_ 


4 


4 


Minnesota . 












- 


1 


1 


Missouri 












- 


1 


1 


New Hampshire . 












3 


122 


125 


New Jersey . 












1 


15 


16 


New York . 












4 


177 


181 


North Carolina . 












- 


2 


2 


Ohio . 












- 


1 


1 


Pennsylvania 












- 


18 


18 


Rhode Island 












2 


56 


58 


South Carolina . 












_ 


2 


2 


Tennessee . 












- 


1 


1 


Vermont 












- 


56 


56 


Virginia 












_ 


15 


15 


Wisconsin . 












- 


4 


4 


Unknown . 












1 


8 


9 


Total American 


/ 75 


4,074 


4,149 


Foreigners . 












20 


789 


809 


Total A 


merican ar 


id for 


eigne 


rs 






95 


4,863 


4,958 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



83 



Table No. 8. 
Showing the Nativity of Parents of Boys committed the past Year. 





NATIVITY. Fathers. 


Mothers. 


Canada 


5 


5 


England 


7 


4 


France 


— 


1 


Germany . 


1 


1 


Ireland 


45 


49 


New Brunswick 


1 


1 


Nova Scotia 





1 


Portugal . 


1 


- 


Scotland . 


2 


1 


West Indies 





1 


Total foreig 


n '. . 62 


64 


Georgia 


- 


1 


Massachusetts 


15 


15 


Maine 


3 


4 


Michigan . 


1 


- 


New Hampshire 


2 


3 


Rhode Island 


2 


- 


United States 


1 


1 


Vermont . 


1 


- 


Total Amen 


can ....... 25 


24 


Total foreig 


n 62 


64 


Unknown . 


8 


7 


Total Amen 


can and foreign . . . . 95 


95 



Table No. 9. 

Shotting the Age of Boys when committed. 



AGE. 



Previously. 



Six years 

Seven years . 

Eight years . 

Nine years . 

Ten years . 

Eleven years 

Twelve years 

Thirteen years 

Fourteen years 

Fifteen years 

Sixteen years 

Seventeen years . 

Eighteen years and upward 

Unknown 

Total . 



2 

2 

4 

16 

8 

18 

23 

18 

2 



95 



5 

25 

116 

229 

430 

604 

627 

719 

864 

743 

794 

258 

56 

23 



5,493 



5 

25 

116 

231 

432 

608 

643 

727 

882 

766 

812 

260 

56 

25 



5,588 



Average age past year, 13 years 11 months 10 days. 



84 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



Table No. 10. 

Showing the Domestic Condition, 8fc, of Boys committed during the Year. 



CONDITION. 



Number. 



Had no parents .... 

no father 

no mother .... 

step-father .... 

step-mother .... 

intemperate father . 

intemperate mother . 

parents separated 

been arrested before . 

been inmates of other institutions 

other members of family arrested 

used ardent spirits . 

used tobacco .... 

Catholic parents 

Protestant parents . 



7 
29 
10 

9 

7 
39 
13 

6 
74 
25 
44 
21 
50 
63 
32 



Table No. 11. 

Occupation of the Fathers of Boys sent here during the Year, as near as can 

be ascertained. 



BUSINESS. 


Number. 


BUSINESS. 


Number. 


Baker .... 


1 


Morocco-dresser 


1 


Blacksmith 






2 


Painter .... 


2 


Bricklayer 






1 


Paper-hanger 




Cigar-maker . 






1 


Paper-maker . 




Clerk 






1 


Peddler. 




Drain-pipe maker 






1 


Physician 




Dyer 






2 


Puddler 




Farmer . 






2 


Sailor .... 




Fireman . 






1 


Sewing-machine agent . 




Fisherman 






1 


Shoemaker 




Grocer 






2 


Slater .... 




Horse-car driver 






1 


Teamster 




Junk-dealer 






1 


Ticket agent . 




Laborer . 






22 


Deceased 


29 


Liquor-dealer . 






1 








Mason 






2 


Total 


95 


Mill-hand 






4 







1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



Table No. 12. 

Number of different Toions lived in by Boys received the past Year. 



TOWNS. 


Boys. 


TOWNS. 


Boys. 


1 




25 


7 . 


1 


2 


. 


28 


10 


2 


3 


* 


22 


Unknown 


3 


4 

5 




6 
6 








Total . 


95 


6 




2 







Table No. 13. 

Number of different Tenements lived in by Boys received during the past Year. 



TENEMENTS. 


Boys. 


TENEMENTS. 


Boys. 


1 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 












7 
7 

20 

12 

11 

6 

3 


8 

9 

10 and upwards 
Unknown 

Total 


4 
2 

19 
4 


95 



Table No. 14. 

Amount of Rents paid by Parents of the Boys received during the past Year, 
as near as can be ascertained. 



AMOUNT PER MONTH. 


Boys' 


AMOUNT PER MONTH. 


Boys' 




Parents. 


1 


Parents. 


$1 67 . 


2 


$9 00 . 


2 


2 00 










2 


10 00 . 


7 


2 50 










1 


11 50 . 


1 


3 50 










1 


16 00 . 


1 


4 00 










5 


30 00 . 


1 


4 50 










3 


Boarding 


5 


5 00 










9 


Own their house . 


21 


6 00 










5 


Unknown 


8 


6 50 










1 


Dead .... 


5 


7 00 










7 
8 






8 00 










Total . 


95 



REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



Table No. 15. 

Showing for what those received during the past Year were committed. 



CAUSES. 



Number of 
Boys. 



Assault 

Assault and battery . 
Attempt to steal 
Breaking and entering 
Breaking, entering, and larceny 
Disobedience- .... 
Disorderly conduct . 
Drunkenness . 
Embezzlement .... 
Incorrigibility .... 
Larceny ..... 

Robbery 

Stubbornness .... 
Stubbornness and disobedience 

Trespass 

Vagrancy .... 



2 
1 
1 
o 
8 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

42 
2 

28 
1 
1 
o 



95 



Table No. 16. 
Showing the Average Employment of Boys during the Year. 



Employed farming and gardening .... 

seating chairs 

making shoes 

in sewing-room ..... 

in laundry ...... 

in baking, cooking, and care of dining-room 
in domestic work ..... 

at the steam-mill . ' . 

at miscellaneous work .... 

in halls and yard ..... 

in paint-shop ...... 

in sleigh-shop ...... 

in blacksmith-shop 

Total 



40 

56 
2 

17 
7 
8 

28 
1 

11 
9 
8 

14 
5 

206 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMEN* 



No. 18. 



87 



Table No. 17. 
Showing the amount of Work done in the Workrooms. 



In the Chair-shops. 
Number of chairs seated . 



In the Laundry. 
Number of articles washed and ironed 



31,405 



95,937 



In the Shoe-shop. 




Number of pairs shoes made ....... 


537 


Number of pairs shoes repaired 


1,046 


Number of pairs shoes stitched ...... 


50 


Number of suspender-leathers cut ...... 


215 


Number of pieces harness repaired ...... 


3 



In the Sewing-room. 



AETICLES. 


Made. 


Repaired. 


Aprons ......... 


85 


28 


Blankets . 
















- 


59 


Bed-ticks . 
















_ 


355 


Buffalo-robes 
















_ 





Caps . 
















139 


- 


Curtains 
















5 


— 


Frocks 
















2 


_ 


Holders 
















143 


_ 


Jumpers . . 
















8 


35 


Jackets 
















116 


725 


Mattresses, remade 
















40 


_ 


Mat tress -ticks . 
















5 


_ 


Mittens, pairs 
















70 


_ 


Overalls 
















19 


42 


Pants, pairs 
















334 


1,709 


Pillows, remade 
















302 


_ 


Pillow-cases 
















116 


38 


Pillow-ticks 
















2 


70 


Quilts 
















- 


35 


Stockings, pairs 
















430 


4,927 


Shirts 
















652 


3,508 


Suspenders, pairs 
















332 


- 


Sheets 
















33 


129 


Spreads 
















1 


15 


Towels 
















131 


271 


Table-cloths 
















3 


8 



88 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



HOSPITAL DEPARTMENT, 



To the Board of Trustees. 

The sanitary condition of this institution is satisfactory in 
every respect. The dietary is better than ever before, having 
been improved the past year by a more abundant supply of 
milk for table-use, and by an increased daily allowance of 
food, as recommended in my last annual report, to inmates 
under discipline. The general physical appearance of the 
boys is one of good health and vigorous activity. Our con- 
tinued freedom from epidemic disease, and from all the se- 
verer forms of acute sickness, clearly points to sound hygienic 
rules and regulations, and a proper regard for the laws of 
health in the routine of the school. 

The number of patients admitted to the hospital, whose 
ailments required their detention longer than twenty-four 
consecutive hours, is 168. The following are the diseases 
which have appeared during the year, and the number of 
patients treated for each : synovitis, 1 ; tonsillitis, 25 ; 
fractures, 8; indigestion, 22; rheumatism, 4; sprains, 20; 
scald, 1; colds, 7; abscess, 15; convulsions, 1; flesh-wounds, 
12 ; ophthalmia, 2 ; diabetes melitus, 1 ; febricula, 25 ; sca- 
bies, 2; croup, 1; anaemia, 2; conjunctivitis, 3; sores, 7; 
eczema, 3 ; epilepsy, 2 ; cholera morbus, 1 ; dislocation, 3. 
The case of diabetes was fatal. The deceased was Patrick 
Donovan, who died Feb. 7, aged 13 years. He was admitted 
from the Peters House only two days before his death. In the 
hospital records — a public book, in which are entered the 
names of patients, their diseases, and a detailed account of 
the treatment and peculiarities of the more important cases 
— the following is the entry concerning the Donovan boy : 
" Was called to visit Donovan Friday morning, Feb. 6. 
Found him in a dying condition, cold, and nearly pulseless. 
His mind was clear, and could answer questions intelligently. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 89 

Could not learn that he had received any injury. Learned 
that he had not been feeling well for several days, and was 
brought to the hospital late in the evening before visit. 
Cause of present condition not apparent. Left directions to 
keep him as warm as possible, and freely stimulated. After- 
noon visit found no apparent change. He continued to 
weaken through/out the following day, and died during the 
night, about forty-two hours after first visit. Patient never 
under treatment before, and learned but few facts before his 
death concerning his history or his complaints. No positive 
diagnosis could be made during life. Post-mortem was held 
twelve hours after death. Dr. Kenyon and officers of school 
present. Found right kidney markedly diseased, edematous, 
and disorganized. The appearance of kidney, with facts as- 
certained regarding the habits of deceased, led to the conclu- 
sion that he died of diabetes melitus ; and this conclusion was 
verified by subsequent examination of patient's urine, which 
had been obtained by the nurse before death. He was evi- 
dently a boy of feeble vitality, and hence sank suddenly and 
before the disease had progressed to its late and more char- 
acteristic stages." This transcript gives in brief the essential 
points of the case. The condition of the patient when brought 
to the hospital, his brief sickness, and the uncertainty as to 
the cause of death, at once suggested the propriety of an 
autopsy. Without it a definite diagnosis could not have 
been made, which, for obvious reasons, is a matter of great 
importance in institutions of this character, especially in 
instances of sudden death. 

The cases of fracture, of which there have been an unusual 
number the past year, have recovered without deformity or 
diminished usefulness of limb. 

Respectfully submitted. 

E. B. HARVEY, Physician. 

Westborough Reform School, 
Sept. 30, 1880. 



90 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



GARDEN HOUSE REPORT 



To the Trustees of the State Reform School. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — The following is respectfully 
submitted as the report of the Garden House for the year 
ending Sept. 30, 1880. At present we have twenty-three 
boys. Monthly average, during the year, twenty-six. Twen- 
ty boys have been released to the care of friends, or gone to 
homes provided for them. Twelve boys have been returned 
to the main building, a few of them to fill positions of trust, 
but more for further discipline. The health of the boys has 
been good. 

The boys have been employed as follows : — 

DAYS. 

Domestic work 1,770 

Farm work 2,062 

Roads and walks work ..... 223 

Miscellaneous work . . . . . . 1,969 

In chair-shop ....... 1,856 

At institution barn ...... 488 

Total 8,368 

CHAIRS CANED. 

"Diners" 1,687 

"Grecians" 1,748 

Total . . . 3,435 

Respectfully submitted. 

C. W. AINSWORTH, 

Master Garden House. 
Sept. 30, 1880. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 91 



PETEES HOUSE REPORT 



Westborough, Sept. 30, 1880. 
To the Trustees of the Slate Reform School. 

Gentlemen, — I respectfully submit the following report 
of " Peters House " for five months ending Sept. 30 : — 

Whole number of boys in house during five months . 26 

Average number 22 

Released 2 

Present number 24 

The labor performed by the boys has been as follows : — 

DATS. 

Miscellaneous work 6 

Domestic work ........ 627 

Farm work 1,282 

Work on roads . . . . . . . 218 

Work on lawn 334 

Chair-work 232 

Number of chairs caned, 409. 

Respectfully submitted. 

JAMES A. SMITH, Master. 



92 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



FARM HOUSE REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Reform School. 

Gentlemen, — I respectfully submit my third annual 
report of the Farm House family. 

The whole number of boys in this department during the 
year has been 67 ; average monthly number, 27i ; present 
number, 24 ; 23 have been indentured or sent to their homes ; 
4 have eloped, but 3 of them were quickly apprehended; 
and 5 have been returned to the main building. 

The boys have been employed four months eight hours 
per day, and the remainder of the year six hours ; and their 
labor may be summed up as follows : — 



Domestic work . 
Miscellaneous work 
Farm work 
Work on roads . 
Chair-work 



DATS. 

1,607 

462 

4,122 

51 

2,007 



Total 

Number of chairs caned, 3,063. 



8,249 



Respectfully submitted. 

GEO. W. MERRILL, Master. 

Farm House, Sept. 30, 1880. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 93 






FARMER'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Reform School. 

Gentlemen, — In presenting this report, there is special 
occasion to acknowledge that kind Providence which has 
ordered the seasons so favorably, and crowned our labor with 
such abundant success. With the single exception of grapes, 
the crops have all been good, and most of them unusually 
plentiful. 

The dairy has been much improved by disposing of the 
poorer cows for beef, and supplying their places with those 
which are better. 

The yield of hay, which at the first cropping was a little 
below the average, was about made up by the large second 
crop, which, supplemented with a large amount of corn-fodder, 
will furnish ample winter feed for our usual amount of stock. 

Special pains have been taken to save and utilize all the 
fertilizers that might improve the farm ; and a good quantity 
of muck has been secured and put into the cesspools and 
piggery. 

The piggery yields a double profit : first from sales, which 
have been very satisfactory, and hardly less — perhaps more 
— from the large amount of manure gathered from it. We 
have a good stock of hogs now on hand. 

Improvements have been continued in reclaiming meadow- 
land, and to a greater extent the past year than for several 
preceding years. More pasture-land, also, that had become 
overgrown with brush and moss, has been broken up, and 
planted with potatoes ; and on other portions brush has been 
mown. We were very fortunate in securing faithful men to 
work on the farm. 

It is due also to the masters of the Trust-Houses, and to the 
boys under their charge, to speak of the interest they have 
taken in the work assigned them, and the faithful manner in 



94 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 

which the labor has been performed ; and we would venture 
to suggest that it seems desirable, for the advantage of the 
boys and the institution, that the Trust-Houses should be kept 
full, thus giving as many boys as possible the privilege of 
learning farm work and of assisting in such labor as they are 
able to perform. 

Our more full and minute report will be found in the fol- 
lowing tables, which embrace the items and facts in relation 
to farm operations and products in the department of labor 
under my charge : viz., — 



Labor of Men. 

First quarter, ending Dec. 31, 1879, on farm . 
" u " " " for institution . 

Second quarter, ending March 31, 1880, on farm 
" " " " "for institution 

Third quarter, ending June 30, 1880, on farm . 
" " " " " for institution 

Fourth quarter, ending Sept. 30, 1880, on farm 

" " " " " for institution 



DATS. 

267 
96 

210 
65 



363 



275 



250 
30 



280 



276 
14 



Total 



- 290 
1,208 



Labor of Horses. 

First quarter on farm ........ 145 

" " for institution ....... 95 

Second quarter on farm . . . . . . . .75 

" " " " 40 

Third quarter on farm 225 

" " " << 35 

Fourth quarter on farm 230 

" " for institution 15 



Total 



240 
115 

260 

245 

860 



Labor of Oxen. 

First quarter on farm ........ 205 

" " for institution 12 



217 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



95 



Second quarter on farm . 
" " for institution 

Third quarter on farm 
" " for institution 

Fourth quarter on farm . 
' ' " for institution 



Total 



DATS. 

160 
15 

130 
20 

146 
5 



175 

150 

151 

693 



Produce Consumed. 




Milk. 




CANS. 


VALUE. 


In October, 1879 564 . 


. $141 00 


November, 1879 ... 456 . 


. 114 00 


December, 1879 .... 500 . 


. 125 00 


January, 1880 533 


. 133 25 


February, 1880 621 


. 155 25 


March, 1880 610 


. 152 50 


Six months' aggregate . . . 3,284 


. $821 00 


In April, 1880 ..... 699 


. $174 75 


May, 1880. ..... 659 . 


. 164 75 


June, 1880 ..... 614 . 


. 153 50 


July, 1880 "562 


. 140 50 


August, 1880 495 . 


. 123 75 


September, 1880 .... 447 . 


. Ill 75 


Six months' aggregate . . 3,476 


. $869 00 



The year's consumption of milk, 6,760 cans; value, $1,690. 



Beef. 



In October and November, 1879 
December, 1879 
January, 1880 
February, 1880 
March, 1880 
April, 1880 
May, 1880 . 
June, 1880 
July, 1880 . 
August, 1880 
September, 1880 

Total consumed 



POUNDS. 

None. 
1,188 
3,617 
1,500 

942 
2,687 
1,370 

583 
1,157 

662 

575 



14,281 



VALUE. 


$71 88 


239 80 


90 00 


59 45 


188 09 


95 90 


40 81 


75 20 


38 72 


34 50 



$934 75 



96 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



Pork. 









POUNDS 


October, 1879 . . . 1,360 


November, 1879 






. 3,990 


December, 1879 






. 3,600 


January, 1880 . 






. 4,965 


February, 1880 . 






. 1,080 


March, 1880 






. 2,260 


April, 1880 






. 760 


May, 1880 






. None. 


June, 1880 






. 100 


July, August, and September 


. None. 



Total amount pork 



.18,115 



Veal. 



In May, 1880 
June, 1880 

Total 
Value 



Lettuce . 
Asparagus 

Strawberries, 600 boxes 
Pears, 34 bushels 



881 60 
239 40 
216 00 
297 90 

65 85 
146 90 

45 60 

6 00 



Sundries for Quarter ending June 



Total 



,099 25 


POUNDS. 


162 


238 


400 


$40 35 


VALUE. 


86 00 


125 00 


70 00 


55 00 



$256 00 



Sundries for Quarter ending Sept. SO. 
Beans, 63 bushels $63 00 



Beets, 17 bushels 
Beet-greens, 13| bushels 



196 cabbages . 
712 melons 
Pie-plant, 100 pounds 
3,772 cucumbers 
Summer squashes, 187 dozen 
Tomatoes, 60 bushels 
Pease, 44f bushels . , . 
Potatoes, 155 bushels 
Plums, £ bushel 
Peppers, ^ bushel 
Apples, 36 bushels . 
Onions, 11 bushels . 
Grapes, 875 pounds . 
Cabbages, 95 heads . 



8 50 

3 20 

100 00 

20 00 

85 00 

7 00 

46 92 

28 00 

30.00 

65 00 

100 00 

2 00 

2 50 

30 00 

10 00 

25 65 

6 00 



Total 



. $632 77 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 97 

Products Sold. 
Quarter ending Dec. 31, 1879. 

VALUE. 

Pigs $107 20 

Onions 220 00 

Corn-fodder 60 00 

Cabbage and potatoes 137 84 

Total $525 04 

Second Quarter, ending March 31, 1880. 

Milk, 35 cans 8 05 

Pigs, January $14 00 

Pigs, February and March ..... - 

14 00 

Horse 25 00 

Vegetables, January $4 25 

Vegetables, February 6 85 

Vegetables, March 33 15 

44 25 

Third Quarter, ending June 30, 1880. 

Milk, 26 cans 5 70 

Pigs, April . $34 00 

Pigs, May . . . . . . . . 65 75 

Pigs, June 51 50 

151 25 

Sundries $7 75 

Asparagus, 290| dozen bunches .... 310 73 
Strawberries, 4,022 boxes . . . . . 452 65 

771 13 

Fourth Quarter, ending Sept. 30, 1880. 

Pigs, July $16 00 

Pigs, August 25 00 

Pigs, September 16 50 

57 50 

Sundries, July, August, and September . . . $39 59 

Onions, 186£ bushels 186 25 

Apples, 213 barrels 256 75 

482 59 

Total products sold $2,084 51 

Stock on Hand Dec. 31, 1879. 

Horses . . . 5 

Oxen, pairs 4 

Cows 34 

Heifer 1 

Bull 1 

Total head 44 



98 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 

Swine. 

Fattening ........... 19 

Breeders 17 

Shotes 46 

82 

Stock on Hand March 31, 1880. 

Horses ........... 4 

Oxen, pairs 3 

Cows • . . . 29 

Two years old 1 

Bull 1 

Total head 37 

Swine. 

Shotes 27 

Breeders 22 

Fat '...... 7 

Pigs 15 

Boars 3 

Total 74 



Stock on Hand June 30, 1880. 

Horses ............ 5 

Oxen, pairs 2 

Cows 28 

Bull 1 

Total head 33 

Swine. 

Shotes 27 

Breeders 20 

Fat 10 

Pigs 18 

Boars ........... 3 

Total ' 78 

Stock on Hand Sept. 30, 1880. 

Horses ........... 5 

Oxen, pairs .......... 2 

Cows 28 

Bull 1 

Total head 33 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 

Swine. 



99 



Breeders ...... 


13 


Fat 


40 


Pigs 


79 


Boars 


1 


Total 


133 



Summary of the above Items. 
Produce Consumed during the Year. 

VALUE. 

Milk, 6,760 cans $1,690 00 

Beef, 14,281 pounds 934 75 

Pork, 18,115 pounds - . . . 1,099 25 

Veal, 400 pounds 40 35 

Vegetables 621 12 

Fruit 267 65 

Total $4,653 12 

Produce Sold during the Year. 

Animals $354 95 

Vegetables 959 07 

Fruit 709 40 

Milk 13 75 

Sundries 47 34 

Total $2,084 51 



100 REFORM SCHOOL AT 



WESTBOROUGH.l [Oct. 



SCHEDULE OF PROPERTY. 













1 boar .... 


39 fat hogs . 












690 25 


16 breeding sows 












289 00 


78 pigs 












260 00 


Swill- can and cart 












20 00 


Hog-elevator 












4 00 


Slaughter-table . 












4 00 


Meal-chest . 












3 00 


Saw-horse . 












1 00 


Apple-tree scraper 












25 


Shovel and 2 forks 












1 25 


Whitewash-pail . 












25 


Hay-fork . 












60 


2 whitewash-brushes . 












3 00 


Pail .... 












50 


Garden-rake 












25 


Hoe . 












50 


2 scrub-brushes . 












30 


Axe . 












50 


Scuttle-iron 












40 


Ladder 












1 00 


7 old barrels 












70 


Stone-boat . 












1 75 


1 hogshead . 












50 


Tools in Shed near Hen 


NERY. 


1 horse-rake .... $20 00 


1 Bullard hay-tedder . 










30 00 


1 Buckeye mower 










30 00 


1 light two-horse wagon 










25 00 


2 heavy two-horse wagons 










120 00 


5 scythes and snaths . 










5 00 


1 bush-scythe 










30 


Rope .... 










50 


Tackle-blocks 










2 00 


5 bushels refuse salt for manure 








1 25 


£ barrel plaster . 












50 



$1,299 00 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



101 



24 corn-cutters . 

3 bush-scythes . 

Grindstone . 

Emery-stone 

1 Buckeye mower 

1 ox- wagon, nearly new 

1 old box-wagon 

1 ox-sled 

1 one-horse cart . 

8 old hogsheads . 



$2 40 

1 50 

5 00 

2 00 
30 00 

100 00 

6 00 
18 00 
40 00 

4 00 



Barn, Shed, 


AND 


Tool-Building. 


2 old horse-rakes ... . . $7 00 


Marker .... 










3 00 


Old wagon-body . 










50 


Ox-roller .... 










8 00 


Snow-plough 










4 00 


Lot old lumber . 










6 00 


Lot old forks and snaths 










1 00 


2 eveners and whiffletrees 










3 00 


1 wheel-harrow . 










7 00 


1 Scotch harrow . 










7 00 


1 one-horse hinge-harrow 










5 00 


2 swivel ploughs 










18 00 


1 meadow-plough 










20 00 


1 double mouldboard-ploug 


i 








6 00 


2 ox-ploughs 










10 00 


3 one-horse ploughs . 










12 00 


4 cultivators 










18 00 


1 ox-scraper 










1 00 


1 stone-puller 










2 00 


Lot old barrels, 31 










3 10 


1 ox-cart 


. 






20 00 


1 one-horse sleigh and rack-wagon 






20 00 


2 two-horse sleighs and rack-wagon 






150 00 


2 feed-troughs . . . . 






5 00 


lpung 










4 00 


9 bunches bean-poles . 










1 15 


Ice-tools 










60 00 


2 sets traverse runners 










30 00 


1 one-horse traverse runner 


sleig 


h 






40 00 


1 fan-mill . 










5 00 


Snow-scraper 










4 00 


Lumber . . . 










1 25 


Ladder 










50 


3 rakes 










75 


Farm express-wagon . 










55 00 



$443 45 



$538 25 



102 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



Tools, etc., in Bakn. 



7 brooms . 












$3 50 


3 new scythes 












3 00 


21 milk-cans 












20 00 


5 milk-pails 












4 00 


1 pair steelyards . 












1 00 


1 " balances . 












2 00 


2 sets pole-straps 












3 00 


Lot other straps . 












2 00 


2 sets bells . 












50 


2 whips 












70 


2 manure-forks . 












1 00 


6 mowing-machine guards 










1 00 


16 mowing-machine knives 










2 00 


Castile soap 










25 


Ox-yoke 












57 


5 scythe-stones . 












75 


4 seed-bags 












40 


11 barrels . 












1 10 


Feed-trough 












2 00 


3 bags 












1 00 


Hay-cutter . 












5 00 


£ bag salt . 






t • 






40 


Set of measures . 












80 


Engine-harness . 












8 00 


9 hay-forks 












4 50 


24 canvases 












3 00 


4 horse-blankets . 












12 00 


1 buffalo-robe 












7 00 


1 wolf-robe 












5 00 


1 new set double harnesses 










70 00 


1 new set double harnesses 










45 00 


4 feed-bags 










2 25 


Corn-sheller 










3 00 


Hay-cutter . 










6 00 


Root-cutter 










8 00 


Drag-rake . 










70 


Small bag grass-seed . 










50 


Bone-meal . 










60 


Cross-cut saw 










1 50 


Rope .... 










4 00 


Ox-yoke, ring, and staple 










3 00 


Hay-knife . 










1 50 


Wood-saw . 










1 00 


Lot of bags 










1 00 


Sheep-shears 










75 


Wood-saw . 










1 00 


Lot old iron 












50 



1880.] PUBLIC 


DOCU 


Copper pump .... 


2 stone-hammers 






2 picks .... 






Bog-hoe .... 






2 iron bars .... 






3 dung-hooks 






3 hay-knives 






2 hoes ..... 






17 draught chains 






3 heavy stone-chains . 






6 small chains 






1 surveyor's chain 






1 jack .... 






3 oil-cans .... 






3 scoop-shovels . 






3 whiffletrees 






Hay-fork and pulley . 






2 ropes 






1 good harness . 






1 old harness 






1 tip-cart harness 






4 lanterns . 






2 pails 






1 spade 






5 manure-forks . 






2 shovels . 






1 square 






3 halters . . . 






2 straps . 






1 barn broom . 






2 monkey-wrenches . 






1 screw-driver . 






Brushes and curry-combs 






1 hammer . 






3 ox-yokes 






1 pair muzzles . 






1 " red oxen . 






1 " twin oxen 






1 bull 






28 cows, $54, each 






1 pair red horses 






Horse, "Jack" 






" " Ned" . 






" "Jenny" 






9,000 heads cabbage, 5 cents 




8£ acres corn, 70 bushels per a( 


;re; 


at 70 cents per bushel 




Corn-fodder 




600 bushels onions 


. 





595 bushels 



No. 18. 



$2 00 



103 



3 00 


1 50 


50 


2 00 


1 50 


2 50 


1 00 


17 00 


12 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 50 


1 00 


2 00 


4 50 


1 50 


1 00 


33 00 


5 00 


15 00 


2 00 


25 


80 


5 00 


1 50 


75 


3 00 


1 00 


60 


2 00 


25 


1 50 


20 


15 00 


60 


155 00 


150 00 


40 00 


1,456 00 


350 00 


25 00 


140 00 


100 00 


450 00 


416 50 


106 00 


100 00 



104 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



5 bushels beans ...... 

1,320 bushels roots, or 33 tons, at $9 per ton 

3 tons squashes .... 
2£ bushels rye .... 
100 " oats, 48 cents . 
88£ tons English hay and rowen, at $18 per ton 
18} " meadow-hay, $12 

4 " oat-straw, $11 
648 bushels potatoes, first quality, at 60 cents 

per bushel . . . 
436 bushels small, at 25 cents 
700 barrels apples, 65 cents 
75 bushels pears, $1 . 
1} " quinces 



$6 50 

297 00 

60 00 

2 50 
100 00 

1,593 00 

222 00 

44 00 

388 80 

109 00 

455 00 

75 00 

3 00 



Property at Horse-Barn. 



Horse, "Kate" 
Chestnut horse . 
Gray horse . 
Trustees' carriage 
Family carriage . 
Buggy- wagon 
Express- wagon . 
Two-seated buggy 

1 nice express-wagon 
covered wagon 
pung sleigh 
robes 

street blanket 
old robes 
linen robes 
horse-blankets 

Jack . 

2 monkey-wrenches and hammer 
Feather duster . 



brush 

whips 

set double harness 

single harness . 

rubber coat 

wood-saws 



brooms . 

forks 

water-pails 

wash-dish 
Curry-comb and brush 
3 sleighs 



$75 00 


200 00 


175 00 


200 00 


60 00 


65 00 


60 00 


35 00 


90 00 


50 00 


15 00 


10 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


4 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


50 


1 25 


50 00 


60 00 


75 


1 50 


50 


50 


50 


40 


15 


50 


40 00 



$7,115 02 



,205 55 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 105 

Before closing our report, we would take occasion grate- 
fully to note the fact that the great need of coal-sheds, which 
was urged in our last two reports, has been met. It is a 
great relief to the farmer not to be obliged to haul coal in 
haying- time. This enables him also to dispense with one 
yoke of oxen, which have accordingly been disposed of. 

There is yet one other special need to which we would 
again call the attention of the Trustees ; viz., a plan of the 
farm. 

It is of great importance that the person having charge of 
the farm should know its limits and boundaries, and what 
fences belong to the State and what to abutters to keep in 
repair. We have pastured cattle belonging to people owning 
adjacent land t for several weeks the past year, and have spent 
much time in getting State cattle out of adjoining lands, 
because of insufficient fences, there being no legal division 
of fences which would bind parties to keep them in repair. 
The effort made by the Trustees, a few years ago, to this 
end, proved abortive for the reason that no record of the 
division was then made, and parties interested refuse to abide 
by it. 

A small outlay in the direction proposed — defining bound- 
aries and certifying fence-rights — would seem to promise 
a large saving of both trouble and expense. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

C. GODDARD, Farmer. 



106 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



STATEMENTS OF ARTICLES PURCHASED. 



Provisions and Groceries. 



26,97H 


pounds beef .... 


$1,784 33 


2,739i 


" lamb .... 


234 46 


400 


" veal .... 


36 49 


307i 


" tripe .... 


26 60 


6,223| 


' ' fresh fish .... 


343 43 


182i 


" chicken .... 


2S 30 


302f 


" turkey .... 


51 77 




Making 286 pounds sausages 


11 44 


25 


pounds ham .... 


3 00 




Curing and smoking 82 hams 


16 40 


42 


gallons oysters .... 


44 55 


1 


peck clams .... 


40 


841 f 


pounds salt fish .... 


42 45 


1 


cleaver ..... 


2 00 


43 


bags salt ..... 


41 25 


1 


box salt ..... 


2 40 


i 

2 


bushel salt ..... 


60 


31 


bags bolted Indian meal 


45 15 


4 


' ' bolted Indian meal and grinding 


9 09 


4 


bushels malt .... 


6 40 


3,593i 


pounds butter .... 


1,031 48 


522 


barrels flour .... 


3,581 11 


6| 


pounds extract lemon . 


11 42 


519£ 


dozen eggs .... 


115 45 


4 


ounces tartaric acid 


20 


4 


" sassafras .... 


15 


1 


pound Irish moss . 


15 


6 


bushels peanuts .... 


12 00 


24 


pounds mustard .... 


4 92 


1 


pound extract vanilla . 


2 50 


99 


pounds hops .... 


37 00 


1 


pound allspice .... 


20 


3 


pounds cloves .... 


1 35 


1 


pound cassia .... 


30 


1 


dozen cucumbers .... 


36 


5,623 


pounds granulated sugar 


545 96 



L880.] 


PUBLIC DOC 


36 


pounds powdered sugar 


667 


• " C sugar . 


23 


boxes raisins 


• 8 


pounds raisins 


6 


barrels split pease 


3,381! 


pounds coffee 


160 


" cocoa 


191 


" shells 


1 


pound chocolate . 


234 


pounds tea 


192 


bushels beans 


650 


pounds cheese 


11 


" milk biscuit 


2 


boxes Horsford's yeast . 


1 


dozen papers Horsford's 


1 


' ' horse-radish 


44 


" lemons 


1,596 


gallons molasses . 


6 


pounds nutmegs . 


4 


boxes Bath brick . 


4 


barrels white sand 


485 


pounds lard 


1 


pound sulphur 


1 


box bluing 


13 


pounds currants . 


120 


" candy- 


1 


box saleratus 


62 


cans squash 


253i 


pounds squash ' . 


1 


barrel cranberries 


50 


quarts cranberries 


160 


pounds corn-starch 




Cocoanut 


10 


bunches celery 


25 T 9 2 dozen soap 


2 


boxes soap 


136 


pounds soap 


622 


oranges 


257 


gallons vinegar 


3 


barrels sweet potatoes . 


25 


" crackers . 


6 


pounds crackers . 


2 


gross matches 


2 


pounds citron 


50 


" samp 


2* 


barrels Graham flour . 


62^ 


pounds prunes 


1 


keg sirup 


1 


pound starch 



No. 18. 



107 



yeast 



83 96 


59 99 


56 17 


72 


34 50 


591 21 


54 95 


10 73 


'45 


114 30 


337 31 


90 31 


94 


12 50 


2 16 


80 


8 94 


510 72 


5 80 


4 40 


7 00 


38 42 


10 


2 40 


94 


17 40 


4 75 


12 97 


6 64 


6 00 


5 72 


12 80 


30 


1 25 


9 95 


8 50 


8 24 


12 44 


44 80 


8 07 


79 25 


52 


4 00 


49 


1 75 


14 50 


11 46 


3 50 


10 



108 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



815 pounds rice 








163 18 


6 bags rye-meal 








12 00 


415 pounds oat-meal . 








16 39 


25 " pepper 








4 25 


2 buckets apple-sauce 








80 


283 pounds dried apples 








36 71 


40 " dried peaches 








7 20 


1 box soapina 








3 60 


4£ dozen brooms 








10 00 


i ' ' whisk-brooms 








1 00 


2 gallons cider 








50 


100 pounds evaporated app] 


e 






17 50 


4 dozen tripoli 








3 00 


2 pounds gum-arabic 








90 


1 box stove-polish . 








3 00 


25 pounds macaroni . 








4 00 


6 dozen scrub-brushes 








17 50 


112 pounds sal-soda . 








4 48 


15 " roach exterminator 






15 00 


3 pairs bellows and nozzles 






3 00 


2 dozen pails 






6 50 


32 bushels potatoes . 






18 20 


1 gross jar-rubbers . 






1 75 


2 dozen corks 






40 


2 pounds Graham crackers 






24 


\ dozen W. W. brushes . 






22 50 


1 two-quart jug 






18 


Ordinary Repairs. 




189 feet black-walnut moulding ... $4 40 


2 pieces black-walnut moulding 




68 


11 boxes window-glass 




42 11 


22 lights window-glass 






6 68 


Rental of four telephones 






40 00 


6 catches .... 






79 


Repairs of steam-pumps 






15 60 


8 feet brass cloth 






4 00 


11 " brass chain . 






1 08 


28^- pounds barbed fence-wire 






3 62 


2£ pairs hasps and eyes . 






46 


295 cedar posts . 






15 38 


3 door stops . 






18 


Muriatic acid 






10 


Painting, papering, &c. 






31 25 


3 bath-tub plugs and sockets . 






1 05 


1 barrel coal . 






1 00 


1 pair glazier's points 






15 


Steam and gas fittings . 








150 96 



$10,573 96 



1880.] 


PUBLIC DO( 


31B 


12 


ounces copper tacks 




Leather 




5 


door-springs . 




3 


pounds wire . 




65 


pairs hinges . 




17 


locks .... 




220 


lock-stops 
Repairing locks . 




4 


pounds copper, burrs, r 


ivets 


35i 


' ' solder 




18} 


" sash- cord . 




2 


carpenter's clamps 




3,770 


feet pine lumber . 




17,525 


" spruce lumber 




22,000 


cedar shingles 




9 


handles 




8 


hammers 
Shellac 




3 


papers bronze 




6 


pounds glue 




3 


quarts sperm oil . 




4 


pounds brads 




22 


gross screws 




3i-| dozen screws 




1 


" screw-eyes . 




28 


keys . 




13 


kegs nails 




39 


pounds nails 




1 


pump clasp . 


^~ 


4 


papers finish nails 




29 


pounds zinc . 




4^ dozen, hooks 




4 T 3 2 " hooks and staple 


3 


1 


gong-bell and fixtures 




2 


thumb-latches 




6 


barrels lime . 




106 


feet fuse 
Sawing, &c. 
Carpenter- work . 
Mason- work . 




186 


pounds common iron 




30 


" hair . 




156 


feet black walnut 




28 


pounds galvanized iron 


16 


' ' galvanized iron pipe 


4 


elbows .... 


3 


barrels cement 


94 


feet whitewood 


41 


pounds sheet iron 





No. 18. 



109 



&c. 



$0 50 


1 00 


1 00 


30 


16 47 


9 95 


44 00 


1 25 


2 00 


7 76 


4 94 


2 00 


131 29 


304 51 


83 50 


1 18 


3 08 


1 00 


87 


1 20 


1 35 


60 


5 55 


21 


06 


3 36 


52 00 


2 32 


40 


60 


3 48 


1 15 


2 51 


1 01 


20 


9 05 


1 01 


9 56 


63 50 


183 40 


13 02 


90 


15 90 


5 17 


3 20 


60 


4 80 


3 76 


2 87 



110 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



2 

3 

14 

2 

38 

5 

152 

4 

7 

1,500 

24 

4 

9 

25 

72 



1 
2 
2 

14 
6 
1 
3 
2 

1 

I 

2 
1 
1 



4 

181f 
l,607f 

55 
1 
2 
2 
1 

49 
1 
1 

26 



grindstones . 
brushes 
feet drain-pipe 
Carting 
wrenches 
packages kalsomine 
gallons asphaltum varnish 
feet iron cloth 
twist drills . 
Sharpening seven drills 
bolts .... 
feet hemlock lumber 
chestnut posts 
files .... 
feet belting, screw, &c. 
rolls wall-paper 
yards border 

Hanging paper and border 
Pump parts and repairs 
lead cesspool 
pairs brackets 
tin letter-boxes 
pounds sheet lead 
' ' lead pipe 
screw-driver 
cistern valves 
boxes extinguisher-charges 
Splicing ten iron rods . 
faucet 

glass-cutter . 
Repairing lanterns 
wash-bowls . 
dozen emery-cloth 
" mineral door-knobs 



|8 80 



Clothing. 



gross brass buttons 
yards cassimere . 

' ' flannel 
suits boys' clothes 
coat and vest 
pairs pincers 
peg- hammers 
shank-laster . 
yards print . 
gross coat-buttons 
job lot coat-buttons 
pairs leather boots 



1 


35 


5 


40 




50 


2 


20 


25 


38 


6 


25 


19 


00 




93 




33 


1 


35 


25 


50 


3 


60 




80 


2 


78 


2 


75 


1 


01 


5 


50 


5 


95 




50 




75 




40 


1 


30 




45 




35 


4 


50 


6 


00 


1 


50 




75 




20 




15 


3 


45 




50 


1 


80 


$2 


69 


22 


71 


466 


11 


356 


75 


7 


00 


1 


10 


1 


50 




30 


3 92 


2 


64 


9 


00 


37 


50 



$1,470 83 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



Ill 



1 

307| 
6 
1 

2 

2,% 



M 
i 

160 

15 

196 

1,285 

1 

23 3 

1 
1 

1 
4 



1 
3 

18 
30 
40 
4 
12 
26 
2171 
297 
233i 
2,242f 
103 
3 

12 1 

20 

1 

5 

4,000 

6 

2 

203 

4 

4 

25 

10 



pair rubber boots . 
pounds yarn 
skeins yarn . 
bushel pegs . 
gross peg-awls . ■ 
dozen peg-awis 

" iron peg-awls 

" hafts . 
long-handle peg-cutter 
pairs slippers 

" shoes . 
pounds shoe-nails 
feet leather 
sewing-machine belt 
dozen sewing-machine needles 
Sewing-machine shuttles and springs 
belt punch . 
rivet set 
quart sperm oil 
gross braid . 

" pant-buttons 
dozen kerosene wicks, four-inch 
gross thimbles 
pounds wax . 

" linen thread 
dozen linen thread 

" white thread 
pounds white thread 

" shoe-tacks 
pairs shoe-lasts 
yards silesia 

' ' denim 

' ' drilling 

' ' kersey 

" tarred paper 
pounds twine 
Cutting paper patterns 
dozen straw hats . 
bunches leather laces 
ulster . 

gross rubber combs 
needles 
papers needles 
mattress-needles . 
yards duck . 
dozen half -hose . 
yards cambric 
dozen handkerchiefs 
yards ribbon 



$3 00 


261 24 


1 08 


1 00 


2 00 


85 


35 


80 


50 


84 50 


15 30 


20 54 


463 55 


15 


4 78 


6 60 


75 


50 


x 45 


13 85 


6 13 


35 


1 13 


95 


14 86 


23 64 


22 00 


2 85 


3 00 


13 00 


23 90 


92 54 


19 87 


965 72 


2 86 


1 50 


5 00 


20 21 


18 00 


6 00 


19 50 


5 60 


90 


50 


20 15 


4 75 


32 


18 40 


30 



112 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



l 

L 

39 

7 

506f 

1 

4 



Repairing machine 

Repairing knitting-machines 

Repairing sewing-machine 
^ dozen shoe-knives 

water stone . 
\ gross elastic web . 

yards linen . 

gross agate buttons 

yards shirting 

dozen shirts . 

undershirts . 

dozen clothes-baskets 

pair buck mittens 



Live-Stock Purchases. 



1 

1 

1 

12 

1 

1 

11 

16 



hog 

boar pig 
pair horses 
milch cows 
pair oxen 
bull . 
white Leghorns 
chickens 



Furniture, Beds, and Bedding 



12 
1 

i 

i 

6i 

2 
1 



12 



gross preserve-jars 
Cooking-range parts 
epergne vase 
dozen hair-brushes 
copper dipper 
dozen lamp-burners 

" looking-glasses 
mirror . 

yards rubber sheeting 
dozen turkey dusters 

" wash-boards 

" sheets emery-cloth 
knives . 
carver and fork 
gallons alcohol 
pounds oxalic acid 
apple-parer . 
milk-pans 
dozen furniture-polish 

" dusters 

4 ' brooms 

" whisk-brooms 



$1 00 


29 42 


6 68 


11 01 


15 


3 57 


13 65 


2 65 


41 99 


3 00 


1 00 


10 50 


1 20 


$12 00 


18 64 


400 00 


635 00 


140 00 


30 75 


8 25 


1 60 


G. 


$12 10 


41 00 


2 00 


5 00 


1 50 


4 27 


2 50 


83 


5 00 


23 40 


3 00 


5 20 


2 85 


1 25 


22 20 


40 


50 


1 12 


1 25 


19 45 


27 00 


1 25 



$4,232 76 



$1,246 24 



380.] 


PUBLIC 


DOCIB 


1EI 


1 


dozen coir brooms 


2 


wood-saws . 




1 


meat-saw 






1 


spider . 
Corks . 






3 


mouse-traps . 






3 


sieves . 






2 


axes 






5 


sets stove-linings 






2 


stove-grates . 






6 


sheets tin 






8 


dish-pans 






5 


tin dippers . 






1 


tin cover 






1 


corn-popper . 






1 


dozen mop-handles 
Repairing 4 clocks 




1 


fourteen-quart porcelain kettle 


1 


copper tea-kettle . 


4 


wrought-iron baskets, and patt 




perforated iron strainer-plate 


2 


dinner-kettles 




Repairing tea-kettle 




7 


oil-cans 




2 


tubs .... 




1 


pound tassels and cord . 




6 


yards cord . 
Cord and eyes 




8 


chairs .... 




2 


boilers .... 




1* 


dozen shoe-brushes 




^ 


- " lanterns 




i 

4 


" boxes dominos . 




1 


key ... 




h\ 


- dozen dust-pans . 




i\ 


- " lantern-globes . 




1 
4 


" boxes checkers . 




,275 


pounds straw 




«A 


- dozen brushes, scrub . 




i 


' ' whitewash-brushes 




i 


pair glass dishes . 




21 


dozen plates 




6 


" cups and saucers 




7 


" bakers 




2« 


- " scollops 




21 


" bowls. 




2 


" pitchers 




4 


" individual butters 




20 


" soup-plates 


. 





18. 



113 



for 



$2 00 


1 80 


2 75 


60 


10 


32 


1 35 


1 80 


4 35 


1 65 


1 32 


12 30 


93 


25 


40 


2 00 


7 00 


1 60 


4 25 


45 00 


2 15 


1 65 


5 10 


4 00 


1 57 


30 


1 03 


15 10 


5 50 


3 75 


6 05 


63 


37 


2 42 


1 70 


23 


43 40 


24 33 


47 00 


90 


20 86 


13 65 


18 50 


13 03 


43 25 


6 00 


1 80 


25 00 



114 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



20^ dozen glasses 






S22 38 


2 


pairs glaziers' points 






90 


600 


yards crash . 






54 00 


2 


boxes tufts . 






1 00 


^i 2 (j 3 o k° ns meadow-hay 






22 61 


* 


gallon sperm oil . 






90 


48| 


yards holland 






5 34 


206i 


" oil-cloth 






187 63 


10 


dozen sun chimneys 






9 30 


2 


sprinklers . 






3 00 


8 


pieces napkins, f . 






18 00 


2 


dozen napkins 






4 50 


2691 


yards table-cloth . 






60 11 


2 


table-covers . 






4 25 


26i 


dozen gas-chimneys 






20 43 


2 


" gas-globes . 






11 00 


35| 


pounds galvanized iron 






6 05 


1 


pound ammonia . 






30 


I 


yard cotton-flannel 






20 


3 


dozen lamp-wicks 






21 


9| 


pounds common iron 






98 


7 


curtain-fixtures . 






2 52 


12^ 


yards cotton cloth 






1 40 


300 


manila-paper bags 






69 


1 


pair handles . 






30 


75^ 


yards carpet . 






60 49 


3 


carpet-sweepers . 






7 50 


2 


pieces mosquito-netting 




1 10 




Labor, repairing household e 


articles 


10 03 


7 


balls twine . 




1 00 


2 


dozen pails . 






9 00 


1 


chopping-tray 






60 


1 


pound carpet-thread 






90 


131 


pounds Russia iron 






2 94 


1 


dozen papers tripoli 






75 


2 


" thermometers 






4 50 


21 


fire-brick 






1 00 


37 


pounds stove castings 






3 33 


1 


set stove castings 






1 35 


2 


stove-doors . 

For use of hair-picker 






1 25 

5 00 


1 


lamp . 






1 00 


2 


pairs hinges . 






10 


2 


dozen coal-hod ears 






50 


6£ 


sets casters . 
Solder . 






1 05 
09 


2 


gross shelf -paper . 






1 50 


53 


pounds tarred paper 






1 59 


2 


coffee-pots . 






85 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



115 



12 


quilts 


$12 60 


41i 


yards sheeting . 


12 45 


H 


pounds copper 


60 


2 


dozen balls wicking . 


1 50 


1 


gross tick-binding . 


1 18 


h\ 


dozen baskets 


14 75 




Tuning piano . 


4 50 


1 


string for piano 


50 


1 


teapot 


1 35 


1 


dozen bottles . 


2 25 


6 


" jugs 


28 00 


1 


" smoke-bells . . . . 


3 75 


1 


oiler ....... 


10 


10 


yards brass chain 


1 50 


10 


papers tacks . . 


80 


1 


dozen rope-mats . . ... 
Stationery. 


18 00 






10,300 


envelopes ..... 


$25 45 


25 


large envelopes .... 


25 


H 


gross lead-pencils .... 


5 13 


16,750 


daily reports .... 


22 00 


2,000 


tags ...... 


5 40 


1 


gross pens 


2 00 




Card-board and cutting 


15 


1 


package rubber bands . 


40 


ll^o reams letter-paper and engraving-plate 


67 58 


3 
4 


pound note-paper ... 


6G< 


2 


boxes indelible ink 


1 00 


100 


blanks ...... 


3 50 


1 


lithogram and 7 bottles ink . 


3 75 


1 


call-bell ..... 


1 15 




Advertisements .... 


1 00 


1,000 


bill-heads 


6 25 


10 


dozen memorandum- books . 


9 90 


10 


blank- books ..... 


18 28 


1 


post-office scale .... 


2 50 




Stationery for appraiser's use 


1 70 


¥ 


quire blotting-paper 


1 00 




Chronotype ..... 

Drugs and Medical Supj 


2 00 




PLIES. 


1 


pound capsicum .... 


|0 50 


1,600 


vegetable cathartic pills 


8 10 


4 


gallons cod-liver oil . 


7 00 


* 


ounce gelsimum .... 


15 


1* 


pounds olive oil . 


1 28 



,242 70 



$180 99 



.6 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



l 

20 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 

2: 

14 

•2 

1 

1 

30 

1 

4 



1* 



2 
2 
2 

1 

5£ 
2 
1 
4 
1 
1 
1,250 
2* 

6* 

2 

1 

4 



2 

2 



7 
13 



pound balsam copaiba . 






$0 75 


yards Swiss muslin 






1 60 


rubber cushions . 






4 00 


set splints and operating cas< 


_> 




78 30 


ounce wintergreen 






35 


bottles garget cure 






1 30 


ounce gallic acid . 






20 


pounds fluid extract opium . 






4 04 


sponges . 






1 13 


pounds sulphur . 






18 


pound wine of antimony 






85 


" wine of ipecac . 






1 10 


vaccine points and one crust 






6 80 


Dutch truss . 






2 50 


bottles gargling-oil 






1 20 


pound, castile soap 






20 


pound citrate tinum 






35 


" powdered myrrh 






20 


" gum-arabic 






62 


ounces tincture aconite 






45 


" hydrastin . 






2 50 


pound powdered licorice 






15 


" camphor 






20 


gallons alcohol 






5 00 


pounds ammonia . 






68 


" seidlitz mixture 






90 


pound salts . 






10 


rolls adhesive plaster . 






3 64 


glass syringes 






25 


bottle Arabian balsam . 






25 


ounces bismuth . 






75 


chamois-skin 






62 


pair hair-clippers . 






4 00 


pounds chloride lime . 






28 48 


rolls isinglass plaster . 






2 20 


pounds potass. 






2 57 


" pulverized Jamaica £ 


> - inge n 


p 


85 


bottle brandy 






1 75 


ounces muriatic acid . 






10 


ounce tartaric acid 






40 


pounds tincture iron 






2 55 


" glycerine . 






1 87 


" castor oil . 






50 


tin cans 






80 


dozen bottles 






14 59 


" phials 






3 50 


" corks . 






60 



$202 95 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



117 



Grain and Meal for Stock. 



800 bags Indian meal 

48 " Indian corn . 
428^ bushels Indian corn 
51 bags Indian cracked corn 
3,132 cans milk 
2,750 pounds meadow-hay 
33 bags oats 
750 bushels oats . 

Grinding 46£ bushels cabbage 
Grinding corn 
100 pounds middlings 
38 " crushed bone 

49,031 " shorts 

Pasturing three cows 
3,400 pounds bran 
1£ pecks cattle-food 
Strings for bags 
Freight on shorts 
Freight on corn 



$930 69 

61 50 

169 82 

60 25 

195 01 

9 62 

49 90 

240 00 

2 75 

19 82 

1 25 

1 33 

222 76 

22 31 

39 30 

1 50 

46 

86 04 

142 80 



Fuel and Lights. 

4,198^- gallons gasoline . 
306^ " kerosene oil 
60 " lard oil . 

6 • " alcohol . 
701 T 5 ^- tons coal 

Chopping 49f cords wood 
15 dozen lamp- wicks 
3 lamp-chimneys 
1 gross matches 

Freight on empty barrels returned 
Advertising coal proposals . 



Horse and Cattle Shoeing. 
Shoeing horses and oxen 



$657 


81 


36 


15 


44 


00 


15 50 


1,430 73 


49 


08 


1 


20 




24 


o 


05 


15 


30 


4 00 



12,257 11 



$5,256 61 
$119 97 



News, Sunday-School, and Waste Papers. 

New England Farmer, subscription 
American Cultivator, subscription 
Boston Daily Advertiser, subscription . 
Boston Daily Evening Traveller and 

Weekly Traveller, subscription 
Boston Daily Journal .... 
Massachusetts Ploughman . 



$4 50 


2 00 


12 00 


46 00 


9 00 


2 70 



118 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



4,500 
1 



Sunday- School Worlds 
Sun day- School Times . 
International Sunday-School 

Papers .... 
Chronotypes 

old papers .... 
case water-closet paper 



$4 50 
2 00 

18 75 

25 

22 50 

10 50 





Postage and Telegrams. 




1,550 


postage-stamps 


$46 50 


130 


postage-stamps ..... 


1 30 


72 


telegrams ...... 


26 42 




Telephone rent ..... 


10 00 




Post-office box rent .... 


60 



$134 70 



$84 82 



Sleigh-Shop. 



Wood Department. 

^ gross carpenter's pencils 

500 yards oil-cloth 

64 pounds malleable-iron castings 

2,063 feet maple boards 

1,412 " pine boards 

2,530 " oak plank 

57| pounds glue . 

3 kegs nails 
25 pounds f chair nails 

2 papers finish nails 

150 feet dash-leather . 

74| " patent leather 

4 chamois-skins 
300 sets straps . 

7 oil-stones 

8^2 dozen files . 
38 " pairs shaft-tips 

12 papers 8- ounce tacks 

1 two-horse sleigh rack 

1 dozen spokeshaves 

1 tin lamp 

1 glue-brush . 

5 dozen bits 

6 chisels, and repairing two 
Shoeing 

1 hexagon collar-nut 
174 gross screws 

2 dozen pocket-rules 
37£ " whip-sockets 



$2 00 

107 25 

6 26 

33 00 
54 92 
52 60 

12 14 
18 10 

3 71 
30 

15 00 

8 97 
2 00 

20 50 
1 80 

13 95 

34 96 
1 44 

65 00 

4 00 
70 
30 

9 50 
10 00 

1 95 
1 00 

42 82 
4 80 

96 65 



1880.] 


PUBLIC DOCUMENT - 


-No. 18. 


13,725 


feet basswood .... 


. $228 50 


1 


contact glue-heater 


5 00 


6 


smooth planes . . . 


5 40 


3 


reams sandpaper 


12 54 




Freight on basswood . 


46 00 




Expense of transporting sleighs . 


128 31 




Labor, preparing stock, and instruct- 






or's salary .... 
Paint Department. 


. • 601 75 






10 


dozen brushes .... 


$20 34 




Paints and colors .... 


101 46 


117 


gallons spirits turpentine 


43 17 


1 


sponge 


2 00 


2 


putty-knives .... 


40 




Sandpaper ..... 


35 


1 


Harris No. 2 paint-mill 


7 35 


1 


six-inch paint-knife 


38 


51 


gallons raw linseed oil . 


32 14 


3 

4 


quart shellac .... 


75 


1 


sieve ...... 


20 


100 


pounds keystone filler . 


4 50 


35 


" pumicestone . . . 


2 35 


1 


two-quart paint-pot 


38 




Labor-instructor .... 

Blacksmith Department. 


395 93 






6,641 


pounds iron . . . . 


$277 45 


500 


iron bolts 


6 33 


1 


paper iron rivets .... 


75 


1 


No. 11 platform scale . 


23 10 




Carting material . . . 


1 00 


14 


feet one-inch two-ply belting 


52 


166 


pounds steel . ... 


8 30 


1 


rasp 


75 




Labor-instructor . 


48 56 



119 



$1,653 12 



$611 70 



$366 76 



Farming-Tools, Horse and Wagon Furniture, and Repairs 

to Same. 



1 


scraper .... 


$0 25 




Washers .... 


90 




Parts of mowing-machines . 


13 50 


L0 


milk-bungs 


64 




Repairing cushion 


25 


2 


quarts enamel top-dressing . 


2 75 


H 


dozen rakes .... 


32 95 



120 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



1 drag-rake 








$0 90 


2 balls twine .... 






20 


1 pair octagon ox-balls . 






15 


Iron for cultivator 






50 


14 9f cans .... 






18 20 


1 axe 






1 00 


31 bolts 






1 37 


H dozen whetstones 






1 40 


1 lawn-fountain 






1 75 


2 pitchforks .... 






1 30 


1 gallon machine oil 






60 


1 dozen scoops 






14 50 


2 " baskets . . 






11 50 


1 pair nose- baskets . 






50 


T ^- dozen scythes 






8 25 


£ " wheel hose . ... 






1 75 


For use of cart 






3 00 


1 pair cart-wheels . 






18 00 


Repairing " 






22 43 


Pole-chains and sharpening b 


ar 




1 28 


6 quarts harness oil 






2 71 


3 boxes harness dressing . 






1 40 


1 can harness dressing 






1 00 


2 wire brushes 






1 00 


1 curry-comb . 






50 


4 cards . . . . 






30 


Harness soap 






1 00 


5 sponges 






2 75 


Raw oil ... 






15 


1 pair bits 






15 


Repairing carriages 






32 70 


1 Concord buggy 






90 00 


1 ox-wagon 






100 00 


2 blankets and strapping 






8 25 


3 halters and repairing one 






4 50 


5 reins and repairing one 






4 70 


1 breeching and repairing two 






9 00 


10 whips and two stocks . 






9 62 


Repairing springs . 






4 75 


" breastplates . 






1 10 


" circle 






75 


" traces 








3 20 


Splicing pole 








1 50 


6 pounds iron . 








30 


1 bolt . 








40 


8 feet joists . 








25 


3£ bushels coal . 








1 15 


2 wagon-tires and setting them 




15 60 


4 pairs shafts and r( 


^pairing 






4 25 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



121 



7 lap-robes 

2 feed bags 

5 pails, strainer and tunnel 
4 surcingles 

1 rosette .... 

2 gallons sperm oil . 

6 quarts and one box axle oil 

2 cow-ties 

4 sets harness (one double) 

1 bridle and cushion 

1 cockeye 
Repairing harness 

7 straps .... 

3 martingale rings . 

2 dozen corn-knives 
7 hammer-handles . 

2 sweat collars 

3 snaps and repairing one 
1 ice-plough "i 

1 breaking bar 

1 splitting chisel 

4 4| feet hooks J 



y 



m 75 

f 60 



87 
25 
50 

52 

7. 

50 



3 

2 

1 

192 50 

10 .0 
±o 

10 25 
1 95 
1 25 
5 00 
1 42 
3 50 
1 45 

55 41 



1 


4^ " ice-saw 






5 31 


1 


revolving punch .... 

School Property. 


1 38 






49 


dozen writing-books 




$65 20 


1 


" U. S. histories . 






12 00 


4 


reams note-paper . 






5 00 


2,000 


envelopes 






3 00 


1 


dozen Davids's school-ink 






6 00 


1 


" blackboard-erasers 






3 50 


1 


" foot-balls . 






20 25 


H 


" base-balls . 






16 00 


I 


" base-ball bats 






2 12 


4 


" Gospel hymn-books 






12 96 



$803 15 



w:$ 03 



Transportation and Travelling Expenses. 

Freight and expressage 
Travelling expenses .... 
Railroad, commutation, and package 
tickets . . . . 

Return of boys 

Carriage-hire 



$517 C4 


168 90 


159 95 


274 75 


27 25 



$1,148 49 



122 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



Salaries, Wages, and Labor. 



Pay-rolls 

Ministers 

Extra farm labor . 

Appraiser's services 



,517 53 
280 00 
149 79 
138 00 





Plants, Seeds, and Fertilizers. 


1,000 


celery-plants ... $8 00 


H 


bushels timothy-seed . 






10 76 


m 


" red- top seed . 






8 38 


80 


pounds clover-seed 






9 50 


2,525 


" meadow-hay 






8 84 


10 


cords sawdust 






7 50 


30 


apple-trees . 






6 00 


28 


pear-trees 






14 00 


200 


currant-bushes 






16 00 


30 


grape-vines . 






8 10 


Hi 


pounds onion-seed 






46 88 


k 


pound cabbage-seed 






1 63 


i 


" cucumber-seed . 






60 


3 


pounds mangel-wurzel seed 






90 


2 


' ' carrot-seed 






2 15 


6 


bushels rye . 






6 00 


4 


" Hungarian seed 






6 00 


2 


" orchard-grass seed . 






4 00 


2 


bags white corn . 






3 20 


8* 


bushels early corn 






4 50 


I 


bushel pease 
Lettuce-seed 






4 30 
20 


84 


bundles bean-poles 






25 35 


100 


feet rubber hose and pipe 






19 00 


23 


pounds Paris green 






7 05 


2,581 


" phosphate 






58 07 


1 


dozen pressed pans 






4 00 



Printing. 
Coal proposals in sundry newspapers 



$17,085 32 



$290 91 



$30 25 



Petties. 

1 dozen foot-balls . 

2 gross zinc mirrors 

2,000 paper bags and tissue-paper . 
4 pounds twine 



$17 00 
9 00 
4 57 
1 00 



$31 57 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 123 


Burial. 




1 coffin and plate .... 


$15 00 


Summary. 




Provisions and groceries 


. $10,573 96 


Ordinary repairs ..... 


1,470 83 


Clothing ...... 


4,232 76 


Live-stock purchases 


1,246 24 


Furniture, beds, and bedding 


1,242 70 


Stationery ...... 


180 99 


Drugs and medical supplies 


202 95 


Grain and meal for stock .... 


2,257 11 


Fuel and lights ..... 


5,256 61 


Horse and cattle shoeing 


119 97 


News, Sunday-school, and waste papers 


134 70 


Postage and telegrams 


84 82 


Sleigh-shop, wood department . 


1,653 12 


Sleigh-shop, paint department . 


611 70 


Sleigh-shop, blacksmith department . 


366 76 


Farming-tools horse and wagon, furniture 




same 


803 15 


School property 


146 03 


Transportation and travelling expenses 


1,148 49 


Salaries, wages, and labor . 


17,085 32 


Plants, seeds, and fertilizers 


290 91 


Printing ...... 


30 25 


Petties . . . . ... 


31 57 




15 00 




$49,185 94 



124 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



SCHEDULE OF PROPERTY. 







Produce on Hand. 






Vegetables and fruit .... 


. -12,444 30 




Hay, grain, and straw .... 


2,473 50 


$4,917 80 






Live-Stock. 






lbull 


$40 00 




4 oxen 










305 00 




28 cows 










1,456 00 




8 horses . 










1,065 00 




39 fat hogs 










690 25 




78 pigs 










260 00 




16 breeding sows 










289 00 




1 boar 










16 00 




90 fowls . 










41 00 












4,162 25 






Farm and garden implements 






. $2,317 48 




Carriages, harnesses, and robes 




794 00 




Fire-engine, hose, ladders, and extinguishers 


1,022 25 


4 133 73 


At Steam-Mill. 




Jl. a JL tj tJ 1 fJ 


3 boilers, 3 steam-pumps, and fixtures 


$6,800 00 




Lumber . . . . 




158 00 




Steam-pipe and fittings 




85 00 




Steam and gas fitting tools 




155 00 




Miscellaneous property 




384 95 








7,582 95 






At Gas-House. 






Generator, gasoline, and miscellaneous property 


7 • 


2,844 80 


Furniture, e 


,TC. 






For officers' use .... 




$6,718 63 




For boys' use ..... 




2,412 28 




School property, main building 




2,046 60 




Cooking-apparatus, main building . 




1,487 40 




Clothing, material, and tools 




8,850 62 




Shoes, leather, and tools . 




577 29 




Dry-goods ...... 




1,913 03 




Groceries, glass, crockery, provisions, &c 




2,480 83 




Library for boys .... 




1,660 00 




Musical instrumei ,s . 




150 00 




Medicines, medicine-case, dental and surgica 


L 




instruments 










174 30 





1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 



125 



Household and school property at Garden House 


, $1,547 80 


Household and school property at Peters House 


881 29 


Household and school property at Farm House 


1,003 33 


Chair-shop, furniture, and tools 


260 88 


Sleighs, material, and tools 


7,469 24 


938 tons coal ...... 


5,049 44 


Telephone poles, wire, &c. 


240 00 


Preserved fruit, &c 


124 16 




AM 6 037 1° 






Real Estate. 


$69,678 65 


Main building and new yard fence . 


$157,000 00 


Garden House 


. 6,y00 00 


Peters House ...... 


• 2,500 00 


Farm House ...... 


. 4,100 00 


Steam-mill, not including boilers and machinery 


, 2, '00 00 


Sleigh storehouse ..... 


. 1,300 00 


Horse-barn, soap-house, and shed 


550 00 


Garden tool-house and chair-sbop 


500 00 


Greenhouse at Peters House 


400 00 


Barn at Peters House 




450 00 


Shed at Peters House 




150 00 


Shop at Peters House 




75 00 


Cottage-house . 




. 1,200 00 


Gas-house .... 




150 00 


Farm-barn 




. 6,000 00 


Piggery 




. 2,000 00 


New cart-house at farm-barn 




. 1,200 00 


Chair, tool, and cart house 




700 00 


Ice-house ..... 




200 00 


Hennery .... 




150 00 


Fruit-house 




50 00 


Land. 


$187,175 00 


Home farm, 185 acres .... 


. $16,300 00 


Warren farm, 30 acres, 35 roCs . 


. 3,500 00 


Sibley pasture, 28 acres, 120 rods 


700 00 


Woodland, 19 acres . 


. 


700 00 



21,200 00 



Total of real estate 
Total of personal estate . 



. $208,375 00 
69,678 65 



$278,053 65 



MOSES POLLARD, 
J. W. BRITTAN, 



>■ Apprais 



A true copy. 

Attest: L. H. SHELDON, Superintendent. 

Westborough, Oct. 18, 1880. 



126 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 



LIST 

OF 

SALARIED OFFICERS AND ALL EMPLOYEES. 

WITH THEIR SALARIES. 



Luther H. Sheldon, Superintendent $1,600 

J. Albert Kelton, Assistant Superintendent and Clerk . . . 550 

Edwin B. Harvey, Physician 250 

Sarah H. Sheldon, Matron 400 

Sarah E. Goddard, Assistant Matron 240 

Addie H. Kelton, Housekeeper 200 

Thomas H. Treadway, Teacher . 600 

F. A. Chace, Teacher . 500 

Walter F. Merrill, Teacher 275 

Laura Clark, Teacher . 275 

Olin J. Hobbs, Teacher 275 

Arvesta M. Wells, Teacher 275 

James W. Clark, Engineer 800 

C. W Ainsworth , > h arge of Garden House . . . . 700 
Sarah M. Ainsworth, > 

James A Smith, I charge of Peters House . ... 700 
Lottie Smith, ) 8 

? e0rg L W vV Me . 1 n m, £ charge of Farm House .... 700 
Lucy M. Merrill, > 

Stephen Armitage, Overseer Chair and Shoe Shops . . . 500 

Chester L. Chamberlin, Baker and Cook 500 

John H. Cummings, filling vacancies ...... 425 

Austin R. Adams, Overseer Sleigh-shop 400 

Stephen W. Perry, Watchman 384 

Charles Q. Lowd, Watchman . . . . . . 300 

George W. McCormick, Hall-man 375 

John T. Perkins, Man-of-all-work 400 

William H. Laskey, Assistant Engineer 300 

, Carpenter 450 

J. A. Briggs, care of Reformatory Office ..... 400 

Lydia J. Perry, Hospital Nurse 300 

Ella I. Gould, Cook 260 

Jennie W. Rowe, Assistant Cook 228 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 127 

Ellen L. Hutchinson, Seamstress $228 

Sarah E. Goss, Laundress 228 

Mary A. Laskey, care of Boys' Dining-room .... 200 

Charles Goddard, Farmer 550 

Willard 0. Benson, Farm-hand 288 

Julius Dujay, Farm-hand . 240 

John R. Greer, Farm-hand, $20 per month. 
Ira Blois, Farm-hand, $17 per month. 



EXPENDITURES FOR SALARIES, WAGES, 
AND LABOR, 

FOE THE YEAR ENDING SEPT. 30, 1880. 



Superintendent $1,600 01 

Assistant Superintendent 842 50 

Clerk . 539 69 

Treasurer . 87 50 

Physician 249 96 

Ministers 280 00 

Matron 400 01 

Assistant Matrons 510 07 

Teachers, Main Building , 1,393 18 

Master and Matron, Garden House ...... 710 33 

Teacher, Garden House 277 31 

Master and Matron, Peters House 646 48 

Teacher, Peters House 280 31 

Master and Matron, Farm House 645 18 

Teacher, Farm House 281 11 

Overseer Chair and Shoe Shops 498 65 

Overseer Sleigh-shop 525 72 

Engineer . . . 682 91 

Assistant Engineer . . . . . . . . . 276 35 

Carpenter 420 09 

Blacksmith 252 62 

Baker and Cook 500 01 

Inside Watchman 380 85 

Outside Watchman 287 35 

Hall-men 486 50 

Man-of- all-work . 387 51 

Man filling vacancies • . 338 56 

Care of Reformatory Office 21 80 

Hospital Nurse 313 47 



123 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 

Seamstress $234 57 

Laundress 236 76 

Care of Boys' Dining-room 251 61 

Cooks . . 368 49 

Assistant Cooks and Housekeeper 212 74 

Farmer 549 96' 

Farm Labor 977 16 

Appraisers 138 00 

$17,085 32 



SUPERINTENDENTS. 



Date of 
Appointment. 


NAMES. 


Date of 
Eetirement. 


1848, 


William R. Lincoln 


1853. 


1853, 


James M. Talcott 




. • . 


1857. 


1857, 


William E. Starr 




. 


1861. 


1861, 


Joseph A. Allen 






1867. 


1867, 


Orville K. Hutchinson 




. . • 


1868. 


1868, 


Benjamin Evans 




. 


May, 1873. 


May, 1873, 
Aug., 1878, 


Allen G. Shepherd 
Luther H. Sheldon . 




• 


Aug., 1878. 
Still in office. 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



129 



TRUSTEES. 



Names, Residences, Commissions, and Retirement of the Trustees of the State 
Reform School, from its Commencement to the Present Time. 



Date of 
Commission. 


NAMES. 


^Residence. 


Date of 
Retirement. 


1847 


Nahum Fisher* . 


Westborough . 


1849 


1817 


John W. Graves . 


Lowell 


1849 


1847 


Samuel Williston 


Easthampton 


1853 


1847 


Thomas A. Green * 


New Bedford . 


1860 


1847 


Otis Adams * 


Grafton 


1851 


1847 


George Denney * 


Westborough . 


1851 


1847 


William P. Andrews * 


Boston 


1851 


1849 


William Livingston * . 


Lowell 


1851 


1849 


Russell A. Gibbs * 


Lanesborough . 


1853 


1851 


George H. Kuhn 


Boston 


1855 


1851 


J. B. French * . . 


Lowell 


1854 


1851 


Daniel H. Forbes* 


Westborough . 


1854 


1851 


Edward B. Bigelow * . 


Grafton 


1855 


1853 


J. W. H. Page * 


New Bedford . 


1856 


1853 


Harvey Dodge . 


Sutton 


1857 


1854 


G. Howland Shaw * . 


Boston 


1856 


1854 


Henry W. Cushman * 


Bernardston 


1860 


1855 


Albert H. Nelson * 


Woburn . 


1855 


1855 


Joseph A. Fitch . 


Hopkinton 


1858 


1855 


Parley Hammond 


Worcester 


1860 


1856 


Simon Brown . . 


Concord . 


1860 


1856 


John A. Fayerweather 


Westborough . 


1859 


1857 


Josiah H. Temple 


Framingham 


1860 


1858 


Judson S. Brown 


Fitchburg 


1860 


1859 


Theodore Lyman 


Brookline . 


1860 


1860 


George C. Davis* 


Northborough . 


1873 


1860 


Carver Hotchkiss 


Shelburne 


1863 


1860 


Julius A. Palmer * 


Boston 


1862 


1860 


Henry Chickering 


Pittsfield . 


1869 



* Deceased. 



130 REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. [Oct. 

Names, Residences, $rc, of Trustees — Concluded. 



Date of 
Commission. 


NAMES. 


Residence. 


Date of 
Retirement. 


1860 


George W. Bentley 


Worcester 


1861 


1860 


Alden Leland 


Holliston . 


1864 


1861 


Pliny Nickerson . 


Boston 


1868 


1861 


Samuel G. Howe * 


Boston 


1863 


1862 


Benjamin Boynton * . 


Westborough 


1864 


1863 


J. H. Stephenson 


Boston 


1866 


1863 


John Ayres .... 


Charlestown 


1867 


1864 


A. E. Goodnow . 


Worcester 


1874 


1864 


Isaac Ames . . . 


Haverhill . 


1865 


1865 


Jones S. Davis 


Holyoke . 


1868 


1866 


Joseph A. Pond* . ■ 


Brighton . 


1867 


1867 


Stephen G. Deblois 


Boston 


1878 


1868 


John Ayres .... 


Medford . 


1874 


1868 


Harmon Hall 


Saugus 


1871 


1868 


L. L. Goodspeed . 


Bridgewater 


1872 


1869 


E. A. Hubbard . 


Springfield 


1877 


1871 


Lucius W. Pond . 


Worcester . 


1875 


1871 


John W. Olmstead 


Boston 


1873 


1872 


Moses H. Sargent 


Newton 


1877 


1873 


A. S. Wood worth 


Boston 


1876 


1873 


Edwin B. Harvey 


Westborough . 


1878 


1874 


W. H. Baldwin . 


Boston 


1878 


1875 


John L. Cummings 


Ashburnham 


June 30, 1879 


1876 


Jackson B. Swett 


Haverhill . 


1878 


1877 


Samuel R. Heywood . 


Worcester 


June 30, 1879 


1877 


Milo Hildreth . 


Northborough . 


1879 


1878 


Lyman Belknap . . 


Westborough . 


1879 


1878 


Franklin Williams* . 


Boston 


1879 


1878 


Robert Couch 


Newburyport 


1879 


1879 


John T. Clark . 


Boston 


1879 


Julyl, 79 


Lyman Belknap . 


Westborough . 


Still in office. 


" 1879 


Anne B. Richardson . 


Lowell 


It K 


" 1879 


M. J. Flatley 


Boston 


Li U 


" 1879 


Milo Hildreth . 


Northborough . 


(( a 


" 1879 


George W. Johnson . 


Brookfield 


a (< 


" 1879 


Samuel R. Heywood . 


Worcester . 


(< t( 


" 1879 j 


Adelaide A. Calkins . 


Springfield 


u u 


July 9, '80 


Elizabeth C. Putnam . 


Boston 


(< (< 




* Deceased. 







PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18. 



REPORT OF THE OFFICERS 



OF THE 



State Industrial School foe Gikls, 



LANCASTER. 



1880. 



BOSTON : 

EantL gforg, Sc Co., Printers to ij}c Commontoealtfj, 

117 Fkanklin Street. 
1881. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT, 



To the Trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — I submit to you the follow- 
ing report, the twenty-fifth in the history of the school, 
presenting facts that possibly may be a repetition of some 
statements made in my quarterly reports, but which, in this 
annual report, it may be well to repeat. The tabular state- 
ments you will find at the close. In looking back over the 
past }^ear we hope some progress has been made in the right 
direction, and, making allowance for errors of judgment, we 
trust the school is, to some extent, accomplishing good 
results, and carrying out the wish of its founders. 

It is well known to those long engaged in reform work, 
that great strides have been made in methods ; yet, on the 
whole, patient painstaking and charity are necessary to 
success Quite a proportion of the girls, when received, are 
sadly ignorant ; and it is with pleasure that we can report 
favorably of the schools. We have a school in each family 
of three hours each day, when the common English branches 
are taught. Compositions are expected once in two weeks ; 
and gymnastic exercises, introduced last year, have been 
profitably continued. No girl is allowed to be absent from 
the schoolroom except for sickness. We think greater care 
has been observed in the selection of homes for girls than 
heretofore ; and we are regularly receiving reports, through 
the State House, from the auxiliary visitors, giving such 
information as to the character and behavior of girls placed 
in families, as enables us to judge whether the girl is doing 
well or otherwise. A very large number have been sent out 
the past year, and with few exceptions they are doing well. 
As a general thing, the girls have performed their allotted 



134 INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. [Oct. 

tasks cheerfully and well. Relieving that it is a sin to be 
indolent, we have encouraged industry. 

No doubt one object of the school should be to so train 
and educate these girls that labor will be properly appre- 
ciated as the means of obtaining a livelihood, and that true 
and honest labor will not go unrewarded. Housework and a 
knowledge of the culinary art is paramount to a trade. We 
have no difficulty in procuring homes for deserving and 
efficient girls. To learn to sew, to knit, to do housework 
neatly, to make good bread, to wash and iron clothes, to set 
a table, which is more of an art than at first sight it seems to 
be, should be, and we think is, taught by our housekeepers 
to quite a degree of perfection. The girls have earned 
in the hosiery-room, to the 19th of September, 1981.54. 
On account of drought the mill that supplies yarn was 
obliged to stop. This feature of the school must commend 
itself to all. Carter & Wilson of Lawrence supply this 
work, and they have performed their duty as well as was 
in their power to do. The firm have paid the girls quite a 
sum for overwork. We regard this department, or some- 
thing equivalent, as very important in a school of this kind, 
as the mind as well as the hands are employed. Upon the 
farm quite a number of costly improvements have been made, 
on account of which it is appraised five hundred dollars 
higher than last year. Still very much hard work must 
be performed before the farm will become a model one. To 
increase the hay-crop, improve the stock, and conduct the 
farm with an eye to profit, is not only desirable, but duty. 
You will see by the report of the farmer that our milk-sales 
are increasing. We consume seventy quarts of milk per day, 
and the balance is sold. The abundance of milk and vege- 
tables consumed has much to do with the health of the 
inmates. 

The condition of drains, cellars, and surroundings of the 
buildings, viewed from a sanitary standpoint, we think must 
be satisfactory. 

Many improvements and alterations have been made the 
past year. The cellars of the four houses have been 
cemented ; also about one hundred square yards in the cellar 
of the barn. New floors have been put down in some of the 
rooms of the houses ; quite a number of sleeping-rooms have 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 135 

been sheathed ; four hundred yards of concrete walk have 
been laid ; upwards of one hundred and seventy rods of wire 
fence have been set upon the roadside, and great expense has 
been incurred in disposing of the sewage of the houses. 
These and many minor improvements have drawn largely 
from our resources. 

Although the outlook has at times been disheartening, yet 
in many instances we can point to changes for the better, — 
wills subdued, tempers mastered, and repeated instances of 
girls who were once exceedingly troublesome now worthy of 
trust, some of them sent away from the school to homes. 
Quite often we receive letters from them expressing in grate- 
ful language the benefit they received from the school. The 
general tone of the school at the present time is good. 

The zeal with which they have attended to study and work 
has been very commendable, and they are in a measure com- 
pensated by having more privileges. Many pleasant hours 
have been spent in collecting flowers and autumn-leaves, and, 
with the officers, pleasant walks off the grounds have been a 
delight. 

We have girls in this school who appreciate refinement 
and good taste, who should be by themselves and not be so 
liable to contamination b} r being obliged to mingle freely with 
those whose aims are low and mean. 

The idea of classification has been discussed ; but the diffi- 
culties seem insuperable, and it has been abandoned for the 
present: yet I think the advantages are so manifest that I 
hope in the near future that it may be attempted. The health 
of the school is remarkable. Most of the girls, when com- 
mitted, are pale and thin ; but in the course of weeks they 
improve wonderfully in their physical condition, speaking 
volumes for a generous diet, cleanly habits, and systematic 
living. 

Conclusion. 

We have had fewer changes of officers the past year than 
heretofore, and great credit is due them for their co-operation 
in carrying out wholesome rules and regulations. I would 
express my appreciation of the many indications of good will 
on the part of the Board of Trustees, and for their assistance 
to me as superintendent. I am also thankful to a kind Provi- 



136 INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. [Oct. 

dence in prospering our school to such an extent, and most 
sincerely hope that the school will meet the expectations of 
its friends, and that its future will, in the highest sense, be 
satisfactory. 

Respectfully submitted. 

N. PORTER BROWN, Supt. 

Lancaster, Sept. 30, 1880. 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



137 



STATISTICS. 



Number present in the school 


Sept. 30, 1S79 . 






76 




received from indenture . 






3 




received from the courts . 








. 30 




returned from service 








19 


128 


Number in the school Sept. 30, 1880 










71 


still under indenture . 








. 14 




at service on probation 








. 56 




become of age during the year 








. 24 




delivered to friends . 








. 6 




placed at service and returned 








. 6 




delivered to Board of State Charities 






2 




discharged as unsuitable . 






1 




in jail for attempting to burn No. 2 . 






. 1 




Number placed at service since Sept. 30, 1880 






44 




sent home to friends .... 






. 6 




sent to Tewksbury .... 






4 




escaped ...... 






1 


. 


under sentence in jail 






1 




— 


56 


Of those now in the school, there were bom, — 




In Massachusetts ... 53 




Rhode Island 














2 




New Hampshire 














2 




New Jersey 














2 




Canada 














2 




England 














6 




Connecticut 














. 1 




New York . 














2 




Maine 














1 


71 


Of American parentage 














29 




American (colored) 














4 




Portuguese 














1 




Scotch 














2 




German 














1 




English 














2 




French 














3 




Irish . 














28 





— 71 



138 INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. [Oct. 

Of those now in the school, — 

Both parents living ........ 34 

One parent living ......... 26 

Orphans 9 

Unknown .......... 2 

— 71 
Lived at home ......... 43 

from home ......... 28 

— 71 
Could read and write when committed . . . . .57 

read, and not write ....... 6 

neither read nor write ....... 8 



Attended some religious service, 



Regularly 37 

Seldom 30 

Not at all 4 

Of those now members of the school, there are, — 

Of ten years of age 1 

eleven . 1 

twelve .......... 2 

thirteen .......... 6 

fourteen .......... 7 

fifteen 13 

sixteen .......... 14 

seventeen .......... 17 

eighteen .......... 4 

nineteen 5 

twenty 1 

Average age, 15^ years. 

Of those committed this year, there were, — 

Of ten years of age ........ 2 

twelve .......... 2 

thirteen .......... 3 

fourteen .......... 8 

fifteen 4 

sixteen . 10 

seventeen .......... 1 

Average age, 14^ years. 

Committed on charge, — 

Of stubbornness 17 

larceny .......... 5 

lewdness .......... 5 

vagrancy .......... 1 

idle and disorderly 2 



71 



71 



71 



30 



30 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



139 



Received this year, — 










. 


From Suffolk County 

Middlesex County 
Worcester County. 




• 






. 6 

. 5 
. 5 


Berkshire County . 
Bristol County 
Essex County 
Hampden County . 
Franklin County . 
Barnstable County 




• 






. 1 
. 4 
. 6 
. 1 
. 1 
. 1 


Of the whole number since the opening of the schoc 


have received, — 




From Suffolk County 


317 


Middlesex County . 
Essex County 
Worcester County . 
Bristol County 
Norfolk County . 
Hampden County . 
Berkshire County . 




• 






. 197 
. 162 
. 131 
. 91 
. 56 
. 35 
. . 32 


Hampshire County 
Plymouth County . 
Barnstable County 










. 19 
. 19 
. 14 


Franklin County . 




. 






. 10 



30 



1,083 



Daily Programme. 



The following is a daily programme for half of the year, 
from Oct. 1 to April 1 

5.30 to 6 
6 to 6.45 
6.45 to 7.15 
7.15 to 7.45 
7.45 to 8 
8 to 11.45 
11.45 to 12 
12 to 12.30 
12.30 to 12.45 
12.45 to 2.45 
2.45 to 3.15 
3.15 to 5.30 . 
5.30 to 5.45 . 
5 45 to 6.15 . 
6.15 to 7.30 . 
7.30 to 8 

In winter the cl 



Rise, wash, and pass to schoolroom. 
School. 

Breakfast and devotions. 
Care of rooms, and ready for work. 
Recess. 
Work. 

Ready for dinner. 
Dinner. 
Recess. 
Work. 
Recreation. 
School. 
Recess. 
Supper. 

Recreation, miscellaneous exercises, &c. 
Call the roll, devotions, and retire, 
apel-bell rings at 5.30. 



In summer the chapel-bell rings at 5.15. 



140 



INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. [Oct. 



Schedule of Persons employed, and the Amount paid each. 



SAME9. 



Nature of Service. 



Animal 

Salary. 



Amount 
Paid. 



N. Porter Brown 
8. M. Brown . 
Olivia Safford 
M. II. Brewster 
8 P. Pearson 
M. B. Bullard 

B. N. Rich . 
A. C. Darling 

C. C. Chamberlain 
A. D. Holmes 

F. C. Ela 
M. A Ashley 
M. A. Sprague 
Amelia Schumaker 
W. P. Holder 
0. F. Danforth 
J. A. Hall 
M. E. Maxwell 
Jane McLean . 
1). A. Thurston 
A. E Gifford . 
E. C. Darling 
Emma Moulton 
Eliza Newhall 
Philena Carkin 

E. D. Holden 
M. S. Giffin . 
A E. Burnham 

F. E. Poiter . 
Geo. M. Morse 
H. C. Greeley 
H. E. 8 wan . 
George Babcock 
John Littlehall 
John Taylor . 
Thomas Hickey 
Michael Fay . 

Total 



Superintendent 
Assistant Supt. 
Matron 



Teacher 



Housekeeper 



Sub. as 
Teacher . 
Housekeeper 
Teacher . 



Matron . 
Teacher . 
Physician 
Physician * 
Treasurer * 



Housekeeper 



$1,300 00 
350 00 
350 00 
350 00 
350 00 
350 00 
350 00 
300 00 
300 00 
300 00 
300 00 
300 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
208 00 
250 00 
250 00 
300 00 
250 00 
300 00 
300 00 
3()0 00 
350 00 
300 00 
200 00 
100 00 
100 00 
700 00 
35 00f 
35 00f 
33 00f 
33 00f 
1 25± 



,224 99 
349 92 
349 92 

56 40 
161 16 
184 20 
291 60 
261 51 
300 00 
141 18 

85 21 

54 93 
233 93 

92 22 
105 24 
119 93 

55 36 
41 66 

193 63 

30 42 

19 87 

37 35 

8 90 

25 00 

5 84 

12 66 

65 23 

69 68 

100 02 

49 98 

108 31 

699 96 

245 00 

155 00 

290 00 

381 00 

23 75 



$6,630 96 



* Office expired April 1, 1830. 



t Per month. 



X Per day. 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



141 



EXPENDITUEES FOR YEAR ENDING SEPT. 30, 

1880. 



Salaries, wages, and labor 
Provisions and supplies . 
Fuel and lights .... 
Clothing, furniture, and bedding . 
Tools and sundries for the farm 
Transportation and medical supplies 
Repairs, lumber, and hardware 
All other current expenses 



Cash paid into the State Treasury from sales and labor 
Cash on hand, and bills receivable . 



$6,630 96 


3,469 70 


1,042 85 


2,333 92 


435 89 


535 48 


2,871 78 


2,032 98 


$19,353 56 


$1,934 33 


401 53 



$2,335 86 



The cost per capita is as follows : — 

Average number of girls for the year has been 76. 
Average weekly cost, $4.90. 

Average weekly cost after deducting money paid into State Treasury and 
on hand from earnings, $4.30. 



142 INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. [Oct. 



INVENTORY OF PROPERTY. 



,700 00 



Real Estate. 

Chapel $3,000 00 

House No. 1 8,700 00 

No. 2 8,700 00 

No. 4 9,000 00 

No. 5 3,500 00 

Superintendent's house 3,250 00 

Hosiery-shop 550 00 

Farmer's house and barn 1,400 00 

Wood-house 75 00 

Ice-house 150 00 

Store-house No. 3 25 00 

Store-room 250 00 

Large barn 4,000 00 

Stewart barn 200 00 

Reservoir-house ....... 100 00 

Farm, 175 acres . . ' 6,500 00 

Wood-lot, ten acres 300 00 

5 

Personal Property. 

Property in the house of the Superintendent . . $669 79 

in house No. 1 1,141 98 

No. 2 1,146 94 

No. 4 933 60 

No. 5 480 00 

in chapel, including library . . . 650 00 

Provisions and groceries ..... 245 00 

Dry-goods 484 65 

Fuel 980 00 

Valuation of stock . 1,439 50 

Produce of farm on hand . . . . . . 2,119 97 

Farming tools and carriages 1,606 61 

Amount of personal property . . . $11,897 84 

Amount of real estate . .• . . 49,700 00 

Total $61,597 84 

JEREMIAH MOORE, \ A ^ 
G. W. WELLINGTON,) rr 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 143 

Worcester, ss. 

Sept. 2, 1880. 

Personally appeared the above-named Jeremiah Moore and G. W. 
Wellington, and made oath to the statement by them subscribed before 
me. 

J. L. S. THOMPSON, Justice of the Peace. 



144 INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. [Oct. 



FARMER'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Industrial School. 

The season has arrived for the husbandman to gather the 
fruits of his toil, and our thanks are due the overruling Prov- 
idence for so bountifully bestowing upon us his gifts. 

The accompanying statistics will show the result of our 
labors upon the farm for the year ending Oct. 1, 1880. 

The crops have been very good, with a few exceptions. 
Strawberry-plants set in the spring were on rather light soil 
highly manured, and the dry weather following soon after 
killed so many that it was thought advisable to devote the 
ground to some forage crop ; and therefore millet-seed was 
sown with good results. 

The hay- crop was fair, on moist ground, although not as 
good as last season ; but the newly seeded on light soil was 
much affected by the drought which prevailed throughout 
New England. 

The income from the dairy is greater than last season, 
owing in part to having received more remunerative prices 
for its products. We hope to still further increase the pro- 
ductiveness of farm and dairy ; and, to do it, greater facilities 
for the making of fertilizing material are much needed. We 
have now about fifty hogs and pigs, and our accommodations 
are very limited. I would respectfully suggest, that, if a pig- 
gery could be built, it would add greatly to the convenience, 
and at the same time materially advance the interests, of the 
farm. 

Some improvements have been made in the farm depart- 
ment. One half-mile of substantial barb-wire fence, of the 
Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Co.'s pattern, has been 
built ; a few hundred feet of tile-drain have been laid ; run-out 
land ploughed, fertilized, and re-seeded this fall ; and some 
minor improvements attended to. 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



145 



Before closing, there are other matters to which I would 
respectfully call the attention of the Trustees. The pasture 
is in a very neglected condition. It is capable of being made 
the most productive part of the farm r but with our limited 
corps of help, and the many needed improvements nearer the 
school, we have been unable to attend to it. We have also 
about 30 acres of rich meadow-land, on which the quantity 
and quality of grass was scarcely sufficient, the present year, 
to pay for the time expended in securing ; but, owing to the 
scarcity of the hay-crop elsewhere, it was thought advisable 
to cut. This land, to be brought into condition to cultivate, 
should be thoroughly drained. 

The above suggestions are respectfully submitted for your 
consideration. 



Produce on Hand. 



200 barrels apples 








$120 00 


260 bushels potatoes 








156 00 


212 " corn . 








159 00 


150 " onions 








112 00 


40 " beets . 








20 00 


48 " Swede turnips 








19 20 


8 " parsnips 








8 00 


5 " tomatoes . 








3 75 


3f tons mangel-wurzel 








37 50 


% ton marrow squash 








10 00 


2i tons Hubbard squash 








. 75 00 


Beans . 








9 60 


15 bushels rye . 








15 00 


300 " cider apples 








15 00 


Sweet corn . 








1 80 


50 bushels English turnips 








8 25 


Melons ... 








3 00 


Cauliflowers . 








2 00 


Peppers . 








1 00 


Rye- straw 








3 50 


128 gallons vinegar 








16 00 


218 " old cider . 








13 08 


426 " new cider . 








17 04 


20 cords manure 








100 00 


39 tons English hay . 








702 00 


6 " meadow hay . 








54 00 


9 " Hungarian hay 








126 00 


6 u corn stover 








.54 00 



146 



INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. 



[Oct. 



40 



Green corn stover 
Oat- straw 
Pork . 
small pigs 
Pickles . 
Cabbages 



$5 


00 


25 


00 


150 


00 


40 00 


16 


25 


22 


00 



,119 97 



Produce Consumed. 



50 dozen lettuce . 






$30 00 


1,000 pounds rhubarb ' 






10 00 


460 bunches asparagus 






36 80 


23,619 quarts milk . 






708 57 


631 " strawberries 


. 




74 12 


40 dozen cucumbers . 






4 40 


220 quarts currants 






22 00 


298 dozen corn 






35 76 


18^- bushels pease . 






27 75 


21 " green beans 






21 00 


29 dozen summer squash . 






3 50 


150 pounds winter squash. 






1 50 


10 bushels beets . 






10 00 


5 " turnips 






2 50 


46 " potatoes 






46 00 


150 " apples 






22 00 


18 " tomatoes . 






13 50 


Melons . 






10 00 

$1,079 40 



Produce Sold. 

Milk (26,444 quarts) $787 82 

Strawberries (2,021 quarts) .... 237 70 

Calves 21 50 

Hogs 39 50 

Apples 19 35 



$1,105 87 



Summary. 

Cr. 

Produce on hand $2,119 97 

Vegetables consumed . . . . . . 370 83 

Milk consumed ....... 708 57 

Amount of sales for the year ending Oct. 1, 1880, 1,105 87 

Increased value of farm tools and carriages . 330 12 

Keeping horses for school 336 00 

Labor for school 468 75 



^5,440 11 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 147 

Dr. 
Expenses of farm, including wire fence, improve- 
ments at barn, and labor for school . . $2,521 27 
Difference in appraisal of stock .... 356 50 

Salary of farmer 700 00 

Labor of girls on farm ..... 108 64 

Balance in favor of farm 1,753 70 

$5,440 11 



The following: schedule will show the value of the stock as 



'o 



appraised by Messrs. Wellington and Moore : — 

Cattle. 

1 pair oxen ......... $150 00 

17 grade Ayrshire cows . . . . . . . 510 00 

6 Ayrshire cows ........ 300 00 

1 " bull 50 00 

1 " heifer (yearling) 15 00 

4 " calves 32 00 

Horses. 

"Bill" $75 00 

"Dolly" 75 00 

"Jennie" .......... 100 00 

"Fannie" .......... 125 00 

Swine. 

4 breeding sows ......... $60 00 

40 small pigs . . . . ... . . . 40 00 

6 fattening hogs 90 00 

H. E. SWAN, Farmer, 

Lancaster, Sept. 30, 1880. 



148 INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. [Oct. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in Account with Trust Funds op State 
Industrial School. 

Dr. 

1879. 

April 1. To cash of Francis B. Fay, former 

Treasurer 

May 13. dividend of Boston National Bank . 

July 12. amount returned unexpended, — 

Sarah Hewes .... 

1880. 

Jan. 13. Bank tax refunded 



$995 


18 


26 


00 


3 


30 


14 63 



$1,039 11 



Cr. 

1879. 

May 17. Lizzie Hunt Buzzell, by Mrs. A. B. E. . $25 00 
June 24. Paid Mrs. A. B. R., bill of Eliza Gor- 
man 200 00 

July 8. Assistance of Sarah Hewes . . 20 00 

1880. 

March 26. Paid Mary Barton, care Edith Rhodes . 49 54 

June 4. Milo Hildreth, balance of account, 744 57 



$1,039 11 



Milo Hildreth, Treasurer, in Account with Trust Funds of State 
Industrial School. 

Dr. 

1880. 

June 4. To cash of H. C. Greeley, former Treas- 
urer ....... $744 57 

balance paid H. C. G. by former 

Treasurer 684 87 

19. dividend Boston National Bank . 39 00 

$1,468 44 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 149 

Cr. 

1880. 

Aug. 27. By check to S. C. Wrightington for 

Katy Keenan . . . . $25 00 
Sept. 30. check to State Treasurer for bal- 

ance of H. C. G., by F. B. Fay . 684 87 
Balance on hand . . . 758 57 

$1,468 44 

MILO HILDKETH, Treasurer. 
Northborough, Sept. 30, 1880. 



Milo Hildreth, Treasurer, in Account with the Fay Fund, State 
Industrial School. 

Dr. 

1880. 

June 19. To dividends, April 9 and Oct. 8, 1879 . $45 50 
19. dividend, April 14, 1880 . 20 88 

$66 38 

Cr. 

1880. 

Sept. 30. By cash on hand $66 38 

MILO HILDRETH, Treasurer. 
Northborough, Sept. 30, 1880. 



Milo Hildreth, Treasurer, in Account with State Industrial School, 
for Cash to Deposits in Savings Bank, or pay the Girls. 

Dr. 

To cash for girls since June 19, to be deposited in 

savings bank $87 65 

cash withdrawn from savings bank and for la- 
bor 255 29 

$342 94 

Cr. 

By cash deposited in savings bank .... $87 65 
cash paid girls by vote of Trustees . . . 255 29 

$342 94 

MILO HILDRETH, Treasurer. 
Northborough, Sept. 30, 1880. 



150 INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. [Oct. 



HENRY B. ROGERS FUND. 



State Industrial School Library Account, from December, 1878, to 

October, 1880. 

Received from former Library Committee . . $2 53 
Feb. 19, 1879, " " State Treasurer . . 95 00 

April 30, 1880, " " " .... 60 00 



Paid for books, bill No. 1, 1879 

a i< u 9 " 



3, " 

4, 1880 



Balance carried to new account $28 83 





$157 53 


$25 10 




5 25 




54 90 




43 45 






$128 70 





ANNE B. RICHARDSON, 

Chairman Library Committee. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT. — No. 18. 151 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 

To the Trustees of the State Industrial School. 

The health of the Inmates of the school during the past 
year has been generally good. 

There has been no continued disease, and no epidemic 
except a slight influenza, which has recently made its appear- 
ance. * 

The hygienic condition of the school has been much 
improved by attention to drainage, ventilation, and improve- 
ments in the cellars. 

Many of the troubles with which the physician had for- 
merly to contend have been removed by the employment of 
the girls in light farm-work. 

A selection of those who needed the out-door exercise, 
with discretion as to the hours of labor, and the kind upon 
which they were to be employed, has led to good results, and 
filled a want long felt in the school. Children sent to such 
institutions are from a class which is usually regardless of all 
hygienic rules, and which has inherited some of the worst 
forms of disease. 

Taken from such a life, forced to conform to rules, to 
stated hours for sleep, supplied with good food at regular 
intervals, and with a proper amount of exercise, these girls 
soon show a marked improvement in health. 

One girl was sent to the school in a weak condition in 
consequence of diphtheria from which she was just recover- 
ing. With proper care and nursing, she was soon restored 
to strength, and able to attend school, and perform the usual 
household duties. Several others when admitted had coughs, 
and their lungs were in a state indicating incipient phthisis ; 
but, with care and their improved surroundings, it has been 
gratifying to see many of these symptoms removed. Such a 
marked change after entering the school leads to the supposi- 
tion that these girls are in an entirely healthy condition. It 
must, however, be taken into account, that many are suffer- 



152 INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. [Oct. '80.] 

ing from hereditary and acquired taint, and that all forms of 
hereditary disease are aggravated by a life such as the} r have 
led. 

Extreme care and watchfulness are needed ; and it is to 
such care that the excellent condition of the school at this 
time is owing. 

Respectfully submitted. 

F. E. PORTER. 

Worcester, Oct. 1, 1880. 



















DlAQKAM Showinq movement of population at the State Primary School. 


















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Movement for the jear ending Sept. 30, 1880, is designated thus 



•, for the jean ending Sept. SO, 1881, thus 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18. 



ANNUAL REPORT 



THE TRUSTEES 



State Primary and Reform Schools, 



ANNUAL REPORTS OP THE RESIDENT OFFICERS, 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1881. 



BOSTON: 
Ean5j, &oerp, & Co., Printers to t&e Commonwealth 

117 Franklin Street. 

1882. 



€ommontoeoltl) of JftoBeadjusette. 



TRUSTEES' REPORT. 



To his Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The Trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools, 
presenting for the third time reports of the institutions under 
their charge, would respectfully call the attention of those 
whose duty it shall become to consider the welfare and needs 
of these instutitions to the various suggestions in regard to 
them which may be found in the reports of each, and be- 
speak for each the careful consideration their importance 
demands. They have held regular quarterly meetings at each 
institution, making a meeting of the whole Board to take place 
once each month, besides twelve special meetings, exclusive 
of the time spent at Westborough during the examination in 
June and July. The schools have also been visited by indi- 
vidual members of the Board in the manner and much oftener 
than the law requires. 

The Trustees have endeavored to perform the unusually 
arduous duties of the past year with fidelity to the individual 
members of each school, and to the State. If they have 
failed to accomplish all that was expected of them, they 
regret their inability to meet these expectations. 

The time they have cheerfully given to the work they were 
appointed to do will have been profitably employed for them- 
selves, for those under their charge, and for the State, if a part 
of the good they have attempted has been accomplished. 

The result of these attempts, and the present condition of 
the schools, is given in the following reports. 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



THE STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 

This school has a double duty to fulfil : 1st, toward the 
children, many of whom know no other home, who cannot be 
fairly treated unless their bodies are provided with healthful 
food, air, and excercise, and their minds daily filled with 
healthful interests ; 2d, toward the tax-payers, by whom the 
school is supported, who have a right to demand that these 
children be prepared at a reasonable cost to become, so far as 
possible, honest, self-supporting citizens, never to drift back 
and become again a burden upon the State. Let us apply 
these tests to the work of the school. We find that last year's 
report very nearly covered the ground, and that we have only 
to tell of satisfactory progress. 

Those who still suppose Monson to be an almshouse will 
do well to visit it and see for themselves what is being ac- 
complished there. The children are learning not only that 
the world means kindly and well by them, but also that each 
of them has something to do for the good of the whole. 

The day begins at half past five ; breakfast at half past six. 
At half past seven both boys and girls, with the exception of 
those who are to attend the morning school session, take part 
in the housework or outside work, under the direction of the 
officers. Some make beds, others wash dishes and assist in 
the different departments of washing and cooking ; some 
scrub floors in sleeping-rooms, dining-room, and halls ; others 
assist in the nursery. More than fifty boys work on the farm 
and garden and about the barn. 

The girls in the sewing-room and the boys in the tailors' 
shop, four of whom are lame, are kept heartily interested, 
besides accomplishing excellent seams and buttonholes. The 
boys sit cross-legged on a large table. When a boy has learned 
to make himself a whole suit, he is allowed to put in a pair of 
additional pockets. 

Their world is not so small as to be exclusive ; its popula- 
tion is constantly changing, and bringing variety. See report 
of the Superintendent. 

There is but little formality about their life, except that 
their hours are regular and their meals sure to come at the 
appointed times. They are allowed to run about the farm, 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 5 

under certain restrictions ; they pick berries, and with their 
earnings they are allowed to visit the village occasionally to 
buy trifles, or have a tinotype taken. The high fences on 
the south and west and across the play-ground have been 
found no longer necessary ; the children have the fine air and 
open view which used to be reserved for officers and guests. 
A dozen, mostly new-comers, took advantage of the new 
privileges to run away, but soon returned voluntarily or were 
retaken. From twenty to a hundred at a time have been 
trusted by themselves outside the grounds in the woods and 
fields. The boys lend a hand to whatever work is going on 
1 n repairing the buildings. An atmosphere of kind temper, 
busy helpfulness, and good cheer pervades the school. The 
training is sensible and thorough, so far as it goes with their 
simple appliances. Were it not for the additional cost, we 
should be glad to let the older girls spoil a little material in 
learning to cook, and make each responsible for the changing, 
washing, and mending of her own clothes. 

The corps of assistants and teachers has been carefully 
chosen ; some of them having been on duty here for several 
years past, others lately enlisted. After their morning and 
afternoon sessions are over, the teachers often invite some of 
the children to their rooms to be taught verses, dialogues, 
etc., for the evening entertainments, which, in their turn, have 
greatly enlivened the school, discovering unexpected talent 
on the part of some of the children, and causing much merri- 
ment to the rest. There is almost nothing of the repression 
which so often proves the bane of institution life, leading 
children to hide their real feelings and desires. They are 
allowed some knowledge of the world outside. On asking a 
boy, who was reading intently, "What news from the Presi- 
dent? " he answered, " He got there safe ; but his pulse went 
up." Surely, next best to putting children into the world is 
to bring outside interests to them, while they can be watched 
and any harmful influence discovered and checked as in a 
good home. 

Attention was called last year to the question of court 
children being placed temporarily in the primary school by 
the Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity. We have reason 
to believe that, as the school is now carried on, our fears were 
groundless ; the result of the year's experience has been to 



6 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

show that while good influences so preponderate the experi- 
ment may safely be continued. It must be remembered that 
great pains have been taken by the officers attending the 
courts to take into the care of the Board only those whom 
they judge not to be in need of the discipline of the reform 
or industrial schools, but those who need only to be checked 
and set on the right track. 

In several instances where a family has been broken up, 
one of the children has been sent from the court for some 
petty offence, while a sister or brother has drifted in from 
the almshouse. 

" " had been allowed to run wild and fall into bad 

company ; her energies turned into the wrong direction. She 
was taken into the care of the Board of Health, Lunacy, 
and Charity. She was fretful and unhappy for several weeks. 
The teachers made her a special object of their care. Soon 
the healthful influences won her over. She showed not one 
bad tendency ; never disobeyed ; soon excelled in housework, 
which she had at first disliked ; and in less than a year has 
taken a place, where she is valued and perfectly contented. 
This is an unusually favorable instance, but it is by no means 
unprecedented. 

There is one problem which cannot easily be solved until 
still more thoroughly tested, i.e., the benefit to a child of 
two or three years' stay in the primary school, as compared 
with the same time spent in a family such as can generally 
be found, with or without board, according to the age of the 
child. On the one side, it is urged that children taken from 
miserable homes, and sent out from the school too soon, with- 
out having been fairly cleansed, prepared, developed, and 
trained, will be fitted to enter only the poorest homes, or will 
be soon returned to the school as unsatisfactory ; that while 
they are sure here of at least half a day's schooling all the 
year round, their chances outside are sometimes limited to 
the one term of a country schoolhouse. On the other hand, 
there is danger that in any institution the very certainty 
and regularity of meals, above referred to, may relieve the 
child of the actual sense of responsibility that must be 
shared by all the members of an ordinary household where 
dinners do not appear like Aladdin's feast, where the child 
knows that it would go hungry and cold, in case any of the 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 7 

family should fail to gather the wood and chop it, or to milk 
the cow, or to earn the money to buy the flour, and make 
sure that the barrel is not left empty. 

These children of pauper parents cannot be taught too 
early to rely upon their own exertions ; in many cases our 
natural teachers — cold and hunger ■ — will be needed to spur 
them on. They have not, as a rule, the energy, physical or 
moral, that enables children of a higher intelligence to battle 
with discomfort and hardship for the sake of some future 
success. It is found that those who are sent back from their 
places are often more difficult to manage, and have lost the 
tidy and industrious habits they had learned in the school. 
This may be from some fault in the place ; but it may be that 
the unwarmed farm-house and its homely requirements are 
less easy and attractive to the child than even the simple 
conditions and regular life of the primary school. 

We find that, except in rare instances, these children must 
sooner or later earn their way by helping on a farm, or in 
housework, and so come by degrees to take the standing in 
the community for which they are fitted. We find that it is 
not so much technical skill as a habit of self-reliance that 
will help them on ; that even cleanly and industrious habits 
will soon be thrown aside, unless the child is made respon- 
sible and self-dependent at every step. Weighing these 
considerations carefully, the Trustees recommend that the 
children should be placed out as fast as good homes can be 
found ; many details being left, of course, to the discretion 
of the Superintendent. If, then, the Visitors do their part 
faithfully, they will study the interest of each child, and 
recommend its return to the school, if the influence of the 
home seem on the whole unfavorable. Having learned a 
little about the requirements of life outside, the child may 
be better for a term in the school. 

Placing Children out at Board. 

This experiment has not yet been fairly tried, because the 
appropriation for the year did not prove large enough to 
cover the cost of improvements most needful for children 
within the school, and also to provide for boarding out in 
any considerable numbers. In one sense it may be said not 
to be a good business investment to carry on the school for 



8 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

a certain number of children and to board out others. Al- 
though the cost per year for each child at board is about the 
same as the per capita cost within the school, the latter is not 
proportionately diminished. It is well known that a large 
institution can be carried on at less expense for each indi- 
vidual than a smaller one. If, however, these small children, 
who would not find homes free of expense until of an age to 
be self-supporting, can be boarded for a year or so with 
families who will be likely to adopt them, they would, when 
adopted, cease entirely to be a charge upon the State. 

The system has been carefully planned, and only waits for 
means to be carried out. The rules and regulations, of which 
we give a copy in the appendix, were drawn up after careful 
study of those already found practicable in organizations long 
experienced in this work. Mrs. Calkins, of Springfield, was 
commissioned by the Superintendent of Indoor Poor, Nov. 
27th, 1880, to act as Auxiliary Visitor, without a district, for 
the purpose of finding homes in "Western Massachusetts for 
such of the primary school children as the Trustees may see 
fit to board out, and also for the visitation of the same. 
This, of course, to be done in connection with the visitors 
of the several districts, with whom she was authorized to 
correspond, and with whom it is desirable that she should 
consult if possible. 

Thorough investigation has been made of the homes of 
applicants before the children are placed. Reports of these 
investigations are submitted to Mrs. Calkins, for approval or 
disapproval, and the result is by her made known to the head 
of the department. She is to have constant knowledge of 
the welfare of the children, through frequent communications 
with the local visitors, and also through occasional visits. 
The easy visitation of the children by the local visitors is 
considered to be so important, that a home, though it may be 
a good one, if inaccessible, is declined. The expense of suit- 
able and comfortable clothing for children at present boarded 
out is much reduced by the voluntary contributions of sew- 
ing and second-hand material furnished by the families who 
have them in charge, which doubtless can be counted on to a 
considerable degree. 

Precautions will be taken to secure proper medical attend- 
ance when required, and at the same time to provide against 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 9 

undue expenditure. The method proposed is to arrange be- 
forehand, so far as is possible, with qualified medical men 
residing in the towns where the children are boarded, to at- 
tend them at a reduced price. The local visitor can make 
these arrangements, or she can delegate permission to the 
family to make them, according as it seems best. Thus far, 
the few medical consultations have been almost without ex- 
ception gratuitously rendered. 

The Board of Trustees recommend that the Legislature 
allow a separate appropriation to be expended by the Trustees 
of State Primary and Reform Schools for boarding out not 
less than fifty children, under average conditions of body and 
mind, from the State Primary School at an early age. 

Enough of the disinherited and floating child population 
will still be left to be cared for at the primary school, which 
must continue to serve as a home for those who need to be 
cleansed and fed ; for those who need taming and training ; 
and for those who may be returned from places. 

The Trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools 
have tried to possess themselves of the best suggestions cur- 
rent in the widening field of thought now exercising some 
of the most intelligent minds all the world over. To do good 
in such a way that no harm may come from it is the question 
of the day. Whereas others deal with institutions as a whole, 
the Trustees and the Superintendent deal with individuals 
one after another. They must call these boys and girls by 
their names; they must decide upon the time for sending 
them out, and must receive them again when troublesome. 
If there are weak points in the school training, or in the sys- 
tem of placing or visiting, the consequences are sure to be 
felt in the institution, as in a family, where the black sheep 
and the weaklings come back because not wanted elsewhere. 

One point is sure, — the work of the school itself is so 
nearly satisfactory that we have but few suggestions to make 
as to its mangement ; nay, more, the State cannot compensate 
the Superintendent and his assistants for all they are giving 
out of their hearts and lives. They have discovered meth- 
ods of dealing with these small waifs, with roguish boys and 
wilful girls, to which their various natures respond. 

For water-supply and repairs on the old hospital, see 
Superintendent's report. 



10 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

The New Hospital. 

Through the kindness of Mr. J. C. Hoadley, of the Board 
of Health, Lunacy, and Chanty, a plan was prepared which 
proved to require more money than the simple plan upon 
which the original estimates of the Trustees had been based. 

Mr. Hoaclley's plan was to construct solid plank walls, floors, 
and ceilings, closely filled with tarred paper ; the inside of the 
ward sheathed with matched pine. By this arrangement, all 
air-spaces were to be avoided, thus protecting in the best way 
from cold outside, and from holding contagion within. On 
finding this construction more expensive than ordinary lath 
and plaster, the Trustees proposed to build a hospital of two 
wards only, with halls, nurses' rooms, and bathing-rooms all 
complete, such as could be covered by the appropriation. 
After conscientious deliberation and consultation with the 
Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity, it was decided to con- 
sult the next Legislature before proceeding. 

Although the primary school at Monson is no place for 
showy architecture or fanciful decoration, it is likely to be a 
permanent institution, with cases of contagious disease fre- 
quently occurring, and needing isolation in order to prevent 
their spreading in a manner dangerous to the sick as well as 
injurious to the whole institution. 

The condition of the old hospital building, the smell which 
clung to its walls and became offensive the moment it became 
necessary to shut out the cold fresh air, showed the difficulty 
of keeping ordinary walls and floors pure and clean. 

In October, 1880, Drs. Blake, Wadsworth, and Bradford 
kindly consented to visit the primary school, to consult with 
Dr. Holbrook as to cases requiring special treatment. Much 
good resulted from their visit. Lists were made of all chil- 
dren in need of special treatment for eyes or ears, many of 
whom come daily to the nurse, as out-patients, without giving 
up school lessons or other occupations. Two boys were 
treated at the Carney Hospital, by Dr. Bradford. The knee 
of one, which was fixed at an angle, is now almost straight, 
so that he can walk with a cane ; the other, with two club 
feet, now walks on the soles of the feet. Little Willie Col- 
lins, supposed to be hopelessly crippled, who for nearly two 
years had been lifted from his bed to his chair and back 
again, can now walk, by the help of a hand or a chair, and 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 11 

seems to have gained much in intelligence while in the 
Children's Hospital, also under Dr. Bradford's care. The 
Massachusetts Hospital, the Good Samaritan Eye and Ear 
Infirmary, and Blind Asylum, have each received one or more 
of the primary school children requiring special treatment. 

Only when we have done our utmost to bring these chil- 
dren into the best condition of which they are capable may 

we rest content. 

APPENDIX. 

Regulations to Govern the Placing Out of Children at Board from the Massa- 
chusetts Stale Primary School. 

1. The price per week for board and clothes shall be determined by 
the age of the child, but shall not exceed $1.50 per week, and such sup- 
plies of clothing as may be deemed necessary, or its equivalent in money, 
except by a special agreement with the Superintendent and the Monson 
Committee. Payments may be made quarterly. No compensation shall 
be paid for the support of any child over ten years of age except in cases 
of infirmity or deformity, by the express permission of the Trustees. 

2. Children before leaving the institution shall be examined by the 
physician, and a certificate given stating their physical condition; any 
physical defect, such as the loss of an eye, partial deafness, or any 
deformity, shall be mentioned, and a similar examination and certificate 
shall be required when the child is returned to the school. The result of 
both examinations shall be added to the record of the child. 

3. Histories of children shall not be given, except as to whether or 
not they are orphaned. Illegitimacy shall not be mentioned. 

4. A distinct understanding shall exist that persons taking children 
are to treat them, so far as possible, as their own, and place the children 
in a condition of equality with the family. 

5. When there is a probability of future adoption, applicants may be 
allowed preference in selecting a child, but otherwise the selection shall 
be by those having the children in charge. 

6. Not more than two children, unless brothers and sisters, shall be 
boarded in one family. 

7. Brothers and sisters shall be placed in the same neighborhood 
whenever practicable. 

8. Cases of illness shall be immediately reported to both the Visitor 
and Superintendent. Children affected with diseases assuming a chronic 
character may be returned to the institution. 

9. Children from six to ten years of age shall attend school the entire 
school year established in the town where they reside; shall have the 
usual religious privileges of church and Sabbath-school; shall be taught 
the care of their clothing and other personal effects; and girls shall be 
trained in household duties, knitting, sewing, and mending, according to 
their strength. 

10. No child shall be boarded out of the State. 

[Passed at a meeting of the Trustees of the State Primary and Reform 
School held at Monson, July 14, 1880.] 



12 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



STATE REFORM SCHOOL AT WESTBOROUGH. 

In some respects this has been a trying year, and the 
supervision of this school has made large demands on the 
time and thought of the Trustees. 

The school, however, notwithstanding some unpleasant in- 
cidents which have operated to prevent the fall measure of 
success desirable, has not been wholly unprofitable. Its mis- 
fortunes have been widely heralded, and ready pens have 
recorded for the public eye whatever of ill has happened to 
it ; while the quiet work which has been going on for the im- 
provement of the discipline, and for the better intellectual 
and industrial training of the boys, and the general appear- 
ance of good feeling and good order in the school, have not 
been so publicly mentioned. Thus the misbehavior of a few 
bad boys in the main buildings, encouraged and aggravated 
by hostile influences from without, has given to the public a 
more unfavorable impression of the school than has been 
warranted by its actual condition. A large majority of the 
boys, especially those in the family houses, have been well 
behaved, and have seemed to be interested in the efforts made 
for their improvement. 

The health of the school has been good. There has been 
but one death during the year, and, as will be seen by the 
report of the physician, no other serious sickness originating 
within the institution. 

Rev. L. H. Sheldon, the superintendent since 1878, in- 
formed the Trustees, in October, that, " having for some time 
meditated retiring from reform school life and work," he 
resigned his position, to take effect whenever his successor 
should be chosen. Early in November Mr. Edmond T. 
Dooley was elected superintendent 

In order that he might become familiarized with the work- 
ings and routine of the institution before actually assuming 
the duties of the superintendency, Mr. Dooley, at the request 
of the Trustees, and in full accord with the wishes of Mr. 
Sheldon, resided at the school the two weeks previous to the 
commencement of his official term. 

He entered upon the performance of his duties the first 
day of December, with the freshness, vigor, and hopeful zeal 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 13 

of a young man impressed with the importance of his under- 
taking, and full of confidence in his ability to succeed in 
what he considered his special mission. The labors of one 
for the first time taking charge of a large institution are 
necessarily arduous and perplexing, and the usual and ordi- 
nary difficulties incident to a new administration were greatly 
enhanced by the imperative demand made upon the time and 
attention of Mr. Dooley for the profitable disposal of the 
large number of sleighs on hand, and the preparation for a 
market of a great accumulation of material in process of 
manufacture. The season of the year compelled immediate 
action, and the business could not well or wisely be deferred 
to a more convenient season ; for it was important to press 
the work with all possible despatch, to meet the demands of 
the trade and the favorable prices which would probably con- 
tinue but a few weeks longer. Mr. Dooley responded to this 
call with a prompt ability which merited and secured profit- 
able and satisfactory results ; at the same time he was forced 
to take immediate steps to introduce more system into the 
conduct of affairs and to secure a better discipline among 
the officers. Changes were needed in the different depart- 
ments, with a view to remedy abuses which had gradually 
gained a foothold. Privileges originally granted to the offi- 
cers as favors, in compliance with requests made for special 
occasions, had, by frequent enjojanent, come to be considered 
as rights to be claimed. More stringent regulations were 
necessary regarding the use of State property, and decisive 
measures were required for the enforcement of existing rules, 
which, by continued non-observance, had become practically 
void and obsolete. These changes and reforms could not be 
effected without a departure from previous routine, and an 
apparent infringement on what some among the officers con- 
sidered their rightful privileges; these, proving restive under 
necessary and wholesome restrictions placed upon them, mani- 
fested a disinclination or an inability to work in harmony 
with the superintendent, and he thought it best to ask for 
their resignations and to dispense with their further service. 

Several officers were discharged to make room for persons 
more competent and worthy. Most of the appointments to 
fill the vacancies thus occasioned proved judicious. Mr. 
Dooley udoubtedly made some mistakes; not all of the 



14 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

changes made by him were well timed or well judged. "With 
a strong conviction of the demand for the application of im- 
mediate remedies, and assured of his own honesty of inten- 
tion, he moved, in some instances, with too great haste and 
with too little conciliatory tact and discretion. Some of his 
appointments, hastily made to meet apparent emergencies, did 
not prove successful, and new appointments were necessitated. 
A departure from long-established routine, and the dismissal 
of officers, are disagreeable and unwelcome duties to perform 
at any time ; even if the utmost tact and delicacy are used, the 
performance of them fails to elicit great praise or expressions 
of unbounded regard. In this case, some of the retiring offi- 
cers (there were many honorable exceptions), feeling ag- 
grieved at their discharge, added to the embarrassments of 
the superintendent by circulating injurious and exaggerated 
reports through the newspapers, and otherwise, about the 
condition and management of the school. These reports, 
persistently continued, created an erroneous impression on 
the public mind, and excited a prejudice against the superin- 
tendent and his officers ; they also had a tendency to exert a 
disturbing and mischievous influence on the boys, especially 
on the older ones, and to give encouragement to the disaf- 
fected officers ; and they were potent in their influence to 
bring about the evils which the authors of them professed to 
deprecate. 

In the latter part of June the school seemed to be settling 
into good order ; the punishments, which had necessarily been 
frequent during this state of transition, were diminishing in 
number. But although matters were promising within, the 
charges from without of maladministration and of cruelty 
were so often repeated, and so direct, the Trustees decided 
to make a public examination into the affairs of the school. 
The reasons which influenced them to institute this examina- 
tion, their mode of procedure during its continuance, and the 
conclusions at which they arrived, have been given to the 
Governor and Council, and to the public, through the press, 
together with a minority report, signed by one of the Trus- 
tees who did not agree with the majority in their views. 

Mr. Dooley tendered his resignation to the Trustees, Aug. 
22, to take effect at their pleasure ; and at the regular meet- 
ing held Sept. 1, it was. voted to accept his resignation, to 
take effect on the appointment of his successor. 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 15 

Mr. Joseph A. Allen, who was a former superintendent of 
the school from the year 1861 to 1867, has been appointed 
to succeed Mr. Dooley, to take charge Oct. 15. Mr. Allen's 
former connection with the school, and his long experience 
in the care and training of boys, incline us to the hope and 
belief that his will be a successful administration, and that 
the school will prosper under his care. 

Mr. Dooley leaves with the cordial good-will and respect 
of the Trustees, who desire to express their appreciation of 
his understanding of, and devotion to, the interests of the 
boys, and of his untiring energy in the performance of his 
duties. He came with a strong purpose to root out certain 
serious evils, regardless of consequences to himself. He has 
carried out this purpose, and has accomplished many desir- 
able changes. Neither an individual nor an institution can 
easily recover from a well-planned attack; and those who 
brought their complaints before the public, without first 
giving the Trustees an opportunity to hear them, have much 
to answer for. Had the Trustees refused to investigate, then 
justly might the appeal have been made through the press to 
the world. Those who induced the boys to believe that the 
outside world were in sympathy with their misconduct, and 
favored their escapes, and those who by various means in- 
vited complaints of wrongs never inflicted, must bear the 
responsibility for the very numerous elopements since the in- 
vestigation. 

It has been urged upon us that we owed it to the people 
— whose confidence, whether justly or unjustly, had been 
shaken in the present management — to make a change. As 
no person, whatever his qualifications or character, can suc- 
ceed as superintendent of this institution without the full 
confidence and support of the public, and believing that 
under the circumstances it was for the best good of the 
school, we have accepted Mr. Dooley's resignation as above. 

It will be remembered that a partial consolidation of the 
reformatory and of the industrial departments was made 
last year, under the superintendency of Mr. Sheldon, for the 
purpose of reducing the expenses. The comparatively small 
number of boys distributed through the large buildings 
involved an expenditure greatly disproportioned to the num- 
ber benefited. A still further union of these two depart- 



16 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

ments was made in January last. The expenses have been 
decreased by these measures, but it is doubtful whether the 
saving of the money has compensated for the unfavorable 
effects. As will be seen by reference to the tables accom- 
panying the superintendent's report, the average gross 
weekly cost of each bo}^ for the past year, was $4.20 ; the 
gross average cost for the year previous was $4.57. The 
average net weekly cost, after deducting the amount returned 
to the treasury for sales of produce and manufactures (in- 
cluding sleighs on hand at the beginning of the year), was 
$3.08 ; the average net cost for the year previous was $3.73 ; 
the average net cost per week for the eight years previous 
was $3.05. The actual cost to the State, per week, for each 
boy, for the past year, after deducting the amount ($7,941.36) 
received from towns, was $2.22. 

We would call attention here to the present law, which 
compels the town in which an inmate of the reform school 
has a settlement to pay one dollar a week for the support of 
such inmate, and authorizes the town to collect any sum so 
paid from his parent, kindred, or guardian, liable by law to 
maintain him. 

This law works a great hardship in many cases, and pro- 
duces much dissatisfaction. Parents just over the border 
line of a necessitous condition, who have depended upon the 
assistance of their boy to eke out their frugal means, find 
their poverty made less endurable by his commitment to the 
school and the consequent loss of his labor; and when they 
are called upon to pay the one dollar a week for his support, 
they look upon the additional burden as an unjust punish- 
ment inflicted on themselves for the misconduct of their 
boy. 

The enforcement of this weekly payment has contributed 
largely to the unpopularity of the school, and has prevented 
the commitment of very many who would otherwise have 
been beueflted by its discipline. The intention of the law 
to prevent parents from too readily passing over a trouble- 
some boy to be supported at the cost of the State is undoubt- 
edly a good one ; but it is worthy of serious consideration 
whether the law is not more productive of ill than good. 

We refer to the superintendent's report for an account of 
the improvements which have been made in the family 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 17 

houses for the more healthful accommodation of the boys. 
These "improvements were necessary, and the expenditure a 
wise one. An appropriation was made from the Lyman Fund, 
to meet the expense incurred in improving the sanitary con- 
dition of the farm-house. 

The Trustees also made appropriations from the same fund 
to procure boats for the use of the boys on the lake, for the 
purchase of organs for the chapel and school-rooms, and for 
entertainments in the chapel. We refer to the reports of 
the farmer for information regarding the farm. 

The necessity the State is under to provide for the refor- 
mation of juvenile offenders, and to furnish a home " which 
shall take those who might otherwise be subjected to the 
degradation of prison discipline, separate them from prison 
influences," and give to them such moral, intellectual, and 
industrial training as may be possible, is generally admitted. 
And this school, established to meet this necessity, notwith- 
standing its disturbed history and its somewhat discouraging 
episodes, has afforded valuable and valued opportunities to 
boys — who by the commission of a first offence have rendered 
themselves liable to imprisonment and the brand of a felon — 
to reform under favorable influences, and to become exempt 
from the disgrace which might have otherwise attached to 
them. It has, without a question, been productive of great 
good to many of the class for which it was designed, and has 
been the means of saving numbers from a vicious life. Its 
records amply vindicate the wisdom and foresight of its 
funders and its munificent patron. 

But it has not, in our opinion, done all that it might have 
done ; the results have not been commensurate with the labor 
and treasure expended. For more than thirty-two years of 
its practical working experience it has been the object of 
almost constant criticism and animadversion. With but few 
exceptions, its successive boards of trustees and superintend- 
ents have retired from their positions under pressure of some 
kind brought to bear upon them in consequence of a real or 
fancied deficiency, or of an apparent failure to command the 
desired, and supposed possible, success. Many of the boys 
released have by their subsequent life and character brought 
discredit upon the school; and grave doubts have been awak- 



18 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

ened in the minds of the community as to its efficiency and 
usefulness. The repeated and continued disappointment of 
the expectations of the public, and the failure to obtain more 
satisfactory results, under the different administrations, indi- 
cate some radical defects in the system which need correction. 

It does not require a long experience or a very intimate 
knowledge of the school to convince one that a principal 
cause of its lack of success in conferring the hoped-for and 
expected benefits is the fact that there has been a wide de- 
parture from the plan recommended and adopted by those 
who were active in its establishment. 

It was designed for boys of tender years who were hopeful 
subjects of reform. It has been changed into a place of 
imprisonment for many boys who, through mental or physical 
defects are, or who by long continuance in evil ways have 
become, so perverted in their tastes and habits of thought 
and action, that the discipline of a reform school is unlikely 
to improve them, and who are unfit companions for, or fellow- 
inmates with, the younger and less depraved. The poisonous 
influence of these incorrigibles permeates the whole institution, 
and no isolation that could be approved by a sound judgment 
is possible that will prevent communication of the contagion 
to a greater or less extent. 

The Hon. Theodore Lyman, in reply to inquiries made by 
the commissioners for erecting a State manual labor school, 
wrote, in 1846, the age of admission should not be "over 
fourteen years. Boys of that age are difficult to manage. 
If they have been for some time in a vicious course, they 
become, by fourteen or fifteen, hardened, bad themselves, and 
very fit to make others bad. Not much attention to be paid 
to former character as to admissions. . . . The exceptions 
under this rule as to admissions should be in cases of boys 
that have shown a very depraved disposition ; for a few boys 
of that description in the school might much retard, if not 
prevent, the reform of others, and get no good themselves. 
Where the probability is very strong that a boy is not suscep- 
tible of reformation, he should not be admitted, because the 
probability is greater that he will do harm to others than that 
he will derive benefit himself." 

The commissioners, in their report of 1847, express the 
opinion that, " in a majority of cases, boys over sixteen years 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 19 

of age would be unsuitable subjects ; and the general rule, it 
is thought, should be not to send boys over that age to this 
place. But, subject to the power of rejection, to be vested in the 
trustees, in certain cases, it is proposed to authorize the com- 
mitment to this institution of all boys who make themselves 
amenable to the penalty of the law for any and all crimes." 
The Act of 1847, chap. 165, fixed the age at sixteen years ; 
but provided an alternative sentence, at the discretion of the 
court or justice, to the reform school, or to the punishment 
provided by law for the offence. It also gave the trustees, 
" or any two of them in the absence of others, the power to 
decline to receive any whom they deemed unfit, and to trans- 
fer any whom they found incorrigible, or whose continuance 
in the school was prejudicial to the management and disci- 
pline, to the jail, house of correction, or State prison, in pur- 
suance of the alternative sentence. 

The age fixed by the present law is seventeen years, and 
the Trustees have no power of rejection or transfer. The 
average age of those committed here during the past year 
was fourteen years and seven months — seven months above 
the maximum age recommended by Mr. Lyman. As a con- 
sequence, we have committed to our care boys of the most 
hardened character, some of them guilty of the worst crimes, 
— such as murder, rape, robbery, and burglary, — to be fellow- 
inmates with boys comparatively innocent, who only need 
proper surroundings, with wise care and guidance, to develop 
into worthy and useful citizens. The Trustees encourage a 
boy from his first entrance to begin to earn and merit his 
discharge. One really penitent for his misdoing, and desirous 
of making amends, can, by conforming to the rules and by 
general good conduct, entitle himself to a release in one year 
if the influences of his home seem, on visitaiton and examina- 
tion, to be favorable ; otherwise to a suitable place as soon 
as one can be found for him. This course we think a wise 
one. While it stimulates the better-disposed to greater 
exertions for their own reformation, by the hope of an early 
return to family life, and an opportunity to evidence by their 
conduct the adequacy and salutary effects of their term of 
restraint and training, it also, by the elimination of the better, 
and the retention of the worse, element, leaves a gradually 
increasing residiuum of corrupting matter to vitiate still more 



20 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

the moral atmosphere. The natural effect of these evils on 
the reformatory influences of the school is only too obvious. 
It is evident that the efforts of the officers, however watch- 
ful, capable, and conscientious they may be, though aided by 
the wisest and best-enforced discipline, must be partially if 
not wholly neutralized, by the power of these evil associations 
upon boys whose inclinations are already turning in the wrong 
direction, and whose only hope of reclamation is dependent 
upon our ability to excite new desires and aspirations for the 
good and pure. The evil has been apparent for many years, 
and previous reports have remarked upon it ; but it still con- 
tinues, and the best method of remedying it does not clearly 
appear. As has been already stated, the power of rejection, 
as given to the Trustees in the original act, no longer exists, 
having been taken from them by Act of 1859, chap. 287. 
Neither do they have authority to transfer to other institu- 
tions. They can, by petition to, and the approval of, the 
State Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity, procure the 
removal to the State Workhouse of those whom they con- 
sider incorrigible or unfit subjects for the institution, to be 
held there until the term of sentence expires. The State 
board can return such persons to the school "whenever, in 
its judgment, the object of such transfer has been accom- 
plished." 

The Trustees have been very reluctant to take this course, 
and have hesitated long, perhaps too long, before doing so. 
There seemed a practical injustice in committing a boy to a 
possible sentence of five or six years, after he had, perhaps, 
suffered a quasi imprisoment of one or two years, when the 
offence for which he was originally committed may have been 
punishable by imprisonment for only six months. That he 
has merited the increased punishment by his obduracy and 
intractability may serve as a plausible answer to objectors, but 
it fails to reconcile the mind to the apparent injustice. We 
have deferred availing ourselves of this means of ridding the 
school of these objectionable characters, in the hope that judi- 
cious correction, kind admonition, appeals to the boys' honor 
and ambition, with the inducements of increased privileges 
and early release as a reward for good behavior, would at 
some time develop something of good in them, and that indi- 
cations of a desire to reform might entitle them to a longer 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 21 

probation. But, finding all efforts unavailing, it was decided 
that no longer should the miscouduct of a few imperil the in- 
terest of the whole ; and in August last we petitioned the 
State board to transfer seven of the most refractory to the 
workhouse at Bridge water. A few days after the presentation 
of this petition, and before action could be taken upon it by 
the board, two of those complained of committed an assault on 
the officers with dangerous weapons, and one of them eloped. 
It being uncertain how soon the board would be able to act 
on our petition, more summary measures were deemed advis- 
able for the immediate removal of the offenders. Complaints 
were entered against the two for assault, and against others 
for previous escapes ; they were all bound over before the 
superior court. The one who eloped is still at large, and 
another of the seven is in hospital for the treatment of an ill- 
ness caused by exposure during a recent effort to escape. By 
sending the incorrigible to the workhouse, we can free the 
school from their presence and pernicious influence ; but we 
apparently abandon them to recruit the ranks of confirmed 
criminals. They are too old in years and depravity for a 
reform school ; too young to be subjected to the degrading 
associations of the workhouse. 

The recommendations of the Prison Commissioners, in 
their report of last year, for the establishment of a reforma- 
tory prison, if adopted, would provide a suitable place for the 
transfer of these older boys, who would be too young to 
influence, either by precept or example, those likely to be 
committed there ; while the conduct and presence of these 
older and morally better ones would be restraining and salu- 
tary. To such a prison, if established, might be committed 
all over the age of fourteen, and all, or nearly all, of those 
who require prison discipline and confinement ; thus, by re- 
lieving the school of its greatest burden, prepare the way for 
a fuller measure of usefulness than has hitherto attended its 
efforts. 

The admission and retention of these older boys has not 
only injured the reputation and lowered the moral tone of 
the institution, it has determined the character of the build- 
ings, and has necessitated a discipline and surroundings but 
ill calculated to favorably affect the minds or hearts of the 



22 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

The Trustees have become convinced that the congregate 
system, so called, under which large numbers are brought 
together in one building, and this building a prison, is a fail- 
ure. We would call attention to the fact that while all the 
troubles and disturbances, and nearly all the escapes, have 
been from the main buildings, the boys living in the family 
houses — leading, in many respects, family life, and, under 
family discipline, have, with but few exceptions, been com- 
mendable in their behavior — have manifested a good spirit, 
and have not abused the comparative liberty granted them. 
The average number of boys in the institution during the 
past year was 179.8 ; of these, 83.7 were in the family houses 
and 96.1 in the main building. The number of elopements 
from the three family houses — which are unprovided with 
cells, unprotected by bars or gratings, and as devoid of pre- 
ventives to escape as an ordinary dwelling-house, and where 
only moral influences, with judicious penalties attaching to 
the infringement of rules, were used — was only 9, or 12.6 per 
cent ; while from the main building — the stronghold, where 
the boys seemed to regard the various means for forcible 
restraint as so many challenges to their daring and ingenuity 
— there were 62, or 87.4 per cent. That the larger and more 
troublesome boys are confined in the cells of the main build- 
ing accounts in some measure for this difference ; but only in 
part, for in several instances boys who have repeatedly eloped 
from the main building have been placed in a family house 
and remained without any attempt to escape. 

The effect of committing a young boy to a prison such as 
is this main building, locking him in a brick cell, with all the 
bolts, bars, gratings, and other surroundings of a prison, 
cannot but be degrading and demoralizing, and liable to be 
destructive of all desires for a better life. As the young cul- 
prit looks through the bars of his door into the corridor, to 
see only other bars and gratings beyond, he will hardly feel 
grateful for a leniency which commits him for a possible term 
of six or seven years to this prison for an offence which, if he 
were older, would subject him to confinement to another 
prison — different as to its surroundings only in name — for 
a term of from three to six months : it is rather to be feared 
he will regret that his age prevents him from receiving the 
shorter, although more disgraceful, punishment. lie is, as to 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 23 

outward circumstance, treated as felons are, and the danger 
is he will feel he is one ; that he has taken rank with them, 
and is thenceforth of them. 

The reform school should be regarded not so much a 
place of punishment for crime as a place of protection, educa- 
tion, and reformation, wherein the State affords opportunity 
for the offender to prove by his behavior that he is deserv- 
ing^ of clemency, and where he may be taught and trained 
for a useful life, and have all the helps that can be given him 
to develop and strengthen whatever of good there is in him. 

The subject should be made to understand that he is the 
recipient of a favor, which he is liable to forfeit by miscon- 
duct, and that the sentence prescribed by law for his offence 
is held in abeyance only so long as he makes a proper use 
of the privileges allowed him. Especially should he be taught 
that the sentence during minority does not mean imprison- 
ment, but rather the promotion to greater privileges within 
the school, according to good behavior ; and thence to a place 
outside, where he will feel no restraint from the legal control 
of the school, unless he proves himself in need of restraint or 
recall within its walls. No large number should be held 
who require the bolts, gratings, and discipline of a prison. 
With exceptional cases, boys who cannot be restrained and 
retained by moral influences, and who are not susceptible to 
them, should be provided for elsewhere. 

The Trustees, with a view to remedy the evils attaching 
to the present s} r stem, recommend that the maximum age of 
commitment shall be fixed at fourteen years ; that facilities 
less objectionable than those now available be afforded for 
the disposal of those who, after trial, have shown themselves 
unfitted for the school ; that the main building, with its 
congregate system, be abandoned, and the family system 
adopted. 

This family system is no untried experiment : it has been 
in successful operation for many years in this school, in the 
institution at Mettray, the State School in New Jersey, and 
in other states, with gratifying results. It will fail to reform 
the determinedly vicious, and its buildings will not serve 
as a place for their imprisonment ; but it will, in our opinion, 
afford the opportunities and benefits of a reform school to 
all who are likely to be improved by one. 



24 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

These opinions and suggestions are respectfully submitted 
for consideration, in the hope that they will recommend 
themselves to the judgment of those interested in the work, 
and that proper influences may operate to procure such 
changes as may be needed; if not in the precise form herein 
indicated, then in some other which shall accomplish the 
desired result of relieving the school from its present hin- 
drances. 



THE STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL AT 
LANCASTER. 

The Twenty-sixth Annual Report of the State Industrial 
School shows a condition of the institution in regard to 
numbers unparalleled in its history. 

From its establishment in 1856 there was a general in- 
crease yearly until 1867, when it reached its maximum, and 
the school numbered one hundred and fifty-seven. 

From that time there was a steady decline, with the excep- 
tions of one or two years, until 1874, which closed with only 
eighty-two. There was a small increase from this period 
until 1877. 

Oct. 1, 1875. The year closed with 105, with a whole No. of 152. 
" 1876. " " " " 127, « " " 173. 

" 1877. " " " " 104, " " " 171. 

In March of this year the fire occurred, burning the house 
known upon the grounds as "No. 3," and elsewhere as the 
" Stillwell House." At the time of the fire there were one 
hundred and thirty-eight in the school, with every prospect 
of increasing numbers, as, of the twenty-six commitments of 
that } 7 ear, all but eight were made previous to the fire. The 
five houses were crowded until this occurrence, when the 
destruction of one necessitated immediate reduction of num- 
bers by the discharge — by the indenture and by the placing 
out "on probation " — of all who could with safety to them- 
selves and to others be thus disposed of. From that time, 
the legislature of that year refusing an appropriation for a 
new building to replace the one burned, there has been no 
return to the old average. 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



25 



To give plainly the real condition, past and present, in 
regard to numbers, the following table of commitments, of 
indentures and returns from indenture, with, in more recent 
years, the placing "on probation" and returns from places, 
is submitted, beginning with the year of the largest numbers 
in commitals : ■ — 



18G7 there were 


. 77 


Indentured 


. 61 


Returned 


. 18 


1868 » 


. 56 


" 


. 106 


it 


. 47 


1869 " 


. 58 


<. 1 


. 79 


" 


. 46 


1870 " 


. 44 


(< 


. 47 


it 


. 28 


1871 " 


. 28 


u 


. 57 


<( 


. 26 


1872 " 


. 24 


44 


. . 45 


(< 


. 26 


1873 " 


. 20 


" 


. 40 


t< 


. 28 


1874 " 


. 22 


u 


. 51 


(c 


. 25 


1875 " 


. 53 


(( 


. 34 


4; 


. 16 


1876 " 


. 53 


u 


. 32 


(( 


. 11 


1877 « 


. 26 


u 


. 42 


u 


. 7 


1878 " 


. 32 


u 


. 45 


1 4 


. 8 


1879 " " 


. 35 


" 


. 42 


' k 


. 8 


1880 " 


. 30 


" 


. 44 


4 k 


. 6 


1881 " 


. 29 


44 


. GO 


u 


. 6 



These figures do not include re-commitments, — only those 
sent to the school directly from the courts ; while the num- 
ber of those indentured or sent out signifies, in some in- 
stances, more than one placing of the same individual. The 
returns from indenture cannot be altogether taken as proof 
of the unsatisfactory character of the girls so returned, as 
other than faults may have been causes leading to return to 
the school; but when more than half are returned, it must 
be admitted that there is a want of adaptation, to say the 
least. It is surely cause for satisfaction that the decline in 
the numbers of those returned from places has been steady 
for the last five or six years, and that, with the smallest num- 
ber ever given at the close of a year, this year's report shows 
the largest number, in proportion to the size of the school, 
sent to places and remaining in them of any year since the 
establishment of the school. Although this table may not 
give an account completely accurate, because all the causes 
of increase or decline cannot be so given, it does serve to 
show a diminution of commitments which, with the excep- 
tions of two or three years, has been steady since 1867, and 
the policy of the school in regard to placing out, with the 
success attending it. 



26 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

This decrease in the number of commitments to an institu- 
tion which had been considered by the best judgment of the 
State so necessary at the time of its establisnment would 
seem to indicate a decrease of offenders in the community, or, 
rather, that that community and the courts had lost confi- 
dence in the usefulness of the institution, or that the policy 
which demanded its existence in 1856 had changed, and the 
school is no longer needed in the system of State charitable 
work. 

But it is well known by those connected with this work, 
and familiar with the history of the school, that there have 
been various causes leading to its present condition entirely 
differing from those hinted at above, and some of which it 
may be useful to mention. The Act of 1&70, giving power 
to the visiting agent of the Board of State Charities to 
place, at his discretion, directly in families, all girls brought 
before the courts for offences which would, previous to that 
act, have placed them in the institution, caused an imme- 
diate diminution of commitments to the industrial school, — 
so that in 1873 there were only twenty received from the 
courts, as may be seen by reference to the table. A dif- 
ference between the Board of Trustees then in charge of the 
school and the Board of State Charities did not tend to any 
change in the way of increase, and the number of commit- 
ments continued to decline until 1875, when for this and the 
succeeding year they rose to fifty- three. In March of 1877 
the fire occurred. During the first six months of the year 
there had been eighteen commitments. In the last half of 
the year there were only eight, it being understood by the 
courts that, on account of insufficient accommodations, none 
should be sent who could be otherwise disposed of. That 
they could be otherwise disposed of was proved by that year's 
experience, as since 1877 there has been little increase, — 
thirty-five being the largest number committed in any one 
year, — since which there were thirty in 1880, and the pre- 
sent year the same number. The action of the Board of 
State Charities, through its visiting agent, undoubtedly con- 
tributed more than any one cause to this continued small- 
ness of numbers; and it would be interesting to ascertain 
how far such action, with regard to the girls taken in charge 
by that board, was entirely successful ; or, in other words, 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 27 

how many of the number had ultimately to be sent to Lan- 
caster, or perhaps to Sherburn. It is presumable that the 
percentage would be very small; and it is only alluded to 
here as one means of ascertaining the comparative usefulness 
of such methods of reform. 

The work of the visiting agency of the Board of State 
Charities has, since 1879, been carried on even more 
systematically by the Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity, 
through its department of in-door poor, and undoubtedly 
largely helping to produce the present condition of the 
school as to numbers. 

Another cause operative to the same end, through a 
period of years, has been the tax payable by towns towards 
the support of girls sent from such towns, which has been 
since 1876 increased from fifty cents to one dollar per week. 

Still another has been the certainty finall} 7 forced home to 
parents that all control over the girls during minority, and all 
benefit from their services, were lost to them, and has served 
to prevent complaints being made by them as in former years 
when these facts seemed not to be so well understood. The 
establishment in some cities of municipal institutions for 
their own juvenile offenders, to which the sentences were for 
shorter periods of detention, has not been without an effect 
upon the numbers at Lancaster ; while the general prosperity 
of the last two or three years, with the employment so read- 
ily found for all who would seek it, has had a tendency to 
keep from the streets and from vicious companions many 
who might otherwise have been led into wrong-doing, and 
have become subjects for a reformatory. 

While there has been this gradual but almost unvarying 
decrease in numbers at Lancaster since 1867, there has also 
been a change in the character of those committed there. In 
the early clays of the institution the inmates were sent by 
judges of probate or by commissioners appointed by the 
Governor for the purpose, by whom the antecedents, the 
condition and age, of the girl were carefully considered, as 
well as the chances for reformation. 

There was then less publicity; the girl was oftener of ten- 
der years; her commitment seemed more a matter of charity 
than of intent to punish, and was not infrequently made at 
the recommendation of some benevolent individual, in conse- 



28 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

quence of parental neglect, cruelty, or incapacity to care for 
her. 

The age of admission was limited to sixteen until 1871, 
when it was changed to seventeen. This increase of age 
and consequent hardened character of the girls, the public 
complaint, the public commitment, have all contributed to 
make the institution more undesirable for less vicious and 
younger girls, and have undoubtedly weighed much with 
those having authority to send them there or to place else- 
where. 

The Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity, with a policy 
of keeping out of institutions still more pronounced than that 
of the Board of State Charities, has taken into its custody 
from the courts all that could wisely be so taken. 

The Trustees, in full sympathy with this policy, have car- 
ried the work of placing in families still further, by taking 
from the school all who could be reasonably expected to be 
retained in their, places. They have, indeed, gone further 
from this, and have, as a last resort, placed out some who had. 
been considered " incorrigible," and not without a degree of 
success which has taught them that there are none of whose 
partial reform they need despair ; that when one method fails, 
Christian charity with ingenuity must devise another, and 
that the " sevent}^ times seven " code must often be literally 
practised in their efforts for these girls. 

All these causes combined have reduced the school to its 
present number of fifty -five, — the smallest in its history. 

The whole number of different girls during the year has 
been one hundred and twenty-five ; sixty have been placed 
out, six returned, as the table indicates; and there remain 
under the care of school, in it and in places, one hundred 
and forty-eight. 

It has been already stated that this is, considering the size 
of the school, the largest number ever placed out, and the 
smallest percentage of returns. 

The reports, as may be supposed, from those who employ 
the girls may generally be summed up by the words " doing 
well." That all those employed are thoroughly reformed in ' 
the best sense of the term is not claimed; but it is claimed 
that they are nearly all living lives not in open defiance cf 
truth and purity, as before their committal to the school, and 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 29 

that many of them are striving to become good and useful 
women. They are watched more critically than those who 
have never had their past experience, and some of them will 
bear this close scrutiny of conduct better than many outside 
who have not been accused of wrong-doing. With the pres- 
ent numbers of the school, but two out of the four houses 
are in use. Without a marked change in public sentiment, 
or in the administration of the laws, it is not probable that 
all the houses at Lancaster will be again required for the 
purposes of the school. But it is equally certain that if all 
the girls under seventeen years of age in our cities and large 
towns who would he benefited by its discipline for a period 
were to be sent there, the accommodations would fall as far 
below the actual needs as they are now in excess of them. 
If all the young girls of any one of the larger cities of the 
Commonwealth who are brought before the courts in one 
year for the vice of drunkenness were to be sent to this school 
— where most certainly, if anywhere, the habit might be 
cured, and the girl reformed — it would necessitate more room 
than there is at present. Who can doubt that when a young 
girl so far forgets her self-respect as to be publicly drunk, 
she is a subject for an institution where — by regularity of life, 
nutritious food, healthful employment, and kindly instruc- 
tion — she may be brought to a state of moral and physical 
health, and be put in a way to earn an honest living and to 
lead a pure, womanly life? Is not this institution, as a refuge 
for those addicted to this one daily-increasing vice, worthy 
the attention and consideration of the judges who are each 
day imposing the penalty of "one dollar fine and costs," 
which, being easily paid, offers hardly a check to future 
indulgence ? 

Although the Trustees are convinced that all the buildings 
would be insufficient if all were sent to the school who should 
be stopped in a career of vice, — and they would rejoice in 
seeing the houses full of such as need its discipline and its 
saving help, — they are equally sure that it is their duty to 
retain none there after they are fitted for family life ; and that 
however humble such life may be, if pure and honest, it is 
better than institution life can be, and that all efforts should 
tend to this end. The agency of the school is a necessary 
one, and for some the only one which can make respectable 



30 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

living and honorable domestic service possible; without it, 
it is certain the members at Sherburn will increase from a 
class which might be saved from the stigma of prison life. 

It is fair to state that the Lancaster school has for many 
years had its disapproves, to call by a mild name those who 
have from time to time advocated its abolition. It is be- 
lieved these have always been from a class knowing personally 
little or nothing about it, and that its best friends have been 
those who have known it intimately. 

It is equally just to state that it numbers to-day among its 
friends and the warmest advocates for its continuance some 
who have opposed it until becoming thus intimately ac- 
quainted with all its work. That there is still need of its 
continuance there can be no doubt; and if it might be con- 
tinued with less expense to the State, it is believed there 
would be little movement except in its favor. This objection 
is not unjustly urged ; for though no cost should be spared 
which would aid in saving these girls to themselves, to their 
friends, and to the State, it is but fair to admit that this 
work might be as well clone on a much less extensive scale 
than is necessitated by the present arrangements. If the 
courts are to send no more to Lancaster in the next two 
years than in the last two ; if there is to be, as there should 
be, the constant withdrawal of all who are fit for domestic 
service or respectable industry outside, there surely is no 
need of all the houses, or of the large farm surrounding them. 
This healthful site, with its commodious buildings, should be 
• devoted to some branch of State charitable work which would 
utilize all its advantages. 

Some simple houses of sufficient size might be erected else- 
where, perhaps on the vacant hill-sides of the Monson farm, 
where, under the same general supervision with the primary 
school, the two institutions might be managed with equal 
efficiency and with much saving of expense to the State. 

In the change hoped for and proposed by the Trustees re- 
garding the reform school at Westborough, it maybe that the 
houses at Lancaster and the large farm shall afford an oppor- 
tunity thoroughly to try the experiment of a family system 
for that institution in a most inexpensive manner, provided 
it be not thought advisable to use any portion of the grounds 
in present use at Westborough for the purpose. 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 31 

By this use of the farm and buildings at Lancaster for the 
reform school boys, erecting houses for the industrial school 
elsewhere, the State will possess the vast buildings at West- 
borough for some other purpose, for which their great size 
and arrangements may be better fitted than for the present 
use. These are but suggestions in view of possible changes 
in the institutions. No changes are desired at Lancaster in 
the way of accommodations to carry on the work ; and the 
removal of the school elsewhere is only alluded to because 
these accommodations seem disproportionate to its present 
numbers, and because economy in the administration of the 
three schools might be promoted by some such arrangement. 
It is the opinion of the Trustees that if the size of the school 
required all the houses, no plan or arrangements could be 
better than the present one for the purposes of a school on 
the family system. In the event of any such change, the 
simplest structures consistent with health, and with the drdi- 
nary requisitions of the daily life of the working people of 
Massachusetts, are all that should be considered in the erec- 
tion of buildings for either institution. There is no judicious 
kindness in accustoming these boys and girls to appliances 
they will complain of missing in the homes to wdiich they 
are sent, or of making their labor in the institutions so easy, 
by what are called " modern conveniences," that they will 
look with discontent upon surroundings not supplied with 
them. The clay is past, it is hoped, when Massachusetts 
shall spend upon expensive structures for her charitable in- 
stitutions the money which should be saved for the training^ 
of her unfortunate children in the ways of morality, cleanly 
living, and honorable labor. 

The Trustees feel that the industrial school is in a satis- 
factory condition. Its reduced numbers result from causes, 
some of which are beyond their control, and some of which 
they themselves have been active in producing. They believe 
more might and ought to be committed to the school. They 
have no reason to think such will be the case. They regard 
the reluctance of the towns to pay the one dollar tax as 
evidence of a mercenary spirit; but, in view of the fact, they 
are of the opinion it might be desirable to restore this to 
the original sum of fifty cents per week for each girl. They 
agree with the Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity that all 



32 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

girls who can be taken into its custody and put " on proba- 
tion," subject to the visitation of the regular auxiliary visitors, 
are better thus watched and guarded than in the institutions, 
and that those whose career necessitates commitment to, and 
detention for a time in, the school should be trained with 
special reference to a speedy return to outside life and in- 
dustry. To inspire with new motives, to create new desires 
and aims, is the best service of the school. But that the 
school is to-day a necessity, as in the past, they are convinced; 
and they would recommend the removal of any obstacle 
which tends to prevent the commital of such girls as need its 
discipline and its preliminary training for a respectable life 
outside, — a class numerous enough to tax all its accom- 
modation without including one who would be better cared 
for by the Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity. 

The school to-day — with its small numbers, with its con- 
stant sending out into families of those who are weekly and 
monthly becoming fit for these outside homes — approaches 
more nearly the ideal of Dr. Howe, as set forth in his letter, 
written in 1854, to the commissioners appointed by the 
governor to " consider and report on the location and plan for 
a reform school for girls," than it has ever done before, 
or than any other similar institution has done : a central 
station for the reception of erring girls, and for their deten- 
tion long enough only to bring them to the sense of their 
wrong-doing, and to admit of that preliminary training in 
cleanliness and the order and system of respectable families 
which alone can insure their retention in such families. The 
work of reformation is carried on in these " natural reform 
schools," as Dr. Howe calls them, and as he said it would be. 
As he said then, so now, " it would be wronging the noble 
women of Massachusetts to suppose that it is necessary to 
leave several hundred girls of tender years to run to swift 
destruction, or to be shut up in a great prison-house, because 
charity and love had gone abroad, to do their work, and left 
only cold hearts and hearths at home." 

The work is being done, and never, it is believed, in the 
history of the school, better than now, Let it be continued. 
In the interest of humanity, wisely and well ; in the interest 
of an economy, as incumbent on the State as on an individual, 
on a scale commensurate with its importance, but utterly 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 33 

devoid of any outlay for anything but the actually needful. 
As other matters connected with the present administration 
of affairs at the school are referred to in detail in the super- 
intendent's report and that of the farmer, they are omitted 
here. All of which is respectfully submitted. 

SAMUEL R. HEY WOOD, Worcester; 
ANNE B. RICHARDSON, Lowell; 
ELIZABETH C. PUTNAM, Boston; 
LYMAN BELKNAP, Westborough ; 
GEO. W. JOHNSON, Brookfield. 



The undersigned dissents from many of the views and 
opinions expressed in Superintendent Dooley's report, and to 
his statements in regard to his administration contained in 
some of the report of the Trustees. With these exceptions 
he approves the foregoing. 

M. J. FLATLEY. 

5 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18. 



REPORT OF THE OFFICERS 



STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL 



MONSON 



1881. 



BOSTON: 
EanU, &toerp, & Co., Printers! to tf)e Commontoealifc 

117 Franklin Street. 
1882. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools. 

A report of the affairs of the State Primary School for 
year ending Sept. 30, 1881, is herewith submitted. 

The work and results of the year, altogether considered, 
are satisfactory. All that was desired or striven for was not 
attained. I am aware of some of my shortcomings, and of some 
lack of good results. Others looking on from without may 
have found other and greater failures than I realize. Certain 
is it that this is not yet a model institution, with a perfect 
administration. There has been an endeavor after better 
things. There is no contentment in the administration of a 
public institution. Acquaintance reveals new work therein, 
and in the advance of experience are always new difficulties. 
An enlightened public is ever ready with new demands in 
the interests of humanity. Children bounding with hardi- 
hood do not permit repose. They do not tarry with the de- 
vices of predecessors, but seek out new ones for themselves : 
therefore those charged with administration and authority 
can have no rest in the deeds or ways of the past, that were 
then temporary or expedient only. Action must find its 
spring in principle at this school, — in the divine one of " good 
will toward men." 

There were in the institution Oct. 1, 1880, four hundred 
and thirty-seven persons as pupils or inmates, of whom 
fifteen were adults. During the year two hundred and fifty- 
three persons have been admitted, of whom nine were adults. 
Within the year two hundred and forty-nine persons were 
sent to homes found for them, or were discharged to their 
friends, of whom three were adults; and five have died. 
There are remaining four hundred and thirty-six persons, of 
whom twenty-one are adults. The largest number at any 



38 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

one time was four hundred and fifty; the smallest, three hun- 
dred and ninety-seven. 

Changes. 

Changes have been made about the institution of the same 
general character as those reported last year, — looking to 
openness of premises, to facility of administration, and to the 
greater comfort, happiness, and improvement of the children. 
Extensive alterations and repairs upon the hospital are nearly 
completed ; and the large and important work of increasing 
and improving the water supply is in progress. The expense 
of both of these improvements is provided for by special 
appropriation. 

There were no changes in the organization of the official 
corps of the institution, and but few changes of officers. 
The organization effected last year has proved satisfactory. 

Religious Services. 

The religious services were provided for and conducted as 
outlined in the report of last year. Twenty-nine different 
clergymen officiated at the Sunday services during the year, 
of different denominations, from different parts of the State, 
and from outside the State. Many of them -were prominent 
preachers. The advantages of having many different clergy- 
men, instead of one as a stated supply, perceived at the out- 
set of the plan, were very clearly seen during the year now 
in review. The stranger preachers, with their fresh and 
varied presentation of topics of discourse, awaken the in- 
terest and secure the attention of the children to a greater 
degree than could any one as a stated supply. Incidentally 
the plan serves to spread a knowledge of the school abroad 
to its benefit. 

The Schools. 

The number of schools is eight. During a few weeks in 
the summer term it became necessary to open an additional 
school to relieve the crowded condition of the seventh school. 
There are forty-seven weeks of school a year; twenty-five 
hours a week, exclusive of the daily intermissions. There is 
also one hour's Sunday session for each school except the 
kindergarten. 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 39 

The schools by our classification are kindergarten, prim- 
ary, intermediate, and grammar. The principal and all the 
teachers are ladies. The principal has shown especial fitness 
for her place, and all the teachers are well qualified for their 
duties, and are faithful and thorough in performing them. 
The lower schools are still crowded : two sessions a day 
of the kindergarten have become necessary. The upper 
schools, to which as a rule the older children go, suffer from 
the outgoing of these children to homes and places found for 
them out of the institution. Weekly and almost daily the 
best scholars are thus sent away. All of the schools are 
carefully graded, and are in excellent condition. The giving 
of prizes for good conduct in school and out is continued 
with benefit. Of late, in connection with the distribution of 
prizes, we have begun to make honorable mention of all 
scholars who are marked perfect by the teachers. The re- 
port of the principal, herewith appended, will show more 
fully the work and condition of the schools. 

Industries. 

There are no outside industries at the institution. All of 
the clothing for boys, girls, and adult inmates, and all the 
bedding and household goods, are made on the premises by 
the children and inmates, except that the shoes are only re- 
paired. All the boys and girls old enough and fit to work 
are employed in the workrooms, on the farm, and about the 
building, as follows : — 

Forty-four girls, as follows : — 

In the sewing-room 32 girls 

wards and other parts of the house . . . . . 12 " 

One hundred and forty-six boys, as follows: — 

In the tailor-shop 30 boys 

dining-hall . . 18 

kitchen .......... 3 

bakery . . . . . . . . . .4 

shoe-shop ......... 4 

laundry and washroom ....... 8 

hospital 2 

wards and other parts of the house and grounds . . 25 

On the farm and at the barns ....... 52 



40 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

The Children. 

The average number of children in the institution was a 
few less than in the year next preceding. The proportion 
of those who could not to any extent care for themselves 
was greater than in that year. 

Health. — The health of the institution was remarkably 
good. Only five died during the year. There is a percepti- 
ble decrease of chronic ailments. The accompanying report 
of the Physician has the mortuary and health record in full. 

Conduct. — The conduct of the children, as a whole, was 
good — very good. Precept, example, persuasion, and mild 
discipline were employed rather than corporal punishment 
to promote well-doing. Large liberty and many privileges 
were given, with good effect and with little abuse. 

Condition. — Many children come into the institution in 
a low moral and social condition, — that of ignorance and 
neglect. Some come with bad habits and traits received by 
transmission, or grown from the absence of moral instruction 
and perception, which are difficult to supplant with better 
growths: yet nearly all respond more or less readily to care, 
instruction, and reproof. Considered altogether, the children 
are " promising," and bid fair to become worthy and useful 
members of society. The time in which they are under care 
is often too short to accomplish the great work to be done in 
and for them. • 

Court Children. — We still have among our number those 
who are known as court children. There are persons who 
believe it is wrong to have such ones here. That belief, I am 
persuaded, arises from a misapprehension of the character 
of the children thus known. 

My experience here has confirmed the opinion formed from 
ten years' dealing with juvenile offenders, and conforms to the 
expressed opinion of 1113^ predecessors here, " that the presence 
of such children is not in any way harmful to the school." 

They are children found at the courts, and rescued from 
peril by the charitable officers of the State. The courts ad- 
judged them blameless of punishment; as onty needing care 
and instruction. They are generally improvable persons; 
their intellects are bright ; their personal habits are usually 
good. They are not known to other children as offenders or 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 41 

criminals, or as any different from themselves ; and no distinc- 
tion is made in dealing with them. It will be a grave mis- 
take for Massachusetts to give up its policy in reference to 
such ones, after it has gained an enviable distinction, even in 
foreign lands, for its wise action in regard to them, and after 
all the benefit it has brought to the children and the State. 

The Farm. 

The farm of the institution, and its herd of cows, are con- 
sidered among the very best in the State. Nothing especially 
new was undertaken upon it during the year, but everything 
was kept up to a condition of excellence. The products are 
somewhat less in quantity than last year, owing to the drouth, 
which came at an unfavorable time for the potato and root 
crops. A statement of the yield in detail will be found in 
the statistical tables of this report. The employment of a 
large number of boys upon the farm was continued. 

Remarks — Conclusion. 

The accompanying statistics and reports of the Principal and 
Physician give additional information of interest and value. 

In view of the character and condition of the buildings of 
the institution, and the demand for the continual progress 
and improvement of the school, I respectfully suggest that 
larger annual appropriations are needed. 

In concluding this report, permit me to say that the en- 
deavor of the year has been to bring about the school a 
genial and wholesome atmosphere ; to make everything con- 
duce to the well-being and prosperity of the children. Your 
Superintendent and officers have given liberally of time and 
strength to promote the interests of the school and the wel- 
fare of the scholars. With gratitude I acknowledge Divine 
favor and help ; your aid and kindness; the hearty assistance 
of the officers, who with unanimity and cheerfulness have 
labored together with me in full sympathy with the policy 
of administration, thereby helping to make it successful. 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

GARDINER TUFTS, Superintendent, 

October 1, 1881. 



42 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



STATISTICS. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Women. 


Number in institution Oct. 1, 1880 


300 


121 


15 


Admitted from State Almshouse at Tewks- 








bury ....... 


64 


33 


9 


Received from Superintendent Indoor Poor, 


40 


10 


- 


Returned, having been released on trial in 








previous years ...... 


38 


9 


- 


Returned, having been released on trial 








since Sept. 30, 1880 


24 


23 


- 


Recaptured after eloping from Institution . 


3 


- 


1 


Born ........ 


- 


2 


- 


Discharged by H. L. and C. 


26 


18 


2 


Placed out on trial during the year 


138 


64 


1 


Eloped 


2 


- 


1 


Died 


1 


4 


- 


Remaining ...... 


302 


112 


21 


Whole total 


- 


- 


435 



Note. — No successful elopements during the year. 



Whole Number of Persons in the Institution. 

Sept. 30, 1SS1 435 

" 30, 18S0 437 

" 30, 1879 475 

Average Number of Persons supported in the Institution. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1881 424+ 

" 30, 18S0 . . .... . 448+ 

" " " " 30, 1879 501 

Number of Children placed out in Families on trial. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1881 201 

" " 30, 1880 181 

" " " " 30, 1879 . . . . .153 

Twelve of those placed out in 1881 were placed on board. 

Number Discharged by Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1881 46 

" " " " 30,1880 64 

" " " " 30, 1879 ...... 71 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 43 

Number Received from State Almshouse at Tewksbury. 
For the year ending Sept. 30, 1S81 ...... 106 



44 " " " 30, 1S80 


. 


. 104 


" > " " " 30, 1879 


. 


. 118 


Elopements. 






For the year ending Sept. 30, 1881 


. 3. 


Returned 3 


44 " " " 30, 1S80 


. 7. 





44 " " " 30, 1879 


. 6. 


4 



Number of Children returned from Place. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1881 94 

Of these, 47 were placed out the present year, and 47 previously. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1S80 . . . . . .76 

Of these, 35 were placed out during the year, and 41 previously. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879 39 

Of these, 29 were placed out during the year, and 10 previously. 

Number of Children sent to the Institution by the Superintendent of 
Indoor Poor, taken from Court. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1881 50 

44 " " 44 30, 1880 46 

44 44 44 30, 1879 34 



Deaths in the Institution. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1881 . . . . . . 5 

44 44 44 44 30, 18S0 5 

44 44 44 30, 1879 14 



Births in the Institution. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1881 2 

44 " 44 " 30, 1880 

44 " 44 44 30, 1879 2 



Largest number in the Institution at any time .... 450 
Smallest 44 44 " " " .... 397 
Average 423-j- 

Correspondence. 

Communications received during the year ..... 3,354 
Communications written and sent during the year . , , 3,224 



44 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Gardiner Tufts, Superintendent and Disbursing Officer of the State 
Primary School, in account with State Treasury. 



Dr. 

To cash received from appropriation for 1880 

" 1881 

" " " " " repairs of hospital 

To cash received from appropriation for improved wate 

supply 

To cash received from sales ..... 



Cr. 

By disbursements for three months ending Dec. 31, 1880, ag 
per schedules filed in State Auditor's office 

By disbursements for nine months ending Sept. 30, 1881, as 
per schedules filed in State Auditor's office 

By payments to State Treasurer 



$11,724 56 

41,209 68 

969 53 

2,538 20 
154 98 

$56,596 95 



$11,713 56 

44,728 41 
154 98 

$56,596 95 



Kote. — This institution is wholly supported from the State Treasury 
by annual legislative appropriation. It has no "fund" froin which to 
draw for any expenditure whatever. The appropriations of the State are 
made for calendar years. The reports of institutions are for years ending 
Sept. 30. Although the expenditures are kept within the annual appro- 
priations, yet they may be larger for the parts of two calendar years 
which make the institution one, as they are for the year now reported 
upon, embracing the last three months of 1880 and the first nine of 
1881. 

The per capita cost, including all expenses, ordinary and extraordinary, 
during the year, is $2.51 per week ; excluding extraordinary expendi- 
tures — repairs on hospital, building of reservoir, etc. — it is $2.22 per 
week. This latter sum represents the actual cost of clothing, feeding, 
lodging, teaching, medical attendance, supervision — in short, the entire 
maintenance of all the inmates of the institution — together with such 
repairs as are needed to prevent the building and appliances from dete- 
riorating ; including also heating and lighting the buildings, the pro- 
viding of an outfit for those going away from the institution, and their 
travelling expenses to their destination. 

Each inmate, upon leaving the institution to go to a place, is provided 
with two complete suits of clothing, a low average valuation of which is 
$14 per capita. About $3,500.00 has been expended in fitting out chil- 
dren to go to place. The cost of transportation of those going to place 
is borne by the institution, and amounts to about $200.00. 

The sum of $3,067.99 was collected by the Superintendent of Indoor 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 45 

Poor from cities, towns, and individuals on account of inmates of this 
school. This, together with the sum received from sales and labor 
(1154.98) reduces the weekly per capita cost, including both ordinary 
and extraordinary expenses, to $2.27 — net ; excluding the extraordinary 
expenses, to $2.08 net. 

In arriving at the per capita cost, seven children who are in families, 
whose board is paid and clothing furnished by the institution, have been 
included. 



46 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



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PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



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. Cook . . . 


• ' 


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Chief nurse . 

Nurse . ' . 

Supervisor 

Supervisor 

Assistant nurse 
Laundress 
Assistant laundress 


M 

o 

o 

. o 

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w 






ie Meeney 
Duncan 

Darmody 
B. Briggs 
aret connell 
Scott . 


Andrews 
Richardson 
St. John 
Ramsay 
Taggart 
H. Spofford 
Richardson 
Richards 
Galvin . 
F. Ames 
Wheatley 
Briggs . 
Buss 
M. Melvin 




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M. E 

Jane 
Belle 
Marg 
S. A. 


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Miss 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 





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H r->. 



52 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Farm Produce. 

Beef 10,223 

Carrots 600 

Corn-fodder 3£ 

" green 112 

Eggs 360 

English turnips 800 

Hay 153 

Lumber 6,558 

Mangolds 2,100 

Milk 283,519 

Pork 10,661 

Potatoes 1,468 

Poultry 106 

Rowen ......... 38 

Ruta-bagas 150 

Rye-fodder, green ....... 16 

Veal 1,948 

Wood, for fuel ........ 30 

Calves raised ........ 9 

Pigs raised • 50 

Garden Produce. 

Apples 10 

Asparagus 16 

Beans, string 3£ 

" shelled . 27 

Beets 92 

Cabbage . 2,100 

Cucumbers 54 

Currants 7 

Grapes 1£ 

Melons 1,800 

Onions 209 

Pease 36 

Pears 8 

Raspberries ........ 106 

Rhubarb ......... 500 

Strawberries ........ 368 

Squashes, summer . . . . . . . 1,400 

" winter . 3,200 

Sweet corn 90 

Tomatoes 53 

Work done in Sewing-Room. 

Aprons made ......... 84 

Bakery caps made 15 

Bed- ticks " 96 



pounds 

bushels 

tons 
(< 

dozen 

bushels 

tons 

feet 

bushels 

pounds 

bushels 

pounds 

tons 

bushels 

tons 

pounds 

cords 



barrels 
bushels 



heads 
bushels 



pounds 
bushels 



quarts 
pounds 
quarts 
pounds 
<( 

bushels 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



53 



Bibs made 














84 


Chemises made . 














240 


Circulars " 














24 


Curtains tl 














30 


Dish-towels " 














40 


Drawers " 














290 pairs 


Dresses " 














312 


Elastics " 














12 pairs 


Holders " 














24 


Handkerchiefs made 














115 


Hoods " 














38 


Mittens " 














150 pairs 


Napkins " 














48 


Night-dresses " 














153 


Pillow-slips " 














139 pairs 


Roller-towels { ' 














50 


Scrubbing-pads " 














36 


Sheets " 














412 


Shirts " 














600 


Skirts " 














246 


Spreads ' ' 














89 


Table-cloths " 














4 


Tiers " 














523 


Towels " 














370 


Under-flannels ' ' 














22 


Waists " 














132 


Waterproofs ' ' 














12 


Waterproof capes made 












48 


Work done in Tailors' Shop 




Caps made . ... 


635 


Jackets made ....... 


550 


Pants made 










. 




619 



Note. — Nearly all the mending, amounting to about twelve thousand pieces, 
was done in the sewing-room and tailors' shop, in addition to the amount 
of work on new garments given in the foregoing tables. 



Recapitulation of Inventory. 
Taken by D. B. Bishop, of Palmer, as of Sept 

Buildings .... 

Land 

Products of farm on hand . 

Carriages and agricultural tools 

Mechanical appliances 

Personal property in Superintendent's department 

Amount carried forward .... 



SO, 1881. 


$93,500 00 


22,665 43 


6,554 60 


3,489 40 


7,722 20 


6,458 51 


$140,390 14 



54 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Amount brought forward 
Personal property in inmates' department 
Beds and bedding 
Clothing, boots, and shoes 
Dry-goods . 
Groceries and provisions 
Medical supplies . 
Fuel .... 
Heating, water, and gas 
Library and school books 
Live stock . 
Miscellaneous 

Total . 



$140,390 14 
5,131 94 
4,433 37 
3,266 55 

938 14 
1,567 65 

200 00 

3,301 00 

17,000 00 

748 15 
6,148 60 

597 95 

$183,723 49 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 55 



PRINCIPAL'S REPORT. 



To the Superintendent of the State Primary School. 

I present to you the report of the schools for the year 
ending Sept. 30, 1881. There were in the schools at the 
beginning of the year 288 boys, 115 girls ; making a total of 
403 pupils. During the year there entered 138 new schol- 
ars ; 84 returned from places ; 224 were discharged ; 2 died ; 
leaving in the schools Sept. 30, 1881, 293 boys, 106 girls ; 
making a total of 399 pupils. The average age of the chil- 
dren is something less than ten years. The average attend- 
ance for the year was 364. Irregularity in attendance arises 
from two causes — sickness and the demands of the work 
departments. The attendance was better than the preceding 
year, and the result is improved scholarship. Some changes 
have occurred during the year in the corps of teachers. 
The Third School, owing to accident, has been in charge of 
three different instructors. The Fifth and Seventh Schools 
were without permanent teachers until Jan. 1. I cannot 
speak with too high praise of the work of the teachers, who 
have, in all instances, intelligently and faithfully performed 
every duty. Only the First and Second Schools were at the 
beginning of the year properly supplied with books. The 
deficiencies have been made good, and some changes made in 
text-books. 

A majority of the children received enter the primary 
grades, where the pressure is great, as there is no outgo to 
families, such places being filled by children from the more 
advanced schools. The more permanent character of the 
classes which are not affected, as in the higher rooms, by the 
dismissal of pupils to or their return from places, compen- 
sates in some degree for this excess of numbers. Still it was 
found necessary to relieve the pressure by arranging for the 
promotion of a class from each school twice during each year. 



56 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

By a judicious classification of all new pupils solely by their 
attainments — even though children half a dozen years apart 
are placed side by side, as is not infrequent — and by a strict 
adherence to our rule of promotion — allowing none on 
account of size and without the proper qualifications to pass 
from airy school into a higher — we shall secure thoroughness 
and the best general results. 

A new and strict classification of the pupils involved a re- 
arrangement of the course of study, which is at present as 
follows : — 

Kindergarten (Mixed). 

FrcebePs Method. — Object-teaching. 

First, second, third, seventh, eighth, and ninth " gifts." Bead-work, 
chain-work, sewing, weaving, paper-folding, clay-modelling. 

Seventh School (Mixed). 

Reading and Spelling. — Begun with chart, and carried through First 
Reader. 

Counting. — From 1 to 100. Writing numbers to 100. 

Sixth School (Mixed). 

Reading and Spelling. — First and Second Readers. Spelling from 
Reader. 

Arithmetic. — Writing and reading numbers to 1000. Addition tables, 
and addition of numbers through one period. 

Writing. — Script-writing on slate. 

Fifth School (Girls). 

Reading and Spelling. — Third and Fourth Readers. Spelling, oral and 
written. 

Arithmetic. — Primary finished; Intellectual begun. Written arith- 
metic, writing, reading, and adding numbers of two periods, on indefi- 
nitely. 

Geography. — Harper's Primary, and Harper's School Geography. 

Writing. — Nos. 2,3, and 4. 

(The Fifth School receives girls promoted from the Sixth School, and 
keeps them until they leave the institution.) 

Fourth School (Boys). 

Reading and Spelling. — Second Reader. Spelling from Reader. 
Arithmetic. — Addition tables reviewed. Subtraction tables. Written 
arithmetic, into subtraction. 

Writing. — Script- writing on slates. 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 57 

Third School (Boys). 

Reading and Spelling. — Third Reader. Spelling, oral and written. 
Arithmetic. — Primary finished. Written, through addition and sub- 
traction of miscellaneous examples. 

Geography. — Oral, and Harper's Primary begun. 
Writing. — No. 2. 

Second School (Boys). 

Reading and Spelling. — Reader. Spelling, oral and written. 
Arithmetic. — Addition and subtraction reviewed with books. Multi- 
plication, and miscellaneous examples combining first three rules. 
Geography. — Primary finished. 
Writing. — Nos. 2 and 3. 

First School (Boys). 

Reading and Spelling. — Fourth Reader and Anderson's Historical 
Reader. Spelling, oral and written. 
Arithmetic. — Division, on indefinitely. 
Geography. — Primary reviewed. School geography begun. 
Language Lessons. 
Writing. — Nos. 2, 3, and 4. 

The following statement will show the general standing : — = 
Thirty -four read from chart ; 326 read from books ; 326 study 
spelling ; 309 study arithmetic j 150 study geography ; 6 
study grammar ; 219 write in copy-books ; 160 practise letter- 
writing. 

One clay in every month is given to letter-writing, and 
composition is an occasional exercise. 

We are instructing children of not even fair intellectual 
promise. Some of them are mentally weak, almost to idiocy, 
and the majority have been surrounded from birth by the 
most degrading influences. Yet, while many come to us 
pitiably ignorant, and most are dull, we may be encouraged 
by the fact that, with few exceptions, all improve, and quite 
a large number respond gratify ingly to our efforts for them. 

I cannot close this report without acknowledging grate- 
fully your constant aid in the direction of the schools. Their 
numerous wants you have generously supplied ; and your 
happy suggestions and kind advice have been invaluable to 
me. If the year's work has your approval, I hope that of the 
ensuing year will no less merit your approbation. 
Respectfully, 
8 GENEVIEVE MILLS, Print-pal. 



58 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the Slate Primary School, Monson. 

I herewith present you with the annual report of the 
hospital department of this institution for the year ending 
Sept. 30, 1881. 



imber remaining in hospital Sept. 30, 1880 . 


. 34 


admitted during' the year 


. 339 


births during the year ..... 


2 


deaths during the year .... 


5 


discharged during the year 


. 350 


remaining ...... 


. 18 



No name placed on record unless in hospital twenty-four 
consecutive hours. The number of deaths the same as last 
year. 

Ages and Diseases of those who Died. 



NAME. 


Date of Death. 


Age. 


Disease. 








Yrs. 


Mos. 




Josephine Clayton . 


Oct. 


30 


6 


- 


Diphtheritic croup. 


Josephine McGrath . 


Nov. 


11 


10 


— 


Gangrene of lungs fol- 
lowing diphtheria. 


Etta Boyce 


Marcl 


2b* 


2 


8 


Convulsions from teeth- 
ing. 


Annie O'Brien. 


May 


28 


- 


10 


Scrofula and teething. 


William Conners 


May 


28 


17 




Bright's disease of kid- 
ney. 



The institution has again been visited by measles, devel- 
oped in a child brought from Tewksbury a few days pre- 
viously. Thirty cases have been treated; all have been of a 
light type. Thirty-one cases of roseola, or German measles, 
are recorded, all yielding readily to good nursing and a very 
little medicine. We have had seven cases of typhoid fever, 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 59 

some very severe ; several cases of fractures and dislocations, 
all of which have recovered without deformities. Almost 
all of children's diseases we have had, more or less, during 
the year. Ophthalmia, which has been such an "eyesore" 
to all who have ever had anything to do with the children 
here, and has been numbered by the hundreds in a year, 
during its history, has now practically become numbered 
among the things that were. The general health of the 
children has steadily improved under the generous, whole- 
some diet now given them, and the greater liberty granted 
to go out from the yards and playgrounds, tramping over the 
fields, through the woods, and up the high hills which lie 
around this institution; and also the greater recreations and 
amusements given the children under the guidance of the 
superintendent and other officers, all conducing to the best 
welfare of these children, good health, and happiness. 

The hospital building is still undergoing repairs. The 
portion now done is good enough for any one to be sick in, 
— pleasant, airy, well ventilated in and under the building. 
Good open fireplaces have been placed in the girls' ward. 
Good drainage around the premises. Every thing about the 
old hospital will be pleasant and cheerful ; so that whoever 
among these little ones has the misfortune to be taken sick 
can at least have a pleasant place in which they can be cared 
for. But although ordinary sickness is thus well provided 
for, the need still exists for a separate building for isolating 
cases of contagious disease. To the superintendent and 
nurses I feel under great obligations in carrying out sugges- 
tions for the care of the sick, and render thanks to Divine 
Goodness for so good a measure of health vouchsafed to 
these wards of the State during the year. 

Respectfully, 

WM. HOLBROOK, 

Physician State Primary School. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18. 



REPORT OF THE OFFICERS 



STATE REFORM SCHOOL 



WESTBOROUGH. 



1881. 



BOSTON: 
JSanU, gbcrp, $c Co., Printers to t&e Cusmmontoealtfc 

117 Franklin Street. 
1882. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



State Reform School, 

Westborough, Oct. 1, 1880. 

To the Trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools. 

The Thirty-fifth Annual Report of the condition of the in- 
stitution, being for the year ending Sept. 30, 1881, is respect- 
fully submitted. 

Table No. 1. 

Showing Number of Boys received and discharged for the Year 

ending Sept. 30, 1881. 

Boys in school Sept. 30, 1880 194 

Received — Since committed . . . . . .71 

Recommitted ....... 6 

Returned by institution officers . . . .46 

Returned by the police . . . . .17 

Returned by parents ...... 1 

Returned voluntarily ...... 4 

Returned by State Board of Health, Lunacy, and 
Charity 2 

— 147 

Whole number in school during the year ..... 341 

Discharged — On probation to friends ..... 92 

On trial, in places . . . . . .21 

House of Correction ...... 1 

For trial at court ...... 6 

Eloped — 

Before Dec. 1, 1880 (6 of whom have been returned) . . 10 
From Dec. 1, 1880, to June 27, 1881 (9 of whom have been 

returned) 12 

From June 27, 1881, to Sept. 30, 1881 (23 of whom have 

been returned) 49 

Died 1 

Expiration of sentence 1 

To State Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity ... 2 

Remanded to court for sentence ...... 1 

Allowed to visit home, and did not return .... 2 

On account of sickness ........ 1 

— 199 



Remaining in school Sept. 30, 1881 ' 141 



64 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Table No. 2. 

Showing the Admissions, Number discharged, and average Number 

of each Month. 



MONTHS. 


Admitted. 


Discharged. 


Average 
Number. 




1880. 








October 


>••••• 


14 


10 


197.90 


November 


..... 


13 


26 


193.1 


December 


1881. 


8 


10 


184.09 


January- 




5 


2 


18341 


February 










12 


7 


188.61 


March 










8 


13 


187.03 


April 










10 


9 


188.43 


May . 










4 


19 


177 09 


June . 










15 


9 


176.73 


July . 










23 


28 


167 84 


August 










15 


35 


163 29 


September 










20 


31 


147.7 


Totals 


• 








147 


199 


179.6 



Average time spent here by boys who left during the past year, 20 
months and 24 days. 

Average time spent here by boys discharged between Nov. 30, 1853, 
and Sept. 30, 1880, 28 months and 18 days. 

Table No. 3. 

Showing the Commitments from the several Counties the past 
Year and previously. 



COUNTIES. 


Past Year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


Barnstable ..... 


1 


44 


45 


Berkshire . 












3 


193 


196 


Bristol 












16 


428 


444 


Dukes 












4 


5 


9 


Essex 












2 


862 


864 


Franklin . 












1 


46 


47 


Hampden . 












6 


290 


296 


Hampshire 
Middlesex 












15 


68 
864 


68 
879 


Nantucket 












- 


16 


16 


Norfolk . 












1 


909 


910 


Plymouth . 












2 


89 


91 


Suffolk . 












7 


1,109 


1,116 


Worcester . 












13 


583 


596 


Totals 












71 


5,506 


5,577 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



6b 



Table No. 4. 

Showing by ivhat Authority the Commitments have been made the 

past Year. 



COMMITMENTS. 



Past Year. 



By State Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity 

Police Court 

District Court ...... 

Trial Justice ...... 

Municipal Court ..... 

Superior Court ...... 

Total . . ' . 



4 

27 
22 



71 



Table No. 5. 

Showing the Nativity of those committed the past Year and 
previously. 





Past 


Pxe- 




NATIVITY. 






Total. 




Year. 


viously. 




Australia ........ 




1 


1 


Canada ......... 


4 


59 


63 


England . 


3 


107 


110 


France 


_ 


1 


1 


Germany ........ 


_ 


6 


6 


Ireland ......... 


5 


478 


483 


Italy ......... 


- 


4 


4 


Mexico ......... 


_ 


1 


1 


New Brunswick . . . . 


1 


72 


73 


Newfoundland 


_ 


6 


6 


Nova Scotia ........ 


1 


48 


49 


Prince Edward Island ...... 


_ 


1 


1 


Portugal 


_ 


1 


1 


Scotland ....... 


1 


16 


17 


Switzerland ... . . . 


_ 


1 


1 


Wales 


_ 


4 


4 


West Indies 


- 


3 


3 


Total foreign 


15 


809 


824 


Atlantic Ocean .... . . 




1 


1 


California ..... 


_ 


4 


4 


Connecticut ... 


_ 


75 


75 


District of Columbia 


_ 


6 


6 


Georgia 


- 


3 


3 


Illinois ... 


_ 


11 


11 


Kentucky . . . 


_ 


2 


2 


Louisiana ........ 


_ 


8 


8 


Maine .... 


1 


142 


143 


Massachusetts 


50 


3,403 


3,453 



m PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Table No. 5. — Concluded. 



NATIVITY. 



Past 
Year. 



Pre- 
viously. 



Michigan .... 
Minnesota .... 
Missouri .... 

New Hampshire . 
New Jersey .... 
New York .... 
North Carolina . . 
Ohio . < . 
Pennsylvania 
Rhode Island 
South Carolina 

Tennessee .... 
Vermont .... 
Virginia .... 

Wisconsin .... 
Unknown .... 

Total American 
Foreigners .... 

Total American and foreign 



56 
15 



71 



4 

1 

1 

125 

16 

181 

2 

1 

18 

58 

2 

1 

56 

15 

4 



4,149 

809 



4,958 



4 

1 

1 

126 

16 

183 

2 

1 

18 

58 

2 

1 

56 

16 

4 

10 



4,205 
824 



5,029 



Table No. 6. 
Showing the Nativity of Parents of Boys committed the past Year. 



NATIVITY. 


Fathers. 


Mothers. 


Canada 


7 


8 


England 




4 


3 


Germany . 




1 


- 


Ireland 




24 


25 


Nova Scotia 




- 


1 


Scotland 




1 


1 


Switzerland 




1 


- 


Total foreign 


38 


38 


Connecticut 


1 


_ 


Georgia . 


1 


- 


Massachusetts ....... 


7 


15 


Maine ........ 


1 


1 


New Hampshire 


- 


1 


United States ....... 


4 


3 


Vermont ........ 


1 


1 


Total American ...... 


15 


21 


Total foreign ...... 


38 


38 


Unknown . . . . . . 


18 


12 


Total Ameri 


2an and foreign 


71 


71 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



67 



Table No. 7. 
Showing the Age of Boys when committed. 



AGE. 



Past Year. 



Previously. Totals 



Six years 

Seven years 

Eight years . 

Nine years . 

Ten years . 

Eleven years 

Twelve years 

Thirteen years . 

Fourteen years . 

Fifteen years 

Sixteen years 

Seventeen years . 

Eighteen years and upwards 

Unknown . 

Totals . 



1 

2 

1 

5 

9 

15 

19 

17 

1 

1 



71 



5 

25 

116 

231 

432 

608 

643 

727 

882 

766 

812 

260 

56 

25 



5,588 



5 

25 

116 

232 

434 

609 

648 

736 

897 

785 

829 

261 

57 

25 



5,659 



Average Age at Commitment. 



YEAR ENDING. Years. 


Months. 


Sept. 30, 1881 


14 


7 


30, 1880 . 














13 


u* 


30, 1878 . 














13 


11 


30, 1876 . 














15 


i 


30, 1874 . 














14 


10 


30, 1872 . 














13 


10 


30, 1870 . 














12 


H 


30, 1868 . 














11 


i 


30, 1866 . 














11 


3 2 


30, 1864 . 














11 


6 


30, 1862 . 














11 


5 


30, 1860 . 














11 


3 


Previous to Sept. 30, 1859 












12 


5* 



Approximate. 



68 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Table No. 8. 

Showing the Domestic Condition, etc., of Boys committed during 

the Year. 



CONDITION. 



Had no parents 

no father ...... 

no mother ..... 

step-father 

step-mother ..... 
intemperate father .... 
intemperate mother .... 
parents separated .... 
been arrested before .... 
been inmates of other institutions 
other members of the family arrested 
used ardent spirits .... 
used tobacco ..... 
Catholic parents .... 
Protestant parents .... 



9 

24 

16 

3 

4 

17 

8 

2 

41 

8 

18 

10 

46 

46 

25 



Table No. 9. 

Occupation of the Fathers of Boys sent here during the Tear, as 
near as can be ascertained. 



BUSINESS. 


Number. 


BUSINESS. 

i 


Number. 


Butcher . 

Clerk 

Currier . 

Carpenter 

Coachman 

Farmer . 

Gardener 

Grocer 

Hackman 

Laborer . 








1 
1 
1 

5 
3 
2 

1 

1 

1 

17 


Liquor-dealer 
Mule-spinner 
Mason . 
Machinist 
Painter . 
Teamster 
White washer 
Deceased 






1 

2 
1 
4 
1 
4 
1 
24 


Total . 






71 



Average rent per month paid by parents of 42 of the boys committed 
during the year, $6.84; parents of 21 own their houses; parents of 8, 
deceased. 



1881.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



69 



Table No. 10. 

Showing for what those received during the past Year ivere 
committed. 



CAUSES. 



Number of 
Boys. 



Assault and battery- 
Breaking and entering 
Breaking, entering, and larceny 
Cruelty to animals . 
Idle and disorderly .... 

Incendiarsm ..... 

Indecent assault .... 

Larceny ...... 

Malicious mischief .... 

Obtaining goods under false pretences 

Stubbornness 

Vagrancy 

Total 



2 
5 
5 
1 
1 
1 
1 

36 
4 
1 

12 
2 

71 



Table No. 11. 

Showing the average Employment of Boys during the Years 1880 

and 1881. 





1880. 


1881. 


Employed farming and gardening .... 


40 


72 


seating chairs ...... 


56 


7 


making shoes ...... 


2 


3 


m sewing-room 


17 


15 


in laundry ...... 


7 


8 


in baking, cooking, and care of dining- 






room 


8 


8 


in domestic work 


28 


25 


at the steam-mill ..... 


1 


2 


at miscellaneous work .... 


11 


10 


in halls and yard ..... 


9 


6 


in paint-shop ...... 


8 


6 


in sleigh-shop 


14 


13 


in blacksmith-shop 


5 


4 


Total 


- 


179 



70 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Table No. 12. 
Shotting the amount of Work done in the Workrooms. 



In the Chair-shop. 
Number of chairs seated 

In the Laundry. 
Number of articles washed and iroued 

In the Shop. 

Number of pairs of shoes made 
Number of pairs of shoes repaired . 
Number of suspender-leathers cut . 



18,107 



83,671 



228 

665 
289 



In the Sewing-room. 



ARTICLES. 


Made. 


Repaired. 


ARTICLES. 


Made. 


Repaired. 


Aprons . 


13 


19 


Organ- cover 


1 




Blankets . 


_ 


88 


Pants 


246 


2,262 


Bed-ticks 


_ 


280 


Pillow-cases 


24 


75 


Bed-spreads 


- 


49 


Pillow-ticks 


- 


56 


Buffalo-robes . 


- 


1 


Quilts 


- 


15 


Caps 


286 


48 


Rag- bags 


1 


- 


Curtains . 


- 


12 


Stockings 


469 


4,308 


Dishcloths 


43 


34 


Shirts 


282 


3,737 


Dusters . 


16 


- 


Suspenders, p'rs 


230 


- 


Holders . 


190 


- 


Sheets 


3 


153 


Ironing-sheets . 


2 


- 


Towels 


244 


214 


Jumpers . 


- 


15 


Table-cloths 


- 


4 


Jackets . 


50 


1,502 


White jackets . 


6 


11 


Mittens, pairs . 


59 


1 


White aprons . 


18 


- 


Overalls . 


1 


12 


Vests 


— 


2 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



71 



TEEASUEEE'S EEPOET. 



1880- 


— October. Rece 


ived from State Treasurer, 


$2,981 25 




November. * 












3,282 43 




December. * 












4,121 11 


1881- 


— January. * 
February. ' 
March, « 
April. ' 
May. i 
June. ' 
July. * 
August. ' 
September. ' 












2,997 47 
3,617 42 
2,682 31 
3,713 20 
2,881 40 
4,472 21 
2,943 55 
2,767 04 
2,885 71 










fflftQ 14 5 10 










Expenditures. 






1880- 


-Oct. Paid bills £ 


ludited on Schedule No. 


1, 


$2,981 25 




Nov. ' ' 


(< 


No. 


2, 


3,282 43 




Dec. " 


u 


No. 


3, 


4,121 11 


1881- 


— Jan. " 


(( 


No. 


4, 


2,997 47 




Feb. « 


(( 


No. 


5, 


3,617 42 




March. " 


u 


" No. 


6, 


2,682 31 




April. " 


u 


No. 


7, 


3,713 20 




May. " 


it 


« No. 


8, 


2,881 40 




June. " 


a 


" No. 


9, 


4,472 21 




July. " 


cc 


« No. 


10, 


2,943 55 




Aug. " 


(< 


No. 11, 


2,767 04 




Sept. " 


a 




]s 


lo. 


12, 


2,885 71 

_ — $39,345 10 



Westborough, Oct. 1, 1881. 



E. T. DOOLEY, Treasurer. 



72 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



;^ 



■A 
O 

H 
O 
<1 
J, 

< 
PS 
H 

< 

o 

H 
P3 
O £3 

CU 

w 

<& 

w 
H 

Q 

H 
SZ! 

hH 

Ph 
w 



o 

H 


NCOHCO OiOOOCJQOGCON 

*OC1NtH N"*OOCOW>OCOQ 
OS CO I- CO (MN CO rri O fc^ CO CO CO 
(Mi— UOH CDCO^HHiOiOiO 

^ r-t HH rH 


OS 
CO 

OS 

OS 

t^ 

©~ 


00 


CO O 
OS lO 
ill! i 1 1 J 1 1 I 

CO iO 
i— t 


CO 

OS 
H 


Labor of Boys 

Cane-seating 

Chairs. 


$332 88 
292 89 

394 02 
438 61 


o 
rfl 

CO 
lO 
rH 

5& 


O 

-a 

Pm 


OS CO O lO OHTftiOONHO 
rH rH CM !>• b-QOINQCOOOQ 

© CM !>• rH MOCOQOOQtMO) 
COCOOCO QOOC4 050QCOCD 
€©r-< CM rH i— 1 rH lO 


CM 

o 

CO 

t- 


02 

e3 

CO 
fcJJ 

CO 


©©©!>> OOCOOOOO 
0) lO UO O © O CO © © lO © 

t>. CO rH CO lO PI lO H O O iO 
!>. CM CM CO CO OS © rH *0 rH CM 
rH OH rH CM CO 

^ rtH rH 


O 

OS 

lO 

°i 


to 

o 

G 03 


$88 04 

1 74 

12 57 

5 50 

1 12 

32 20 

34 17 

39 52 

4 78 

84 22 


CO 
CO 

CO 

o 

CO 
۩= 








o— ; - - - - - - -2 

,fl M V ^ ......... 

Go" 
© © 

§£.. . . ..... 




* g - 

c3 0) 


















© H 

AC X 




1 
October 1 
October 
November 
December 

January 

February 

March . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August . 

September 


o 

H 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



73 



1 

o 
H 


LOCO NOOMN1MQ 
t-~ CI OOO-^i-Hi— (00 

OO OOOO^HtO 
Ob- r^OiflQttOCO 
Cl_iO th Q^OO W CO CO ^ 


$10,548 69 
251 20 


05 
CO 

OS 

o 


EC 

s 
§ St 

1 a 


19 48 


$19 48 


CO 


Labor of Boys 

Cane-seating 

Chairs. 


332 88 

292 89 
832 63 


$1,458 40 


o 

CO 

»o 
<* 

۩= 


Farm Produce 

Sales. 


$274 05 
96 07 

23 42 
362 20 
246 43 

178 47 
412 63 


$1,593 27 
166 98 


iO 
CI 

o 

CD 

T— I 

m 


w 

9) 

'a; 

OS 


$955 70 
141 31 

4,110 07 

1,583 69 

346 63 

50 00 

70 50 


$7,257 90 


o 

OS 

b- 

iO 


3 
O 

C 09 

1 £ 

ai 


141 17 

21 54 
52 15 

4 78 


$219 64 
84 22 


CO 
CO 

CO 

o 

CO 




53 



g= 2 = 333^5 • -g 

H ~ 

<b ' d 
+= o 
J - .. 3 X-- 3*-:: :: 

CO • § 

"S 2 5 :: 2 2 :: 3 :: 13 

Pw • pq 




1880. 

November .... 
December .... 

1881. 

January .... 
March ..... 

May 

June ..... 

July 

August ..... 
September .... 


Totals .... 
September 30 . 





10 



74 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Ppovisions, Groceries, Etc. 



Meat, 



Beef, 16,862 pounds 

Lamb, 2,387 pounds 

Tripe, 21 pounds . 

Chicken, 10^ pounds 

Turkey, 376 pounds 

Sausage (making of) 

Ham, 55| pounds . 

Curing and smoking of 50 hams 



Fish, fresh, 7,216 pounds 
" salt, 400 pounds . 
Clams, 133£ gallons 
Oysters, 52 gallons 



Malt, 10 bushels . 
Meal, bolted, 22 bags . 
Oatmeal, 1 barrel . 
Rice, 624 pounds . 
Bread, 118 pounds 
Flour, 295 barrels . 
Crackers, 15 barrels 
Hops, 9 pounds 
Pearl meal, 162 pounds . 
Flour (freight on 250 barrels) 
Rye-meal, 13 bags 
Indian-meal, 5 bags 
Yeast-cakes, 5 



Fish. 



Bread. 



Potatoes, Beansy Etc, 



Potatoes, 214 bushels 
Beans, 47 barrels , 



Onions, 40 pounds ..... 
Squash, 1 dozen cans 

Molasses and Sugar, 
Mollasses, 1,662 gallons .... 

Sugar, granulated, 5,303 pounds . 



Butter and Cheese, 



Butter, 3,068 pounds 
Cheese, 273 pounds 



$1,578 14 
262 42 

1 68 

2 47 
62 41 

4 84 

6 80 

10 00 



$377 11 
20 25 
89 90 
59 40 



$17 60 

32 75 

7 25 

43 12 

4 72 

1,549 48 

47 60 

1 80 

4 90 

247 50 

28 75 

6 95 

10 




$603 63 
520 93 



$977 01 
55 24 



$1,928 76 



546 66 



1,992 52 



594 10 



1,124 56 



1,032 25 



Amount carried forward. 



$7,218 85 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



75 



Amount brought forward . 


ojjaz, 


j&ic. 


. . 


$7,218 85 


Tea, 241 pounds . 






S93 30 




Coffee, 298£ pounds 






134 18 




Cocoa, 100 pounds 






31 00 




Chocolate, 4 pounds 






1 60 










260 08 


Lard, Eggs, Cooking Sundries, Etc. 


Lard, 1,008 pounds .... . $11662 




Eggs, 322 dozen . 






88 05 




Powdered sugar, 9 pounds 






99 




Strawberries .... 






60 




Currants, 10 pounds 






70 




Sardines, 6 pounds 






. ' . 6 66 




Lemons, 26 dozen . 






6 15 




Apples, 6 barrels . 






51 00 




Cranberries, 1% bushels . 






6 48 




Cocoanut, desiccated, 1 pound 






30 




Oranges, 35 dozen 






7 95 




Evaporated apples, 50 pounds 






5 50 




Watermelons, 2 






50 




Bananas, 2 dozen . 






1 00 




Berries, 1 box 






15 




Prunes, 233^ pounds 






15 26 




Oil of lemon, 1 pound . 






1 65 




Salt, 36 bags 






35 65 




Cassia, 6 pounds . 






1 05 




Mustard-seed, 1 pound . 






20 




Mustard, 40 pounds 






11 20 




Pepper, 35 pounds 






7 04 




Soda, 225 pounds . 






8 52 




Cream of tartar, 150 pounds . 






48 50 




Vinegar (making 1,407 gallons of 


cider. 


1 


28 14 




Ginger, 49 pounds 






3 47 




Alum, \ pound 






02 




Vanilla extract, 2 dozen 






4 25 




Cloves, 4| pounds . . 






1 68 




Nutmegs, 10 pounds 






8 80 




Raisins, 500 pounds 






55 25 




Cook-book .... 






1 50 




Extract of lemon . 






5 78 








530 61 





$8,009 54 



76 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Ordinary Repairs and Imprvoements 



Whiting, 248 pounds 

Muriatic acid, 6 ounces . 

Sash-springs, £ dozen 

Thimbles and caps, 6 pounds 

Spruce lumber, 2,640 feet 

Lard-oil, 20 gallons 

Night-latches, £ dozen 

Sash-cord, 4 pounds 

Trucking 

Plank and sawing . 

Freight and express 

Rubber packing, | pound 

Glaziers' points, 3 pairs 

Shingles, 4^ thousands 

Sawing . . 

Valves, 3 

Labor on steam fitting 

Glass, 18 boxes 

Potash, 15 pounds . 

Ring-burners for gasolene, 2 dozen 

Sheet-iron, 227 pounds 

Steam-pump repairs 

Bits, 10 

Lime, 4 casks 

Mortar, \ bushel . 

Hinges, 13 pairs . 

Funnel, 76£ pounds 

Paris-white, 60 pounds 

Door-rolls, 2^ pairs 

Charcoal, 4 bushels 

Cement, \\ casks . 

Iron, 75 pounds 

Dry paper, 73 pounds 

Frozen glue, 1£ pounds 

Zinc, 122± pounds 

Curtain-fixtures, 25 sets 

Steam and gas fittings . 

Clap-boards, 20 feet 

Hemlock boards, 275 feet 

Pickets, 80 feet . 

Copper, 14 pounds 

Flag-rope, 70 feet . 

Machine oil, 1^ gallons 

Knob-screws, 1 dozen 

Wall-brushes, 5 

Castings, 54 pounds 

Mortise-latches, 17 



$6 81 

10 

88 

84 

49 59 

16 50 



10 
00 
06 
00 
40 
20 
43 
16 88 

1 00 

2 75 
8 00 

61 64 
1 50 

10 00 

11 35 
38 00 

80 
5 00 

50 

7 07 

15 55 



60 
35 
00 
63 
13 
19 
45 

14 20 
7 35 

88 77 
90 



4 40 

2 40 

4 48 

22 

90 

35 

6 22 

1 89 

1 76 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT 


— N 


o. 18. 


Boiler grate $3 00 


Umber, 1 pound 










20 


Sash-tools, 3 . 










45 


Wire rope, 135 feet 










24 30 


Door-knobs, 6 










1 12 


Alum, 18 pounds . 










84 


Lamp-black .... 










15 


Vandyke brown. 1 pound 










20 


Ultramarine blue, \ pound 










12 


Screws, 61 gross . 










15 79 


Speaking-tube elbows, 22 










2 77 


Blue color, £ pound 










12 


Bibbs, 2 










1 20 


Hemp, 5 pounds . 










1 25 


Brackets, £ dozen . 










3 94 


Faucet .... 










10 


Band leathers, 5 . 










51 


Railing, 14 feet 










1 54 


Repairing pump-rod 










25 


Rivets, If pounds . 










52 


Solder, 18£ pounds 










4 50 


Repairs on boiler . 










2 60 


" " mats 










90 


" " pails 










50 


" " mowing-machine 










13 18 


" " hose 










5 75 


" " fire-extinguisher 










1 50 


Speaking-tube, 60^ feet 










6 05 


Pump-chain, 4 feet 










20 


Baluster, 24 feet . 










90 


Stove-lining . 










1 25 


Tacks, 17 papers . 










1 65 


Sheet-lead, 5| pounds . 










46 


Tin, 3 sheets . 










25 


Orange shellac, 1 gallon 










3 50 


Grindstone arbor . 










75 


Lead pipe, 19 pounds 










1 67 


Red-lead, 5 pounds 










50 


Extraordinary Repairs and Impr 


OVEMENTS. 


Drain-pipe, 192 feet ... $69 12 


Galvanized pipe, 455£ feet 


. 


40 65 


Locks, 44 




35 73 


Repairing locks, 97 


. 


94 32 


Keys, 120 . . 


. 


26 35 


Pine lumber for game-tables, etc., 2,223 feet 


80 05 


Sample locks ...... 


3 00 


Large soapstone laundry tanl 




. 


. 


. 


52 80 



77 



$523 62 



78 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Box for same 

Nails, 350 pounds . 

Labor, 121 days 

Kalsomine, 2| cases 

Register and tin case for Farm-house 

Bricks, 1,200 

Finishing Garden-house shop into tenement 

Sheathing (Peter's house shop), 1,550 feet 

Moulding (farmer's room), 146^ feet 

Refrigerators, 2 



Chestnut posts (support of far 
Windows, 5 . 
Floor-boards, 706 feet 
Doors, 11 
Sink-trap 
Cup for same 



Punch .... 
Needles, J thousand 
Darning-needles, 16 papers 
Pegs, £ bushel 
Tacks, 12 pounds . 
Repairs on knitting-machine 
Hose, 48 T 7 2 dozen pairs . 
Lining, 30 yards . 
Blacking, 2 gallons 
Tailors' chalk, 1£ gross 
Flannel shirting, 218 yards 
Lasts, 10 dozen 
Coats and vests, 6 . 
Web-elastic, 1 gross 
Sewing-machines, 2 
Repairs on sewing-machines 
Gloves, 1 pair 
Nailing stand 
Sperm oil, 2 quarts 
Nails, 30 pounds . 
Thimbles, § gross . 
Rubber sheeting, 6 yards 
Gilt buttons, 3 gross 
Tarred paper, 46 pounds 
Carting - . 
Looking-glass 
Shoe-laces, 14 bunches . 
Sewing-machine oil, 1| pints 
Slippers, 252 pairs 
Spool linen, 74 dozen 
Tassels, 1 dozen 



m barn), 



Clothijst 



10 



$2 25 


13 26 


225 38 


27 02 


7 10 


11 40 


50 00 


49 52 


2 44 


27 75 


19 25 


5 00 


17 66 


15 90 


1 00 


50 


$0 60 


1 12 


1 62 


40 


2 64 


19 17 


50 80 


2 10 


30 


66 


65 40 


4 84 


34 50 


7 Q8 


50 00 


98 


65 


4 50 


80 


3 60 


1 34 


5 00 


4 37 


1 38 


38 


10 


9 10 


35 


189 00 


54 86 


75 



$877 45 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT 


— No. 18. 79 


Camphor, 10 pounds $3 10 


Neckties, 9 








. 94 


Wax, 36 pounds . 








14 10 


Handkerchiefs, 40 dozen 








22 44 


Awls, 21 dozen 








2 80 


Boots, 7 pairs 








17 75 


Stencils, ink, etc. . 








2 25 


Bag 








15 


Suspenders, 9 








2 28 


Hats, 8 dozen 








17 25 


Pliers, 1 pair 








40 


Sal-soda, 116 pounds 








2 03 


Rubber boots, 5 pairs 








14 00 


Combs, 50 dozen . 








11 05 


Hamilton strap, 260 yards 








29 90 


Cassimere, 62 yards 








31 00 


Cheviot, 165 yards 








20 63 


Scotch melton, 129 yards 








64 50 


Pattern paper, 8 yards . 








20 


Button-hole scissors, 1 dozen pairs 








6 00 


Shoe-knives, 5 








1 03 


Cotton thread, 3 pounds 








1 95 


Twine, 54 balls 








1 65 


Linen, 20 yards 








5 00 


Caps, 6 dozen 








24 00 


Yarn, 42^ pounds 








36 07 


Pant patterns, 8 . 








6 00 


Jacket patterns, 10 








15 00 


Starch, 1 box 








45 


Flannel, 2 pieces . 








31 06 


Straw paper, 1 ream 








11 53 


Silk, 1 spool .... 








12 


Boot-shaves, \ dozen 








2 04 


Pincers, £ dozen 








67 


Shoe-hammers, ^ dozen . 








1 50 


Bottom-slickers, -^ dozen 








35 


Awl-hafts, T 5 2 dozen 








75 


Pegging-wheels, -^ dozen 








10 


Copper rivets, 4 pounds 








2 40 


Buttons, 6 gross 








6 00 


Spool cotton, 43 dozen . 








21 90 


Leather, 1,051 pounds . 








292 20 




tl 0/ 13 tt 


(jplj^stiO OO 


Live Stock Purchases. 


Hog . . . $15 00 


Cows, 8 385 00 


Oxen, 1 pair ........ 150 00 


Bull . . 








35 00 



80 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Furniture, Beds, Bedding, Etc. 



Tin cups, 3^ dozen 

Bowls, " W. G." 12 dozen 

Goblets, 6 dozen . 

Butter-pots, \ dozen 

Scrubbing-brushes, 12 dozen 

Teas, 6 dozen 

Salts, 1 dozen 

Dials for watch-clock, 2,000 

Chairs for chapel and office, 

Washboards, 2 dozen 

Bolt, 18-inch . 

Lock 

Milk-cans, £ dozen 

Scales . 

Tassels, 2 dozen 

Mirrors, 4 dozen . 

Twine, 4 bundles 

Grate and damper 

Circle brick, 56 

Kettle . 

Yases and pedestals, ' 

Beds, 10 

Water-closet paper, 1 case 

Soap-shaker . 

Arm-rest 

Repairing strainer 

Punch . 

Wire cloth, 250 square feet 

Shelf-paper, 4 quires 

Shears, 4 pairs 

Corkscrew 

Oilcloth, m yards 

Lamp-hooks, |- dozen 

Carriage-dusters, j\ dozen 

Floor-brushes, 1^ dozen 

Carpet lining, 22 dozen 

Bungs, 14 dozen . 

Emery-cloth, 1£ dozen sheets 

Pitchers, 2^ dozen 

Carting 

Lantern 

Wire . 

Blacksmithing 

Funnel, 8 pounds 

Elbow . 

Barrels, 10* dozen 

Shoe-brushes, 1 dozen 



$2 20 


18 00 


5 40 


2 00 


21 00 


3 95 


1 50 


7 00 


22 75 


5 00 


83 


75 


9 50 


8 50 


2 50 


6 00 


2 05 


1 00 


3 36 


1 25 


20 00 


20 00 


12 00 


20 


75 


40 


20 


7 50 


1 17 


9 15 


45 


18 75 


25 


15 75 


23 00 


2 20 


24 75 


1 44 


7 80 


1 20 


1 35 


39 


50 


2 00 


15 


13 00 


1 75 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



81 



Batters, 5 dozen . 
Stove-castings 
Gray dusters, 1| dozen 
Zinc, 12£ pounds . 
Mica 

Stove-brushes, 1 dozen 
Dipper . 
Labor, 2 hours 
Walnut frame 
Clothes-lines, 13 . 
Baskets, 4 
Lantern-globe 
Drip-pan 

Rolls, | dozen pairs 
Picture-cord, 5 yards 
Ribbon, 8 yards 
Lamps, 13 
Hatchet 

Spoons, 13 dozen . 
Ticking, 168 yards 
Stone and gavel for chapel desk 
Tacks, 4 dozen papers 
Wheel-castors, 7 pairs 
Apple-corers . 
Butter-trier . 
Lamp-bracket 
Tripoli, 1 gross papers 
Clock-cords, 4 
Repairing watch-clock 
Bath-brick, 5 boxes 
Chambers, 4 dozen 
Carvers, 4 pairs 
Teapots, i dozen 
Repairing clock 
Eight-day clock 
Coffee-mill 
Leather mail-bag 
Butchers' steel, ■£% dozen 
Repairing coffee-tank 
Linen for coffee-tank 
Evergreen wreaths, 2 dozen 
Knives, 2 dozen 
Clothes-pins, 3 boxes 
Evergreen cross 
Scissors, 1 pair 
Corks, 1 dozen 
Pans, 5j 7 ^ dozen . 
Skimmers, £ dozen 
Chimneys, 18 dozen 
11 



$1 87 


10 42 


6 75 


1 63 


05 


1 75 


35 


60 


2 75 


8 20 


1 32 


20 


1 00 


75 


25 


40 


19 33 


80 


6 45 


18 48 


1 10 


1 38 


90 


12 


1 67 


25 


7 50 


1 02 


2 00 


3 95 


25 90 


6 75 


70 


2 75 


4.75 


23 20 


7 00 


50 


1 38 


1 00 


5 00 


3 00 


2 50 


29 


1 05 


12 


15 80 


19 


19 85 



82 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Dustpans, 3 dozen . 
Plates, 17 dozen . 
Mats, 3 

Pulpit for chapel . 
Matting, 120 yards 
Damask, 39 yards 
Butter-spatts, 2 
Slop-jars, 2 dozen . 
Beater . 

Buckets, 8J dozen 
Wicks, 1^ gross 
Cash-boxes, 2 
Alcohol, 2 gallons . 
Sugar-bowls, 1 dozen 
Rubber stamps and pad 
Butter-mould 
Parer 

Ladles, 2 dozen 
Thermometers, 2 dozen 
Iron ash-barrels, 4 
Brooms, 18 dozen, 
Box 

Churn . 

Extra picks, 2 dozen 
Shelf-paper, £ ream 
Dippers, ^ dozen . 
Polishing-irons, |- dozen 
Airtight stove 
Sieves, \ dozen 
Butter-powe . 
Call-bells, 2 
Stove-polish, | gross 
Cartage 
Blueing 

Shoe-blacking, 5 dozen 
Soap, 3,281 pounds 
Starch, 172 pounds 
Gum camphor, 25 pounds 
Alcohol, 5| gallons 



Fuel and Lights. 



Gasolene, 4, 132^ gallons 
Burners, 2 dozen . 
Fusee-cases, 3^- dozen . 
Wicks, 12^ dozen . 
Kerosene oil, 291 gallons 
Coal, 223,330 pounds , 
Lard oil, 20 gallons 



83 60 
25 20 

12 00 
20 00 
81 67 
22 50 

18 

13 50 
75 

27 78 
1 45 
1 60 
5 00 
4 80 

15 00 

35 

58 

1 50 

10 80 

14 80 
44 50 

20 
9 00 

4 50 
1 75 

75 

5 15 

6 50 
1 25 

60 

1 95 

2 88 
5 29 
2 40 
5 00 

164 36 
12 90 

7 75 
14 19 



$1,089 39 



$856 93 

8 00 

3 25 

1 26 

38 37 

648 06 

17 00 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



83 



Chimneys, 6^ dozen 








$5 90 


Freight on barrels, 162 


45 18 


Matches, 3| gross 


6 90 


Fusees, 6 cases 


9 00 


Horse and Cattle Shoeing. 


Shoeing horses and oxen . 


. 




Stationery. 






Envelopes, 6^ thousands 




$18 17 


Check-books, 2 








6 50 


Boston directory . 








5 00 


Binding-file .... 








90 


Note-heads, £ thousand . 








7 00 


Memorandum-books, 1 dozen 








35 


Post-office box 








70 


Bill-files, 9 . 








2 55 


Ledgers, 2 








5 65 


Leads, 6 boxes .... 








1 25 


Merchandise tags, J thousand 








1 00 


Blank-book .... 








90 


Pass-books, 15 dozen 








6 90 


Pens, 4 boxes 








6 00 


Red ink .... 








50 


Mucilage, 1 quart . 








42 


Ink, 8 quarts 








4 01 


Order-books, 2 dozen 


■ 






12 00 


Hospital and Sanitary Supj 


>LIES. 


Boneset, 1 pound ...... 


$0 40 


Castor oil, 1^ pounds 






45 


Benzoic acid, 1 ounce . 






38 


Alcohol, 7£ quarts .... 






4 91 


Corks, 12 dozen .... 






81 


Muriatic acid .... 






25 


Gum camphor, £ potmd . 






20 


Chlorate of potash, 2\ pounds 






90 


Seidlitz mixture, 1\ pounds . 






50 


Jamaica ginger (powdered), I pound 






50 


Chloride of lime, 1,160 pounds 






23 70 


Castile soap, 4£ pounds . 






95 


Knee-cap. ..... 






1 50 


Oxide of zinc, 6 ounces . 






10 


Tincture of iron, 2 quarts 






1 85 


Fly-paper, 6 sheets 






25 


Pills, 1,200 






6 40 


Extract of beef, 1 bottle 








87 



$1,639 85 



m 65 



$79 80 



84 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Sponges, 1 dozen . 






$0 10 


Tincture of opium, 1 pound . 






1 70 


Balsam of copaiba, 1 pound . 






1 05 


Brandy, 1 bottle . 






2 00 


Borax, 3 pounds . 






62 


Extract of Jamaica ginger, 5 pounc 


Is 




8 00 


Peppermint, 2 ounces . 






70 


Bismuth, ^ pint . ... 






1 50 


Carbolic acid, 3|- ounces 






70 


Squibb 's ether. 1| pounds 






1 79 


Vaccine virus . 






5 70 


Liquid ammonia, 3 pints 






94 


Camel-hair brushes, £ dozen . 






20 


Glycerine, 11^ pounds . 






6 60 


Cough mixture, 1 bottle 






75 


Compressed tablets (chloride of pol 


ash) 


30 boxes 


4 67 


Linseed meal, 4 pounds . 






40 


Truss 






3 33 


Lucca oil, 1 bottle . 






1 00 


Gal. plaster, 5 rolls 






3 25 


Powder papers 






20 


Potash, 2 boxes 






10 


Nitrate of silver, 3 drams 






36 


Spirits of nitre dulc, 1 pint . 






65 


Ammonia, i pound 






15 



$91 38 



Grain and Meal for Live Stock. 



Meal, 436 bags 

Corn, 556 bags 

Cracked corn, 114 bags . 

Grinding 

Cotton-seed meal, 48 bags 

Milk, skimmed or sour, 431 cans 

Oats, 153 bags 

Charcoal, 1 barrel . 

Pine tar, 2 boxes . 

Middlings, 6,088 pounds 

Freight on shorts . 

Meadow hay, 24,766 pounds 

Prescriptions, 3 

Garget cure, 7 bottles . 

Sulphur, 2 pounds . 

Bran, 1,000 pounds 

Cattle food, 4 packages . 

Expense of unloading shorts 

Buttermilk for pigs, 50 cans 



$544 31 


357 90 


147 17 


49 11 


66 40 


26 57 


327 09 


90 


20 


68 97 


110 08 


90 37 


75 


7 00 


16 


9 50 


3 60 


1 00 


6 04 



$1,817 12 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 



85 



News, Sunday-school, and Waste Papers. 



" Daily Advertiser " 

" American Cultivator " 

Old papers, 2,000 . 

" Daily Traveller " 

" Sunday-school Worlds" 

Sunday-school Lesson Sheets 

" Massachusetts Ploughman ' 

" Sunday-school Times " 

" Chronotypes," 25 



Postage and Telegrams 



Postage-stamps, 1,950 . 
" " 300 . 

Postal-cards, 300 .... 
Telephone subscription . 

" lines, complete 

Telegraph and telephone despatches 
Post-office box rent 



Salaries, Wages, and Labor. 

Pay-rolls .$15,294 71 

Paid ministers 209 00 

Extra labor 141 43 

Appraiser's services 70 00 



$12 00 


2 00 


10 00 


2 61 


4 95 


16 87 


2 70 


2 10 


1 00 


$58 50 


3 00 


3 00 


30 00 


40 00 


204 73 


80 



Plants, Seeds and Fertilizers. 



Onion seed, 11| pounds . 
Melon seed, 2 pounds 
Tomato seed, T 5 g pound . 
Paris green, 20 pounds . 
Cabbage seed, 3 pounds 
Plaster, 1 barrel 
Red-top, 5| bushels 
Blue-grass, 2 bushels 
Potatoes, 80 bushels 
Currant plants, 500 
Tin pail, 1 . 
Timothy, 1| bushels 
Clover seed, 90 pounds . 
Carting .... 
Phosphate, 492 pounds . 
Tobacco-stems, 16 pounds 
Corn stowells, 2 quarts . 
Ashes, 224 bushels. 
Tomato plants, 150 



$46 78 


2 38 


1 55 


6 15 


13 66 


1 40 


3 48 


4 00 


78 50 


25 00 


35 


3 75 


9 00 


1 50 


10 46 


80 


50 


28 00 


4 00 



$54 23 



$340 03 



1,715 14 



86 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Flower seeds, 15 packages, 
Evergeen corn, \ bushel 
Turnip seed, 5| pounds 
Pease, H bushels . 
Beans, 26 quarts . 
Beet seed, 5 pounds 
Oats, 4 bags . 
Bye, 6 bushels 
Squash, 5f pounds 
Whole corn, 3 bags 
Sweet corn, 1 peck 



$1 85 


1 50 


3 83 


8 37 


6 74 


1 76 


6 60 


6 00 


6 55 


5 40 


1 50 



$291 36 



Farming Tools, Horse and Wagon Furniture, and Repairs to 

THE SAME. 

Sperm oil, 4J gallons 
Covered buggy, 1 
Repairing wagons 
Scythes, £ dozen 
Circle, 1 
Sickle, 1 
Setting tires . 
Reins, 1 pair . 
Cards, ^ dozen 
Brushes, ^ dozen 
Twine, 1 ball 
Plank, 136 feet 
Rakes, ^ dozen 
Axletrees, 2 . 
Lawn-mower, 1 
Whiffletrees, 3 
Pole, 1 . 

Curry-combs, \ dozen 
Flails, \ dozen 
Springs, 1 set 
Carriage-soap, 3| pound 
Scythe-stones, 2 
Chisel, 1 
Hooks, T 7 Y dozen 
Repairing harnesses 
Shaft-bells, 4 pairs 
Balance, 1 
Repairing sleighs 

' ' carts 

Fork-handle, 1 
Repairing chains 
Hoes, 4 dozen 
Sponge, 1 



75 00 


64 90 


5 25 


1 50 


60 


4 40 


2 25 


50 


2 83 


20 


5 44 


1 50 


4 75 


12 00 


4 00 


2 45 


2 35 


3 00 


3 75 


51 


70 


2 50 


6 91 


23 75 


4 25 


83 


6 50 


2 25 


25 


80 


20 00 


50 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT 


— IS 


ro. is. 


Castors $0 06 


Axe-handles, 2 dozen 








5 50 


Ploughshare, 1 








50 


Swivel plough, 1 . 








13 50 


Leather ..... 








20 


Whips, 4 . . . . 








6 25 


Whip-handles, 6 . 








1 20 


Bit, 1 - . 








40 


New harness, 1 








38 00 


Halter, 1 








40 


Carting 








38 


Axe, 1 








1 00 


Axle-oil, 1 gallon . 








1 75 


Tie-rein, 1 








1 00 


Repairing tie-rein . 








40 


Whip-sticks, 2 








40 


Wagon seat, 1 . . . 








1 75 


Repairing scoop . . 








25 


Milking-tubes, 2 . 








1 50 


Enamel dressing, 2 quarts 








3 00 


Repairing saddle . 








1 50 


Repairing cushion 








30 


Lashes, 5 








1 25 


Repairing riding-bridle . 








2 75 


Repairing mowing-machine . 








2 30 


Stalk- cutter, 1 








1G 00 


Crank and knife for stalk-cutter 








75 


Harness oil, 1 quart 








1 75 


Garget cure, 2 bottles . 








1 CO 


Sulphur, 5 pounds 








40 


Chamois skin, 1 








1 25 


Check-straps, 2 








60 


Whip-socket, 1 








85 


Potato-diggers, 1 dozen 








6 00 


Hose (200 feet), couplings, etc. 








27 30 


Transportation and Travelling 


Expenses. 


Freight and express . . . . . . $354 71 


Travelling expenses . • "... 




71 80 


Railroad tickets ..... 




140 62 


Return of boys ($374.72 for last 3 months) 




699 36 


Boys' fares home . . . . . 




29 31 


Carriage-hire 




1 40 


Printing. 




Advertising $35 39 


Blanks, 22,000 32 00 


Cards, 300 . 








2 00 



87 



$416 24 



$1,297 20 



88 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Programmes, 1,700 
Special rules, 200 . 
Hymns, 300 . 



School Property. 



Envelopes, 2 thousand 

Arithmetics, 16 dozen 

Sheet music, 18 pieces 

Slates, 11 dozen 

"Upton's Tactics," 1 

Slate-pencils, 1,024 

Geographies, 6 dozen 

" Nordhoff's Politics," 1 dozen 

School globes, 2 

Note-paper, 5 reams 

Readers, 22 dozen 

United States Histories, 2 dozen . 

Penholders, 3 gross 

Swinton's Language-lessons, 6 dozen 

Song-books, 15| dozen . 

Spellers, 8 dozen .... 



Coffin and plate 

Muslin for shroud, 1| yards 



Skate-straps, 64 
Key-rings, 4 dozen 
Paper bags, 200 
Attorney's services 
Base balls, 3^ dozen 
Billy, 1 . . 

Blotting-paper, 6 sheets 
Whistles, 1 dozen . 



Burial. 



Petties. 



$13 50 

2 50 

3 00 



$2 50 


73 50 


3 60 


7 65 


2 00 


4 90 


55 86 


8 55 


20 00 


6 25 


110 81 


25 92 


1 30 


43 20 


56 01 


22 80 


$13 00 


90 


$7 50 


3 00 


58 


5 00 


25 00 


2 00 


33 


4 95 



Sleigh Shop — Wood Department. 



Screws, 90 gross . 
Muslin, 60 yards . 
Shaft straps, 512 pairs . 
Carpenters' pencils, \ gross 
Drill, 33 yards 
Leather, 404 feet . 
Twine, 10 pounds . 
Handles, 314 pairs 
Sawing, 10 hours . 
Cord, 2 pieces 
Plush, 150 yards . 



$24 17 

13 80 

113 40 

1 50 

3 96 
44 45 

4 33 
11 00 

5 00 
30 

187 51 



$88 39 



$444 85 



$13 90 



$48 36 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT 


— No. 18. 


Moss, 275 pounds $35 75 


Pine, 1,873 feet . . . 










43 76 


Shaft-tips, 1 dozen 










1 10 


Auger- bits, 1 dozen 










1 95 


Buckram, 22£ yards 










3 25 


Buttons, 40 gross . 










6 80 


Bass, 14,000 feet . 










280 00 


Planing . 


. 






55 75 


Beams, 300 1 
Raves, 225 1 


Fenders, 125 \ ■ ' * 38 °° 


Posts, 600 J 


Labor 471 03 


Carting 










38 


Rules, 2| dozen 










5 38 


Whiffletree-springs, 25 pairs 










2 25 


Planning 800 feet of lumber . 










2 90 


Tacks, 74 papers . 










12 98 


Shaft-sockets, 8 dozen pairs 










8 80 


Bradawl handles, £ gross 










1 75 


Freight on lumber 










47 33 


Sawing, 18 hours . 










9 11 


Sand-paper, 2 reams 










8 10 


Planes, 2 










2 83 


Japanned nails, 1 paper 










25 


Finishing nails, 15 papers 










1 80 


Recutting 57 old files 










22 21 


Tennoning 178 sets of posts 










8 90 


Oil-cloth, 100 yards 










20 75 


Screw-driver handles, 2 dozer 


L 








1 51 


Shoe-knives, | dozen 










40 


Hauling sleighs 










98 25 


Turning sleigh-posts 










5 25 


Bits, 11£ dozen ? 










23 99 


Saw-plates, 1 dozen 










1 37 


Drills, 1£ dozen 










4 60 


Glue, 71 pounds 










13 38 


Trimming sleighs . 










76 12 


Gluepot and repairs 










1 78 


Whip-sockets, 14 dozen 










29 40 


Sleigh stock, 1,000 sets . 










495 00 


Gouges, 1 dozen . 










3 25 


Storing ..... 










10 00 


Screws, 12 gross . 










41 90 


Shaves, 1 dozen 










6 75 


Grindstone, 1 










10 00 


Awls, 15 dozen 










3 49 


Rolls, 1 pair . 










1 50 



89 



12 



$2,330 47 



90 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Paint Department 



Vermillion, 8| pounds 
Bell-dusters, ^ dozen 
Indian red, 10 pounds 
Varnish, 64 gallons 
Putty-knives, | dozen 
Punch-heads, ^ dozen 
Spirits of turpentine, 50 gall 
Chrome yellow, 2 pounds 
Shellac, 10 quarts . 
Sponges, 4 pounds 
Paint strainer, 1 . 
Machine oil, 1 quart 
Plated knives, |- dozen . 
Pencils, ^ gross 
Coach-painters' drop-black, 2 
Gold paint, 2 bottles 
Tubes of colors, 5^ dozen 
Bottles of colors, ^ dozen 
Colors, 156 pounds 
Gold leaf, ^ pack . 
Motts, ^ dozen 
Labor . 

Chat, lake, 50 pounds 
Lead, 1,307 pounds 
Brushes, 12^ dozen 
Ivory-black, 25 pounds 
Sand-paper, 4^- reams 
Burnt-umber, \ pound 
Quaker's green, 20 pounds 



5 pounds 



Blacks 
Augur-bits, 3 dozen 
Spring steel, 6 \ pounds . 
Sleigh-irons, 26,351 pounds 
Carting .... 
Side-irons, 1,278 pounds 
Holdbacks, 400 . 
Handles, \ dozen . 
Cut-bits, 2 dozen . 
Charcoal, 1 barrel . 
Breech-hooks, 1,600 
Repairs on cutting-machine 
TVhiffletree plates, tongues, and fer 
Hammer 

Refined iron, 1,260 pounds 
Band iron, 157 pounds . 
Rivets, 150 pounds 
Machine steel, 49 pounds 



mith's Department. 



rules 



4,700 



$7 81 


6 88 


3 20 


141 01 


1 13 


50 


25 00 


1 00 


6 20 


10 00 


70 


35 


75 


1 68 


7 00 


1 50 


8 16 


3 45 


51 81 


3 75 


3 38 


490 36 


40 00 


101 97 


17 17 


8 50 


11 80 


05 


8 00 


Wl 50 


68 


856 41 


2 01 


211 26 


4 42 


50 


2 00 


1 10 


18 33 


4 00 


53 19 


98 


33 04 


4 88 


24 00 


4 41 



$963 11 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 



91 



Cast steel, 14 pounds 
Burrs, 11 pounds . 
Shoe steel, 327 pounds 
Bolts, 2,550 . 
Sheet iron, 1 piece 
Wrenches, ±- dozen 
Nippers, \ dozen pairs 
Rachet-braces, £ dozen 
Washers, 60 pounds 



$2 


10 


2 


64 


14 72 


30 


85 


1 


12 


1 


50 


.6 


75 


3 


60 


8 


50 



$1,300 49 



Comparative Summary. 





1881. 


1880. 


Decrease. 


Increase. 


Provisions, groceries, etc., 


$8,009 54 


$10,573 96 


$2,564 42 




Ordinary repairs 


523 62 


1,470 83 


947 21 


- 


Unusual repairs and im- 










provements . 


877 45 


- 


_ 


877 45 


Clothing .... 


1,243 53 


4,232 76 


2,989 23 


_ 


Live-stock purchases 


585 00 


1,240 24 


661 24 


_ 


Furniture, beds, bedding, 










etc 


1,089 39 


1,242 70 


153 31 


_ 


Fuel and lights . 


1,639 85 


5,256 61 


3,616 76 


- 


Horse and cattle shoeing . 


84 65 


119 97 


35 32 


- 


Stationery, etc. . 


79 80 


180 99 


101 19 


_ 


Hospital and sanitary sup- 










plies .... 


91 38 


202 95 


111 57 


_ 


Grain and meal for live 










stock .... 


1,817 12 


2,257 11 


439 99 


_ 


News, Sunday-school, and 










waste papers . 


54 23 


134 70 


80 47 


_ 


Postage and telegrams 


340 03 


84 82 


- 


255 21 


Salaries, wages, and labor, 


15,715 14 


17,085 32 


1,370 18 


_ 


Plants, seeds, and fertiliz- 










ers .... 


291 36 


290 91 


_ 


45 


Farm tools, horse and wag- 










on furniture, and repairs, 


416 24 


803 15 


3S6 91 


_ 


Transportation and travel- 










ling expenses 


1,297 20 


1,148 49 


- 


148 71 


Printing .... 


88 39 


30 25 


- 


58 14 


School property 


444 85 


107 66* 


- 


337 19 


Burial .... 


13 90 


15 00 


1 10 


_ 


Petties 


48 36 


69 94f 


21 58 


_ 


Sleigh- shop 


4,594 07 


2,631 58 


- 


1,962 49 


Gross expense . 


$39,345 10 


$49,185 94 


$13,480 48 


$3,639 64 


Gross cost per capita . 


$218 58 


$237 61 


_ 


_ 


Per capita — deducting re- 










ceipts from sales of farm 










products, etc , and 










sleighs, most of which 










were the manufacture of 










preceding years 


159 98 


194 19 


— 


- 



* Less by substraction of $38.37 paid for base balls, etc., included by mistake, 
t Increased by addition of above amount to this account. 



92 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Deducting again $7,941.36, collected on account of inmates by Super- 
intendent of Indoor Poor, we have the net per capita for 1880-81 to be 
.$115 86. 

Were we to further subtract all expenditures strictly peculiar to the 
year (as explained elsewhere), the cost per capita would be only $102.68. 



Our Sleigh Business. 
Cr. 

Iron on hand in excess of that on hand Oct. 1, 1880, 

Wood stock on hand in excess of that on hand 
Oct. 1, 1880 

Paint stock on hand in excess of that on hand 
Oct. 1, 1880 

Wood and iron working tools in excess of that on 
hand Oct 1, 1880 

New grindstone 

Extra labor and materials in painting, varnishing, 
upholstering, and generally overhauling, to 
render saleable, and transportation of, sleighs 
made previous to Oct. 1, 1880 .... 

Sleighs on Hand. 
Common, older pattern, 65, at $14 
Fancy trimmed, older pattern, 9, at $25 
Common, new pattern, 47, at $18 . 
Fancy, new pattern, 7, at $30 
Double cutter, new pattern, 1 
Ironed bottoms, new pattern, 61, at $10 
Bottoms not ironed, 5 at $6 . 
Hand-sleds, 12 dozen, at $18 .... 
Hand-sleds, 4£ dozen, at $16 .... 

Dr. 

Cash expenditures, wood department . 
" " painting department 

" " ironing department . 



$1,553 10 

765 20 

205 17 

95 00 
10 00 



815 67 



910 00 
225 00 
846 00 
210 00 

30 00 
610 00 

30 00 
216 00 

68 00 



52,330 47 

963 11 

1,300 49 



t,589 14 



4,594 07 

$1,995 07 

The boys have worked about 43,056 hours in the sleigh-shops. If we 
allow five cents per hour, which is about twice the average amount earned 
at seating chairs, they would have earned $2,152.80, or $157.10 in excess 
of the above balance to the credit of this department for the fiscal 
year. Some of the figures are necessarily estimated ; but I have tried to 
be just in the matter, and believe them to be substantially correct. This, 
I believe, is the best showing the sleigh business of the institution has 
been able to make for any single year ; and, better than all, in the words 
of Mr. Thompson, master, we believe that "the work done is now an 
honor to the institution, a help to the boys, and will bring as high prices 
as any done in the town." 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 93 

An eloper from the sleigh-shop, during August, was immediately set 
to work in a Lowell carriage factory at $1.85 per day, " to start on," and 
a promise of higher wages as soon as he was better known. This single 
instance, I think, speaks strongly of Mr. Thompson's usefulness. 



E. T. Doolet, Esq., Superintendent. 

Sir, — In rendering a statement of the condition of this department, 
and what has been done during the seven months it has been under my 
supervision, I take the liberty to speak of some of the difficulties we have 
had to encounter owing to its general disorder. In the wood-shop I found 
no evidence that there had ever been any system of instruction such as 
would result in any permanent benefit to the boys working there, no evi- 
dence of any greater advance in mechanics than a familiarity with tools, 
under favorable circumstances, would give; and, as proof of this, I call 
attention to the class of work then in course of construction. There were 
no moulds to be found, the patterns were not what we wanted, and the 
condition of the tools wonld defy the best efforts of the best mechanic 
living, until put in order. It was understood when I took charge of the 
shops that there would be no lumber for sleighs until an order which had 
been given should be filled, so we went to putting up hand-sleds from 
maple timber that was on hand, and of no particular consequence for 
any other purpose; and in this, sharpening tools, making moulds and 
patterns, and a general clearing away of the old lumber lying around, was 
passed the first two months; in the meantime saving from the odds and 
ends sufficient hardwood lumber for about one hundred sleighs. The 
runners not all being used yet. This takes us to about the first of May, 
when we are regularly at work on sleighs ; a late start (only about five 
months to this date), but we went to work with a determination to show 
the boys that this was their opportunity, and what they were doing was 
worth learning to do well. Also to give them such an insight into 
mechanical principles that, should they decide to work at other me- 
chanical callings, they could do so quite understanding^ ; and this I 
claim in several instances to have done. 

I, of course, knew that this method, so different from what had been 
pursued, would be barren of results at the beginning; but feeling it was 
the only one that accorded with the spirit of this institution, and sure to 
bear fruit in time, also knowing that I had your entire approval, I kept 
steadily on until, on the 2d of July, I had in shop eighteen boys intelli- 
gently working on as many sleighs; but on the 6th had only four boys to 
complete them with. The public and press had been scandalizing for a 
long time, and we had borne up bravely; but when they decided to and 
did bring it home to our doors, it was too much. From that time out I 
have done the best I could. In conclusion, I would say that the several 
departments have been run with the strictest economy, especially in the 
wood and iron departments, where much of the stock used has been that 
recovered from former waste, leaving that purchased for this purpose 
almost intact, and the character of the work an honor to the institution. 
Respectfully submitted, 

J. SANFORD THOMPSON. 



94 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



FARMER'S STATEMENT. 



To Edmokd T. Dooley, Esq., Superintendent. 

Sir, — Owing to the shortness of my acquaintance ■with the farm (only 
since Aug. 17) I can say but little. Below is an approximation of pro- 
ducts consumed and on hand, together with a list of the live stock. 

I must depend upon your own financial statement for the figures of the 
sales of products, as the data I have are imperfect. 



Farm Products consumed. 



Milk, 72,124 quarts 










. $2,423 34 


Beef, 6,770 pounds 










473 90 


Pork, 13,950 pounds 










. 1,046 25 


Summer squash, 10 dozen 










5 00 


Lettuce .... 










5 00 


Potatoes, 98 bushels 










98 00 


Cucumbers 










12 00 


String beans, 11 £ bushels 










8 00 


Shelled beans, 15| bushels 










15 50 


Apples, 53 bushels 










53 00 


Beets, 17 bushels . 










17 00 


Beet greens, 20 bushels 










10 00 


Green pease, 60 bushels 










75 00 


Pears, 78 bushels . 










78 00 


Onions, 12 bushels 










15 00 


Crab-apples, 4 bushels . 










8 00 


Cabbage, 216 heads 










* 10 80 


Carrots, 3^- bushels 










3 50 


Tomatoes, 32 1- bushels . 










16 25 


Green corn, 1,200 dozen 










96 00 


Strawberries, 377 quarts 










37 70 


Asparagus, 1,200 bunches 










120 00 


Grapes, 600 pounds 










30 00 


Eggs, 525 dozen 










115 50 


Veal 










35 00 


Blueberries and huckleberries 


598 


quart 


s 




59 80 



$4,867 54 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



95 



Valuation of Crops. 



Products on Hand 



Rye, 70 bushels 
Rye straw, 3 tons . 
Oats, 125 bushels . 
Oat straw, 2 tons . 
English hay, 93 tons 
Meadow hay, 15 tons 
Rowen, 10 tons 
Corn fodder . 
Corn, 600 bushels . 
Potatoes, No. 1, 344 bushels 
" 2, 373 bushels 
" " 3, 75 bushels 

Onions, 300 bushels 
Cabbage, 7,200 heads 
Carrots, 505 bushels 
Parsnips, 118 bushels 
Mangels, 220 bushels 
Beets, 155 bushels 
English turnips, 175 bushels 
Sweedish turnips, 90 bushels 
Apples, 75 bushels 
Pears, 75 bushels . 
Quinces, f bushel . 
Grapes .... 



Cows, 30 
Calves, 3 
Fatting hogs, 30 
Breeding sows, 21 
Boars, 2 
Pigs, 53 
Bull, 1 . 

Yoke black oxen 

" red " 
Pair bay horses 
Mare, "Jennie" 
Gelding, "Ned" 
" "Jack" 
" "Major" 
" "General' 



Live Stock. 



Farming Implements, 
Including wagons, machines, tools, etc. 



$77 00 




45 00 




62-50 




20 00 


- 


1,674 00 




150 00 




120 00 




140 00 




480 00 




344 00 




279 75 




18 75 




375 00 




360 00 




139 00 




48 00 




44 00 




66 00 




35 00 




25 00 




75 00 




37 50 




2 50 




160 00 






$4,778 00 




$1,590 00 




18 00 




600 00 




420 00 




35 00 




212 00 




30 00 






$2,905 00 


$170 00 


160 00 




300 00 




75 00 




100 00 




20 00 




175 00 




75 00 






$3,980 00 






$3,004 55 



96 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Summary. 

Products sold $1,720 76 

Products consumed 4,867 54 

Products on hand 4,778 00 

$11,375 30 

Live stock 3,980 00 

Farming implements . 3,004 55 

Total . . $18,359 85 



The year's onion crop here, as elsewhere, has been quite meagre, and 
strawberries have not been quite so abundant. 

Apples, of course, are very scarce as compared with last year's super- 
abundance. 

The proper care of the growing crops during the year has called for 
an exceptional amount of laborious attention, owing to the tardiness of 
planting time, and the subsequent continuous rainy weather, which, while 
giving a large grass crop, materially retarded the growth, and, I am told, 
rotted to some extent much that had been planted, and brought an ex- 
ceptional year's growth of weeds to conquer. By keeping a large force 
regularly at work killing potato-bugs, much damage has been averted, 
and the yield of potatoes has been fair, both in quality and quantity. 

Our labor has been a good deal employed in reclaiming and otherwise 
improving the land; in repairing roads, grading, ditching, and drain- 
digging. Among other items, we have gathered from the fields (a good 
deal of which had to be broken) stone to the extent of about six thousand 
cubic feet, and graded the enlarged^ cellar of the Farm-house with the 
same. 

In conclusion, I would gratefully mention the courtesy I have enjoyed 
from the masters and teachers of the family houses, and the cheerfulness 
and efficiency of the boys under their supervision in doing whatever we 
have requested. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JOSEPH CHAMRERLIN, Farmer. 

State Reform School, "Westbokough, 
Oct. 3, 1881. 



So much has transpired with us during the year of a 
peculiar nature arising from causes which in the main can- 
not properly be discussed here, that I find it difficult to 
present a moderate statement of fact without appearing 
both unjust and immoderate, — so strange must some things 
seem. In consequence of the condition in which I found 
the institution, and of subsequent developments within 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 97 

(from without), has my action all along been hedged with 
embarrassing alternatives. So am I now pressed in attempt- 
ing to render a simple account of my stewardship. I found 
the school suffering in every material aspect. Of discipline, 
of order and organization in the business operations of the 
institution, I discovered almost none. That the boys, espe- 
cially those of the congregate departments, were making 
any headway in mental, moral, or industrial training I could 
not see. But three of the six schools were worth maintain- 
ing a single chiy. The boys of the main building were sullen, 
turbulent, and to most of the officers disrespectful beyond 
anything I had seen. Nor can I say that I thought they 
were much to blame, all things considered ; for it did not 
seem to me that the majority of those in charge were such 
as to inspire particular consideration from even older and 
more charitable observers, — self-respect being always a pre- 
requisite to the esteem of others. The inmates of the con- 
gregate departments were also extremely vulgar and profane, 
— hardly the less, it seemed to me, in the presence of the 
average officer, — as if vulgarity and profanity were "neces- 
sary indulgences." We frequently heard officers addressed 
by nick-names of the boys' own coinage, and have often 
heard them respond as if it were all proper enough. At 
other times the answer would be a blow. Such was the 
prevailing relationship between the boys and those in charge 
of them that we had to expressly notice it in our printed 
rules for officers and employes, as follows : — 

" Officers should not associate in an undignified manner 
with the boys. This, of course, shall not debar one from that 
wholesome familiarity, humane friendship, and personal effort 
which are absolutely essential to the accomplishment of 
good among them ; but habitual caution is imperative in all 
our dealings with these neglected boys." 

Were the boys required to do anything not just to their 
liking — in any way "put out," as by a slight change in the 
daily programme, or through the grievance of a leader — 
"raising" was pretty certain to follow. This consists of a 
concerted shouting, stamping, pounding, whistling, or of si- 
lence when song or recitation is expected. It was their old 
practice. " We always got what we wanted if we'd only 
stop « raising '," the boys assured me. It was the custom for 

13 



98 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

officers to "do their own punishing," which was generally in 
a swift, vindictive, harmful manner. To reach the seat of 
the trousers, rather than of the difficulty, seemed to be the aim. 
By keeping careful memoranda during ten days before my 
duties began, and for a week afterwards, it appeared to me 
that the cases of indiscriminate corporal chastisement (il- 
legal at that) would average not less than a dozen daily, 1 — 
three hundred and sixty per month. I set myself to the 
eradication of this flagrant process of deformation, issuing 
the following rule, and determined to at once remove officers 
who failed to absolutely abide by it : — 

" No officer ever allowed to inflict corporal punishment 
upon an inmate, or to confine a boy, excepting for investiga- 
tion by the superintendent. There are many wise modes of 
correcting a boy to which a far-sighted officer may resort — 
which will not include violence, or even temporary confine- 
ment (though these are occasionally necessary), and which 
are far more effective in dealing with the average boy — if 
our purpose is to reform. An offence on the part of an in- 
mate is always an opportunity for the officer, and it is his part 
to make the most of it, and turn it to good account for the 
erring one. Every officer, with a genuine interest in his 
charge, who has himself well in hand, is discreet, possessed 
of tact, at all fit for reformatory work, understands this." 

From the chapel platform I gave the boys to understand 
that while we expected from them cheerful, prompt, full 
compliance with every rule of the institution, no boy should 
be struck, or visited with any punishment (more than 
a faithful teacher could safely and properly inflict by some 
slight deprivation, or by an increased or otherwise distaste- 
ful task) save by myself ; that it was the duty of the first 
officer through whom a boy appealed to take him to the 
Superintendent, or inform the Superintendent of the boy's 
wish to see him. The officers were now thrown upon their 
own moral and intellectual resources — discretion, tact, in- 
terest, patience, character ; and this test at once proved its 
efficiency by demonstrating the unfitness of those who could 
not stand its application, — precipitating of its own force 
numerous changes in the official corps of the institution ; and 
not a change that has been brought about in this way have 

i My minutes placed the estimate at twenty-eight, 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 99 

I had reason for an instant to regret, or even wish it had been 
temporarily delayed. One can compel the observance of all 
just requirements (I believe that the rules of every institu- 
tion should govern it) ; but I had neither the disposition nor 
the power to exact respect where it was not due. I am able 
conscientiously to report that results have proved the pro- 
priety of my course in this matter ; for there has not occurred 
a single case of retaliative, hasty, over-severe punishment ; 
not one that could have worked injury to a pupil's body, 
mind, or spirit, — a case knowingly unrecorded, one not ad- 
ministered strictly according to law, or by hands other than 
my own, save in a few cases at the beginning, — for which 
there was prompt redress. 

The trouble to the institution from ivithout, to which I 
have referred and which has seriously hampered the work 
of the institution all along, began to take form immediately 
upon the retirement of the first officer who went from us. 
There were enemies of the institution in high places who 
gave anxious, ready hearing to the grievances of our dis- 
carded officers. Abuses I had found, and which I was ear- 
nestly and successfully endeavoring to correct, and for which 
these very officers were sent away, were made the foun- 
dation of sensational newspaper reports and editorials, all 
representing these abuses as originating with the present 
management. Our punishments — which were being admin- 
istered by responsible hands, and according to law ; which 
had been so vastly diminished in severity, and in frequency 
. at least thirty-fold — were dwelt upon as barbarous, " sur- 
passing the darkest deeds of the dark ages." I would not 
characterize every officer I found as faithless or inefficient. 
There were noble exceptions, — eight or nine of them, — 
devotedly, righteously laboring here for humanity. 

These are nearly every one with me to-day, and may it be 
long before the cause loses their invaluable services ! The 
majority are of course new to this place ; but, with few ex- 
ceptions, they are people well adapted to employment of this 
kind. We know to-clay of no instance of "favoritism" on 
the part of an officer for a pupil, or of " chumship " between 
them. 

Each lad must perform his just proportion of the labor 
and school-work, and content himself with no greater share 
of that wjiich is better enjoyed than he is fairly entitled to. 



100 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Consolidation. 

I would oppose institutional as against family life, and it 
has been my endeavor to avoid as much as possible the mass- 
ivg of pupils ; but there existed in the main building a divi- 
sion of the boys which was limited in the most essential 
respects, and involved distinctions and conditions which to 
my mind were very harmful to both the so-called depart- 
ments : and I concluded to merge the two into one, until a 
proper, an absolute, separation could be effected, — one that 
would not merely exalt wickedness on one side of the sleep- 
ing-hall, and inspire boys on the other side of the same hall 
to act their worst, to the end that they be considered heroic 
enough ("tough" they call it) to win a position among the 
" industrial" boys. We began the union by permitting the 
industrial, or penitentiary, boys (there were some twenty- 
live of them) to assemble in chapel at evening devotions, — 
the first time since the establishment of the department ; 
and they showed a decided appreciation of the privilege by 
their behavior, though great disorder was predicted by many. 
But up to the present day there has not been a symptom of 
general misconduct in chapel, save one week-day evening in 
December, as the lines filed out a few boys in one of the 
schools set up a subdued humming. Indeed, during the 
daily evening devotions, our Sabbath services, at the enter- 
tainments, and on every occasion when the boys have been 
assembled in chapel, their conduct has been as remarkable 
to our most experienced officers as it has been to strangers. 
I continued the removal of harmful distinctions by reducing 
the hours of labor of the industrial boys to conform to those 
of the other departments — six instead of eight, by giving 
them corresponding hours in school — four instead of two, 
and the same time and places for recreation and amusement 
as the others enjoyed. They were permitted, like the rest, 
to attend the regular Thursday afternoon singing- lesson in 
chapel, and in all other respects treated the same. In the 
absence of a perfect separation, my idea was to show them 
that they were not such exalted, incorrigible characters as 
their false education and the discipline by which they had 
been governed had evidently led them to conclude. 

Mrs. Laura Clark, an officer here in various capacities for 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 101 

the last eighteen years, said recently in the hearing of the 
Board of Trustees, " In the early part of December many 
of tjre boys were very turbulent and disorderly ; after the 
boys were united they were much easier to manage. I could 
manage fifty easier than twenty-five before. 4 Raising ' had 
-been common ; after January first I only heard of two 
instances of this. I would make especial mention of their 
conduct during devotional exercises, their singing, and of 
their decorum Sundays in the yard." 

I would not convey by all this that I regard the consoli- 
dation as anything better than a choice of evils, — a union to 
be desired over the sort of separation which existed in this 
particular instance. 

Elopements. 

I have to report a large number of elopements, attributable 
almost wholly to the encouragement to disquiet and wrong- 
doing afforded by the persistent attacks of enemies of the 
institution and its management through the newspapers. 
The evil of this warfare culminated in the formal investiga- 
tion, June twenty-seventh to July sixth. Such proceedings 
constitute the severest ordeal through which any institution 
of this character can be made to pass, and the result in this 
case was simply to still further impair the efficiency of the 
institution for the work it was originated to accomplish. An 
institution which needs special investigation so often shows 
that there is a radical trouble deeper down and further back 
than any superintendent, with any set of officers, can reach. 
As will be seen by reference to table No. 1, ten boys left the 
institution unauthorized before my responsibility began. Six 
of them were recovered since December first. Then, for 
seven months, up to the very day of the investigation, I lost 
but twelve boys, and soon recovered all but three of these. 
The number (twelve) is very small, considering the transition 
state in which the institution was, the height at which we 
found the eloping mania, and the opportunities there were 
for boys to get away over those of previous years ; for it 
should be borne in mind that those who had been considered 
the incorrigible^ have had during the entire year all the 
liberties and privileges that have ever been given to any set 
of boys in the main building, and that the average number 



102 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

of boys employed farming and gardening and in "trust" 
positions has been greater by more than thirty than for 
many years back. The number of runaways recorded for 
the corresponding months of the year before was twenty- 
three, or nearly fifty per cent greater. In short, up to the 
very evening of Monday, June twenty-seventh, when the 
investigation began, I am assured by officers who have been 
connected with the institution for from four to eighteen 
years, the institution was in as quiet, orderly, and progres- 
sive a condition as it has known for many years. June 
twenty-sixth, the day was passed without the necessity of 
inflicting a single punishment of any description, — not a boy 
in confinement. 

June twenty-seventh (upon the evening of which the in- 
vestigation commenced), only two boys were found locked 
in their own dormitories in the morning. July seventh, the 
clay after the hearing closed, thirty-five boys were locked up 
for well-merited punishment. 

Happily, we are settling back to our former figures, and 
I trust the day is not distant when resort to this most harm- 
ful of all modes of punishment may be entirely avoided. 

Schools. 

The schools have been entirely re-organized, two of the 
six abolished. The four remaining are of two grades, — one 
of each for the congregate department, and corresponding 
schools for the family house boys. Class instruction is now 
given, and new text-books, which were greatly needed, have 
been furnished to all the schools. 

The studies of the first, or upper, schools have been — 
Monroe's Fourth and Fifth Readers, Higginson's United States 
History, Harper's School Geography, Greenleaf's Practical 
Arithmetic, Swinton's Language Lessons, Nordhoff's Politics 
for Young Americans (in oral instruction), and penman- 
ship. The studies of the second, or lower, schools have been 
— Franklin's First, Second, and Third Readers, Harper's Pri- 
mary Geography, Greenleaf's Primary and Elementary Arith- 
metic, and penmanship. Each school has an efficient and 
conscientious teacher ; and sewing, bead-work, story-reading, 
and checher-jolaying are not included in the curriculum. 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 103 

Sanitary. 

The general health of the boys has been good, as the dimi- 
nution of the sum paid for hospital supplies by fifty-five per 
cent, as compared with that of 1879-80, will in a measure 
attest. There has occurred one death, that of John Gethin, 
whose disease, endocarditis, terminated fatally April twenty- 
third. 

Dr. Harvey has been very attentive to the health of the 
inmates and the general sanitary interests of the institution. 
He has given during the year particular attention to the 
dietary. In the hospital he has been faithfully assisted by 
our excellent nurse, Mrs. Perry. 

The following was the bill of fare for the week ending 
September eighteenth, and will convey a fair idea of the usual 
living of the boys : — 

Sunday. — Breakfast: Wheat bread, brown bread, butter, coffee or 
milk. Dinner: Pork and beans, wheat bread, and brown bread. Sup- 
per: Wheat bread, gingerbread, coffee or milk. 

Monday. — Breakfast: Coffee or milk, wheat bread, molasses. Din- 
ner : Clam chowder, corn, wheat bread. Supper : Coffee, wheat bread, 
molasses, pears. 

Tuesday. — Breakfast: Bread, molasses, coffee or milk. Dinner: 
Corned beef, cabbage, beets, corn, potatoes, bread. Supper : Coffee or 
milk, bread, molasses. 

Wednesday. — Breakfast: Coffee or milk, bread, molasses. Dinner: 
Roast pork, shelled beans, corn, beets, mashed potatoes, bread, water. 
Supper : Milk, wheat bread, gingerbread, pears. 

Thursday. — Breakfast: Coffee, wheat bread, molasses. Dinner: 
Beef stew, corn, bread, grapes, water. Supper : Milk, bread, molasses. 

Friday. — Breakfast: Coffee, bread, molasses. Dinner: Fish chow- 
der, corn, bread, water. Supper : Bread, molasses, coffee. 

Saturday. — Breakfast: Molasses, coffee, bread. Dinner: Pork and 
beans, corn, bread, water. Supper : Coffee, bread molasses, pears. 

Below are the summer and winter divisions of time : — 





WINTER. 


5.30 a.m. 


First bell, for officers to arise. 


G.OO " 


Boys arise and pass to bath-room. 


6.30 " 


Breakfast. 


7.00 " 


Labor. 


9.30 " 


Recreation of twenty minutes for smaller boys. 


11.30 " 


Cease labor. Recreation. 


12.00 m. 


Dinner. 



104 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

12.30 p.m. Labor. 



2.00 


(< 


Recreation. 


3.00 


<( 


School work. 


5.00 


u 


Supper and airing. 


5.30 


it 


School work resumed. 


7.30 


(< 


Devotions. 


7.50 


(( 


Retire. 

SUMMER. 


5.30 


A.M. 


First bell. 


6.00 


(4 


Boys arise and pass to bath-room. 


6.30 


U 


Breakfast and recreation. 


7.00 


<< 


Labor. 


9.30 


(( 


Recreation of twenty minutes for small boys. 


11.30 


(( 


Cease labor. Recreation. 


12.00 


M. 


Dinner. 


12.30 


P.M. 


Labor. 


2.30 


u 


Recreation. 


3.00 


<< 


School. 


4.25 


t< 


Recess. 


4.35 


it 


School. 


6.00 


it 


Supper and recreation until 


7.30 


(< 


Devotions. 


7.50 


it 


Retire. 



Lyman Fund Benefits. 

The school has had very much of benefit during the year 
from this fund. More than two hundred and fifty dollars 
were expended in fitting out and furnishing play-rooms — one 
in each of the family houses, — which the family boys have 
greatly enjoyed, and a large hall to be used for the same 
purpose by the congregate boys, but which was finished too 
late in the spring to have been used much during the year, 
as of course boys always prefer the open air when the 
weather is not unsuitable. 

By another appropriation from this fund, I have been 
enabled to provide a cabinet organ for each of the school- 
rooms, and a larger one for use in the chapel. These 
instruments have been of decided advantage to us. With 
money you have permitted me to draw from time to time, 
I have paid for several of the entertainments which were 
not given by the pupils themselves ; also for the Christ- 
mas, Fourth of July, and other holiday treats. In this con- 
nection I may mention that during the year the boys have 



1881.] [ PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 105 

been given twenty-two pleasure occasions in chapel or school- 
room, including nine of their own regular semi-monthly 
entertainments. These latter consist of songs, choruses, de- 
clamations, dialogues, tableaux, etc., and are always highly 
enjoyed by the boys. On a dozen or more occasions I have 
read to the boys, assembled in chapel or a school-room. We 
have had a brass band concert, and two or three times vocal 
and instrumental concerts from non-resident talent. Then 
we have had out-door festivities on nineteen occasions, and 
frequently simple prizes have been given to winners in the 
athletic contests. The family boys were permitted to attend 
the Westborough town fair one day during September, and all 
returned in the evening highly pleased. During the summer, 
until the middle of August, the boys of all departments were 
permitted to go regularly to the lake to swim ; but on August 
fourteenth, while some eighty of the congregate boys were en 
route to the lake, at a signal from one, twentj^-five clashed 
from the line, and thirteen succeeded in getting away ; most of 
whom were subsequently recovered. Since then the congre- 
gate boys have had to do their swimming in the bathing-tanks. 
It was ill-advised, perhaps, our trusting them to such an 
extent so soon after the investigation, though this was not 
the first time. The three excellent boats furnished from the 
Lyman Fund have clone good service, and given us a better 
sense of security from accident when the boys are in the 
water. At a cost of about twelve hundred dollars to the 
fund, the Farm-house has been vastly improved. It has been 
raised three feet, and the cellar enlarged in its surface as 
well as vertical measurement. A cement floor has been laid 
in the basement, upon a splendid foundation, one and one-half 
feet deep, of broken stone and gravel ; good light and venti- 
lation secured (in the basement), and a capacious brick, 
cement-lined bathing-tank has taken the place of the old, 
small, unwholesome, wooden tubs. Adequate closets and 
urinals have been put in, and the drainage of the house 
perfected. These alterations and improvements have been 
greatly needed for years, and the money could not have been 
more worthily expended, — this being the abode of the largest 
family of boys. I quite agree with Dr. Harvey in his idea 
that the building should be heated by steam ; there would 
be a great gain in safety, convenience, cleanliness, and the 

14 



106 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

lessening of labor and care ; a saving of fuel by one-half, and 
the payment of a large bill for plumbing every winter. 

We are as usual indebted to the Lyman Fund for musical 
instruction. In Mr. Edward S. Nason, of Worcester, the 
boys have had a most excellent teacher. From his labors the 
results are very gratifying. He found the school with less 
than a dozen poorly-trained voices called " the choir." Only 
in an occasional chorus were other voices to be heard, and 
then not many of them. Now we have something of a musical 
atmosphere about us, to the extent that its influence is seen 
and felt as a factor in the discipline of the school. By the 
singing in chapel we know the spirit of the boys, and can 
always in a measure anticipate their subsequent behavior. 
We are almost invariably complimented by visitors on the 
excellence of our singing as well as the general appearance 
of the boys in chapel. Mr. Nason regards each succes- 
sive stage of progress as only a new starting-point, and we 
may look for still greater improvement in this department 
under his ministrations. 

Building Improvements, Ventilation, etc. 

The sleeping accommodations for the boj's in the family 
houses are so inadequate as to need immediate attention. 
Although by the removal of a partition in the Garden-house 
its sleeping-hall has been enlarged nineteen hundred and 
seventy-six cubic feet, it still furnishes barely three-eighths 
the necessary breathing space. The cubic measurement of 
the room supposed to accommodate thirty-two boys at night 
is eleven thousand feet. It should be not less than twenty- 
six thousand. The Peters-bouse sleeping-hall has been 
doubled in size b} r adding the adjoining shop-room, yet is only 
one-third of the cubic dimensions needed. In this room I 
have had the old two-storied bunks cut down, thereby giv- 
ing each boy a separate bed, an unobstructed view of the 
ceiling, and a purer atmosphere to breathe. In each of the 
other houses I have had the distance between the upper and 
lower berths increased by about six inches. The Farm-house 
main dormitory for thirty-two bo} 7 s gives to each but two 
hundred and forty-six cubic feet. Boys should not sleep in 
a room to a greater number than one to every eight hundred 
feet. Even this number (which is the minimum in the bar- 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 107 

racks of the English soldiery) is not sufficient without first- 
rate ventilation. 

Tuesday, May 31st, was a memorable day at the institu- 
tion. A fire was set by a small boy of thirteen, — he being 
procured to commit the crime by J. Frank Fisher of Maiden 
and William Cole of Grafton, two of the older boys. The 
fire was extinguished with slight damage, — three hundred 
dollars perhaps. Fisher had tried to fire the institution once 
before (daring Superintendent Sheldon's administration), 
and is now in the House of Correction at Worcester. Both 
Cole and the boy who applied the match were led into it by 
Fisher. 

Expenses. 

I find no expenditures for many years back where special 
provision has not been made to correspond with certain of 
those of the past year. I mention them for the purpose of 
showing that our "per capita," though reduced, would be 
considerably less had we not done with the appropriation for 
1881 much that should have been met by the appropriations 
of other years ; had we been satisfied with the quality of beef 
formerly used ; had we been saved the first cost of putting 
the schools in running order, and the large expenditures re- 
sulting quite directly from the investigation. Enlargement 
of accommodations in the three family houses ; conversion 
of second floor of Peters-house barn into a shop, and erecting 
chimney for same ; converting Garden-house chair-shop into 
a dwelling for an officer's family ; changing and enlarging 
the famity house sleeping-berths ; making of thirty tables for 
the play-rooms and recreation hall ; improvements in chapel 
furniture ; purchase of two sewing-machines ; furnishing 
(almost entire) new tools and utensils for shoe-shop ; school 
books, etc., in excess of ordinary requirements ; use of im- 
proved quality of beef (for the same number of pounds) 
extra cost. Extraordinary expenses incurred in the pursuit 
and apprehension of runaways (attributable to the public 
hearing in June and July), the calculation based on the rate 
between Dec. 1, 1880, and June 27, 1881, during which time 
we captured three more elopers than were lost since Decem- 
ber. Repairing damages of fire of May 31 ; making a total 
of two thousand three hundred and seventy-three dollars. 



108 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



General. 

The average number of boys in the family houses during 
the year has been eighty-four, and in the main building 
ninety-six. Of the elopements during the year, 87i percent 
were from the boys of the main building, who have consti- 
tuted but 53 per cent of the number of boys in the institution. 
Only 12 J per cent of the elopements have been from the fa- 
milies, which include 47 per cent of the entire number of 
inmates. Of one hundred and twenty-six attempts at elope- 
ments during the last three years, 85 per cent were of the 
congregate or prison department, only 15 per cent were of 
those who might successfully get away almost any hour of the 
twenty-four. These figures speak for themselves. I have 
been a number of years interested and active in work of ju- 
venile reformation, and am becoming daily more and more 
deeply convinced that large results (if any that are good) are 
not attainable under such a system as has been necessarily 
pursued in this main building. The course I would pursue 
in an institution such as this was designed to be b} r its noble 
founder is, so far as possible, that which governs every well- 
ordered Christian family. This work is to be accomplished 
by moral, by natural, rather than physical means. Virtue 
being positive in its nature, active, the offspring of resistance 
should have opportunity for exercise and natural develop- 
ment amid the surroundings, so far as may be, of every-day, 
non-institution life. The boy or young man who needs the 
close serveillance and physical restraint of the prison should 
not be sent to a reformatory for "juvenile delinquents," to 
convert to his criminal ranks the boy sent there for stubborn- 
ness, running away from home, or for being caught " hooking 
apples." 

Bolts, bars, high walls, all forms of unnatural restraint, are 
necessary here mainly because they are here. We have the 
clearest evidence of this every day of our experience. Their 
presence speak unmistakably of distrust ; and that voice to 
liberty-loving bojMiature is hardly silent when the boy is 
supposed to be asleep. A poor lad's misfortune — the sins 
or weakness of parents, orphanage, neglect — are magnified 
into a crime on his part. The boy knows better, and re- 
gards such treatment as harsh and heartless. His wrong- 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 109 

doing under such circumstances is not wrong-doing to his 
understanding. Said one to me the other clay, upon being 
taken to task for his repeated attempts at elopement, 
" What do I want to stay here for ? I done nothing to be 
put in here. I can't behave myself in the yard." Shut in 
from the world, with the influences of a felon's life about him, 
his crime ? Being neglected by his parents. 

A little fellow, John T., in Boxbury, had been absent three 
or four months from the rooms of the Young Men's Union. 
He came in one evening, and coming up to my desk, said, 
44 Mr. Dooley, kin I be a member here again?" (Member- 
ship was forfeited by his long absence.) I said, " You've 
been away a good while, — where have you kept yourself? " 
" But it wasn't my fault," and his voice was choked with 
emotion. " I hadn't no home, and was out of a job ; and I 
got tucken up, and was sent to the island for a vagrant" 

I shall never forget the "I hadn't no home," — it was such 
a crime for one so young to commit. The brave boy worked 
steadily when he had work to do, and supported his old 
grandmother of eighty years, — his only living relative; but 
he got out of work, she died, and John was arrested " for a 
vagrant." I pray that you may be the means of abolishing 
the congregate features of the institution, taking away every 
suggestion of prison life, and convert it into a real reform 
school, — one that will do more good and less harm than the 
present, which will furnish all that the best sort of institution 
life can to develop in its pupils, manly character, and give 
them a fair start in life. As I have said, I am convinced that- 
very much depends upon the form pursued, — the mode of 
discipline ; but it is true that more depends upon administra- 
tion, — upon having suitable men and women engaged in the 
work, — people whose fitness is both natural and cultivated. 
And then they should be let alone ; that is, they should not 
be embarrassed, if they cannot be helped, by those who are 
looking on from afar. Their work at best will be most try- 
ing and difficult and thankless (from a human standpoint) 
with all the sympathy and encouragement they can be given. 

EDMOND T. DOOLEY, Superintendent. 



110 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



HOSPITAL DEPARTMENT. 



To the Board of Trustees. 

The number of patients admitted to the hospital during 
the year, and detained for treatment for a period longer than 
twenty- four consecutive hours, is one hundred and eighty- 
two. The following are the diseases named in the records, 
and the number of patients treated for each: Rheumatism, 
12 ; abscess, 3 ; flesh wounds, 13 ; sores, 4 ; indigestion, 40 ; 
synovitis, 1 ; tonsillitis, 27 ; hernia, 2 ; dysentery, 1 ; con- 
tusion, 7 ; eczema, 4 ; ophthalmia, 1 ; phthisis, 1 ; boils, 2 ; 
rheumatic fever, 3 ; burn, 1 ; asthma, 1 ; febricula, 19 ; endo- 
carditis, 1 ; colds, 5 ; constipation, 2 ; varicella, 5 ; fracture, 
2; conjunctivitis, 2; sprain, 9; frost-bite, 3; roseola, 11. 

The health of the school at the present time is exceedingly 
good. There has not been at any time during the year any 
epidemic or unusual sickness. But one death has occurred. 
John Gethin, aged ten years, died April 23, of endocarditis. 
One month previous to his death he was admitted to the hos- 
pital suffering from a mild attack of acute rheumatism. In 
a week's time he was convalescent, and on April 10 his 
return to the Peters-house was advised. He appeared to be 
doing well till April 22, when, late in the evening, he was 
re-admitted to the hospital. On the following morning I 
found him suffering from a severe attack of endocarditis, 
which terminated fatally. In the w r inter there were two 
very severe and protracted cases of rheumatic fever, one 
patient being confined to the hospital from Jan. 15 to April 
23 ; the other from Feb. 27 to April 7. Both recovered per- 
fectly. During the unusually cold weather in February, 
three boys, who escaped from the school, froze their feet on 
the night of their elopement. They were returned the fol- 
lowing day, and immediately came under treatment. One 
recovered without loss of limb ; each of the others lost 
several toes. In July, an eloper was brought back to the 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. Ill 

institution suffering from a very aggravated attack of clysen- 
tery. For several days the disease pursued an unfavorable 
course, and a fatal termination seemed probable. I regard 
his recovery as due chiefly to intelligent and watchful nurs- 
ing. Had he been a worthy son in one of the best or 
wealthiest families in the Commonwealth he would not have 
received better nursing, nor more tender care and attention. 
Since his recovery, as I learn from the Superintendent, he 
has shown his appreciation of the kind care bestowed upon 
him, and the efforts made for his welfare, by plotting mis- 
chief and pursuing a line of general misconduct. 

My experience in this department year after year confirms 
over and over the opinions heretofore expressed regarding 
the influence of "cell punishment " on the health and consti- 
tutional vigor of boys frequently subjected to such treat- 
ment. In my annual reports, two and three years ago, this 
subject was somewhat fully discussed. I then said, alluding 
to this form of punishment, " Such practice is a source of 
danger to both body and mind;" also, " shutting up a boy 
for days, and perhaps weeks, on diminished diet, as is the 
case sometimes, in the gloom and stifled atmosphere of a sun- 
less cell, is not only to ignore the laws of health, but com- 
pletely to reverse them." The discipline of this school has 
ever been declared to be parental. It should be such. By 
all thoughtful and intelligent persons, he must be regarded 
as the best disciplinarian, the most parental and humane in 
his methods, and as accomplishing most, both for the physi- 
cal and moral welfare of the unfortunate inmates of this 
institution, who seldom finds it necessaiy to resort to this 
species of punishment, or in practice reduces it to a 
minimum. 

The general appearance of the boys is indicative of 
thoughtful care in respect to their physical wants. Their 
diet is abundant and wholesome. The quantity of milk con- 
sumed by the inmates this year largely exceeds that of any 
previous year. For the year ending Sept. 30, 1880, the sup- 
ply and distribution were as follows : — 

Total supply 64,220 quarts. 

Quantity consumed by officers 24,175 " 

" " by inmates 40,075 " 

Annual supply per inmate 193 " 

Average daily supply per inmate 17 ounces. 



112 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1881 : — 

Total supply 72,124 quarts. 

Quantity consumed by officers ..... 12,085 " 

" " by inmates 60,039 " 

Annual supply per inmate ...... 333 " 

Average daily supply per inmate ..... 29 ounces. 

In other directions the year is marked by improvement. 
The sleeping apartments in the trust-houses have been 
enlarged and better ventilated. The breathing-space in the 
dormitory of the Peters-house has been greatly increased, 
and the old bungling double bunks have given place to 
single beds. The Farm-house, which for years has been in 
a very unwholesome condition, owing partly to imperfect 
drainage, has been raised three feet above its old foundation, 
and a new basement constructed, well lighted and ventilated, 
in which a play-room and good bathing conveniences have 
been provided. But the benefits to be derived from these 
improvements, so necessary to the comfort and health of the 
boys in this family-house, will he limited, especially during 
the cold season, if the old method of heating by stoves is 
continued. By this system it will be very difficult, and per- 
haps impossible, in winter to protect the water-pipes in the 
basement rooms, or to make available the new facilities for 
bathing. It is obvious that, in establishments of this kind, 
not only health and comfort, but safety and economy in 
the consumption of fuel, combine to render steam-heating 
imperative. 

Respectfully submitted, 

E. B. HARVEY, 

Physician. 
Westborough Reform School, 
Sept. 30, 1881. 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



113 



LIST OF SALARIED OFFICERS AND ALL EM- 
PLOYES, WITH THEIR SALARIES. 



E. T. Dooley, superintendent . 

J. A. Kelton, assistant superintendent . 

E. B. Harvey, M.D., physician 

E. S. Nason, musical instructor 
Carrie R. Dooley, matron 
Lydia J. Perry, assistant matron and nurse 
L. E. Carter, teacher . . . 

F. P. Fitzgerald, teacher 
F. W. Sweet, teacher .... 
Charles H. Howard, teacher . . 
M. J. Mahon, monitor of sleigh-shop 
James W. Clark, engineer } 
Mrs. J. W. Clark, librarian and vacancy officer J" 
Mr. and Mrs. G. H. Child, charge of Garden-house 
Mr. and Mrs. E. Howard, charge of Peters-house 
Mr. and Mrs. C. Robinson, charge of Farm-house 
W. L. Daniels, clerk . . . ' . 

T. F. Greenleaf, baker ..... 
S. W. Perry, watchman . . . 
J. T. Perkins, man of all work 
Mary A. Taylor, matron of sewing-room 
Clara Carter, matron of officers' dining-room . 
Edna L. Sausman, housekeeper 
J. S. Carson, overseer of chair-shop 
Joseph H. Wyeth, vacancy officer . 
J. H. Brown, carpenter ..... 
William H. Edmands, blacksmith . 
H. G. Stephens, hallman .... 

R. G. Newman, fireman . . . . 
Maria Carbee, cook ..... 

Hattie M. Whitford, charge of boys' dining-room 
George Robinson, vacancy officer 
Joseph Chamberlain, farmer .... 
Henry Van Buskirk, farm-hand, $30 per month. 
Julius Dujay, farm-hand, $22 per month. 
Edward Sonier, farm-hand, $22 per month. 
John Palmer, farm-hand, $25 per month. 
George N. Hudson, farm-hand, $22 per month. 
John White, farm-hand, $20 per month. 
15 



$1,600 00 
800 00 
250 00 
Lyman Fund. 
400 00 
300 00 
700 00 
480 00 
400 00 
400 00 
400 00 



800 00 

700 00 
700 00 
750 00 
250 00 
500 00 
400 00 
400 00 
250 00 
240 00 
225 00 
300 00 
360 00 
400 00 
450 00 
360 00 
300 00 
260 00 
200 00 
360 00 
600 00 



114 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Expenditures for Salaries, Wages, and Labor. 

Superintendent ....... $1,600 01 

Assistant superintendent, 758 31 

Clerk 183 66 

Physician 249 9£> 

Ministers 209 00 

Matron * . . . . 400 01 

Assistant matron 242 23 

Teachers, main building . 1,172 34 

Master and matron, Garden-house. . . . 609 59 

Teacher, Garden-house 267 41 

Master and matron, Peters-house . . . . 719 14 

Teacher, Peters-house . . . . . . 110 49 

Master and matron, Farm-house . 592 83 

Teacher, Farm-house 324 06 

Overseers of chair-shop 119 10 

Monitors of sleigh-shop 360 16 

Engineer 730 17 

Assistant engineer 206 29 

Carpenter 460 84 

Blacksmith 425 83 

Baker 536 96 

Watchman 493 25 

Hallmen . . . . . . . . 309 52 

Man of all work 400 00 

Filling vacancies ....... 831 89 

Care of reformatory office 87 40 

Hospital nurse . . . . ... 230 19 

Seamstress 233 82 

Laundress 208 19 

Care of boys' dining-room 178 88 

Cooks . 218 48 

Assistant cooks and housekeepers .... 401 97 

Farmer 572 78 

Farm labor 1,200 35 

Appraiser's services 70 00 

$15,715 14 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 



115 



SUPERINTENDENTS, 



Date of 
Appointment. 


NAMES. 


Date of 
Retirement. 


1848, 


William E,. Lincoln . 










1853. 


1853, 


James M. Talcott 










1857. 


1857, 


William E. Starr 










1861. 


1861, 


Joseph A. Allen . 










1867. 


1867, 


Orville K. Hutchinson 










1868. 


1868, 


Benjamin Evans 










May, 1873. 


May, 1873, 


Allen G. Shepherd 










Aug., 1878. 


Aug., 1878, 


Luther H. Sheldon 










Dec, 1880. 


Dec, 1880, 


Edmond T. Dooley . 










Still in office. 



116 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



TRUSTEES. 



Names, Residences, Commissions, and Retirement of the Trustees 

of the State Reform School, from its Commencement 

to the Present Time. 



Date of 
Commission. 



NAMES. 



Date of 
Retirement. 



1847 


Nahum Fisher* . 


Westborough . 


1849 


1847 


John W. Graves 


Lowell 


1849 


1847 


Samuel Williston 


Easthampton . 


1853 


1847 


Thomas A. Green * . 


New Bedford . 


1860 


1847 


Otis Adams * 


Grafton . 


1851 


1847 


George Denney* 


Westborough . 


1851 


1847 


William P. Andrews * 


Boston 


1851 


1849 


William Livingston * . 


Lowell 


1851 


1849 


Russel A. Gibbs * . . 


Lanesborough . 


1853 


1851 


George H. Kuhn 


Boston 


1855 


1851 


J. B. French *' . 


Lowell 


1854 


1851 


Daniel H. Forbes * . 


Westborough . 


1854 


1851 


Edward B. Bigelow * . 


Grafton . 


1855 


1853 


J. W.H.Page* 


New Bedford . 


1856 


1853 


Harvey Dodge . 


Sutton 


1867 


1854 


G. Howland Shaw* . 


Boston . . 


1856 


1854 


Henry W. Cushman * 


Benardston 


1860 


1855 


Albert H. Nelson * 


Woburn . 


1855 


1855 


Joseph A. Fitch . 


Hopkington 


1858 


1855 


Parley Hammond 


Worcester 


1860 


1856 


Simon Brown 


Concord . 


1860 


1856 


John A. Fayerweather 


Westborough . 


1859 


1857 


Josiah H. Temple 


Framingham . 


1860 


1858 


Judson S. Brown 


Fitchburg 


1860 


1859 


Theodore Lyman 


Brookline 


1860 


1860 


George C. Davis * 


Northborough . 


1873 


1860 


Carver Hotchkiss 


Shelburne 


1863 


1860 


Julius A. Palmer * 


Boston 


1862 


1860 


Henry Chickering 


Pittsfield . 


1869 



* Deceased. 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 117 

Names, Residences, etc., of Trustees — Concluded. 



Date of 
Commission. 


NAMES. 


Kesidence. 


Date of 
Retirement. 


1860 


George W. Bentley 


Worcester 


1861 


1860 


Alden Leland 


Holliston . 


1864 


1861 


Pliny Nickerson . 


Boston 


1868 


1861 


Samuel G. Howe * 


Boston 


1863 


1862 


Benjamin Boynton * . 


Westborough . 


1864 


1863 


J. H. Stephenson 


Boston 


1866 


1863 


John Ayres 


Charlestown 


1867 


1864 


A. E. Goodnow . . 


Worcester 


1874 


1864 


Isaac Ames .... 


Haverhill . 


1865 


1865 


Jones S. Davis . 


Holyoke . 


1868 


1866 


Joseph A. Pond * 


Brighton . 


1867 


1867 


Stephen G. Deblois 


Boston 


1878 


1868 


John Ayres 


Medford . 


1874 


1868 


Harmon Hall 


Saugus 


1871 


1868 


L. L. Goodspeed 


Bridgewater 


1872 


1869 


E. A. Hubbard . 


Springfield 


1877 


1871 


Lucius W. Pond 


Worcester 


1875 


1871 


John W. Olmstead 


Boston 


1873 


1872 


Moses H. Sargent 


Newton 


1877 


1873 


A. S. Woodworth 


Boston 


1876 


1873 


Edwin B. Harvey 


Westborough . 


1878 


1874 


W. H. Baldwin . ... 


Boston 


1878 


1875 


John L. Cummings 


Ashburnham 


June 30, 1879 


1876 


Jackson B. Swett 


Haverhill . 


1878 


1877 


Samuel R. Hey wood . 


Worcester 


June 30, 1879 


1877 


MiloHildreth . 


Northborough . 


1879 


1878 


Lyman Belknap . 


Westborough . 


1879 


1878 


Franklin Williams * . 


Boston 


1879 


1878 


Robert Couch 


Newburyport . 


" 1879 


1879 


John T. Clark . 


Boston 


1879 


Julyl, '79 


Lyman Belknap . 


Westborough . 


Still in office. 


" 1879 


Anne B. Richardson . 


Lowell 


u t< 


" 1879 


M. J. Flatley . 


Boston 


U (( 


" 1879 


MiloHildreth . 


Northborough . 


u u 


" 1879 


George W. Johnson 


Brookfield 


(< (< 


" 1879 


Samuel R. Hey wood . 


Worcester 


(< n 


" 1879 


Adelaide A. Calkins . 


Springfield 


July, 1880 


July 9, '80 


Elizabeth C. Putnam . 


Boston 


Still in office. 




* Deceased 


. 





PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18. 



REPORT OF THE OFFICERS 



STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, 



LANCASTER 



1881. 



BOSTON: 
3&anfc, a&ng, & Co., printers to tlje Cammanfotaltf), 

117 Franklin Street. 
1882. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — I present to you the following 
report of the State Industrial School, the twenty-sixth in 
the history of the institution. 

We hope the school has accomplished some good and 
gained in influence the past year, and not been altogether 
fruitless. From the statistics you will gather some facts of 
interest. 

Number in the School. 

There never has in the history of the school been so large 
a number sent out to live in families as the year just closed, 
and to that mainly the present small number is to be attrib- 
uted ; for you will see that we have placed at service sixty- 
one girls, and we have received from the courts but one less 
than last year, viz., twenty-nine. Our present number is 
fifty-five, sixteen less than at the elate of the last report. All 
this argues that more girls have been selected because of 
supposed fitness for homes, and also that suitable places have 
been found for them. 

In this connection I will repeat what I said last year, that 
the excellent work performed by the auxiliary visitors has 
been a great help to the institution, as well as an important 
factor as regards the contentment of those at service ; and un- 
doubtedly this also has much to do with the small number 
returned to remain with us. This leads me to speak of 

Returned Girls. 

One of the worst elements of the school is that class of 
girls who come back to us after committing some egregious 
fault. Frequently they are bold, defiant, and yet claiming 
all the rights and comforts of the school. They contamin- 



122 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS, [Oct. 

ate to a great extent many who are susceptible of evil in- 
fluences ; in many cases they are hard to manage, as well as 
hardened and confirmed in evil purposes. Now, while we 
should be willing to welcome the penitent, we clo not want 
the way back to the school to be too easy. Of those sent 
out during the year, six only have been returned to remain. 
The public must bear in mind, in looking at these statistics, 
that many of the girls returned are only temporarily with 
us, until more suitable homes are procured ; they are some- 
times sent back on account of sudden changes of plans in 
the homes where they have been located. 

Closing Number One. 

Agreeably to the wish of the Trustees, the few girls re- 
maining in house No. 1 were transferred to the other families, 
June 11 of the present year, of course making a saving in 
salaries and other expenses. So that it seems that, notwith- 
standing the State is constantly increasing in population, 
crime is diminishing ; but, alas ! we feel that it is only appar- 
ently so, for real facts will not warrant such a conclusion ; 
for a visit to any of our large cities will convince the most 
incredulous that there is still left a large number who should 
be sent here or to some similar institution. 

Schools. 

The many changes of inmates the past year has made it 
difficult to reach as high an average standard in the schools 
as they otherwise would; but we commend them to your 
attention, and we feel confident that the teachers are most 
heartily engaged in their work and very efficiently perform 
their duties. There has been no interruption the past year ; 
but three hours each day all the girls, unless excused on ac- 
count of sickness, attend school. You will see by the pro- 
gramme how the time is divided. 

Work. 

We question the possibility of success in managing and 
reforming girls without work ; and by this I mean work of 
some kind to employ mind as well as body, — the same to be 
continuous, and hard enough to make rest and quiet very 
welcome. Much mischief is caused by that class who have 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 123 

nothing to do. If this principle applies to communities, it 
certainly does here ; for these girls are taught not only how 
to work, but that it is of itself necessary for their highest 
welfare. 

Hosiery Work. 

This department of work has not been so successful as last 
year. Carter & Wilson, of Lawrence, who employed the 
girls up to Feb. 16 rather irregularly, then discontinued. 
April 6, the Chauncy woollen mills began to employ a few 
girls, increasing to twenty. Of course, with all these inter- 
ruptions, the earnings have been less. We wish to say 
here that, in this and all other departments, girls are 
changed so as to have education in various kinds of work. 
The fact that nearly all who have gone out to house- work 
remain at their places must lead us to conclude that the 
education relating to the culinary art has not been altogether 
neglected. 

Girls employed in the hosiery-shop have the opportunity 
of earning money for themselves, if ambitious to do a mod- 
erate stint. 

Other Work. 

A few girls have been employed when needed upon the 
farm, picking apples and strawberries, weeding onions, raking 
the roads and lawns, and otherwise improving the premises. 

Farm. 

This farm is not unlike any farm in requiring well-di- 
rected efforts and hard work to guarantee financial success. 
You will see by the details of the Farmer's report that the 
appraised value of produce on hand is one thousand dollars 
more than last year. The five hundred dollars specially 
appropriated for the renovation of the pasture is nearly all 
expended ; the balance will be needed to carry out certain 
plans this month. The money has been used in paying for 
labor in ploughing, planting, and harvesting eight acres of 
corn ; ploughing and seeding six acres of rye and grass-seed. 
Wire fence has been put up between us and our neighbors. 
Quite an extent of heavy brush has been cleared off, and 
important improvements are in contemplation for another 
year. 



124 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Silo. 

A silo has been built convenient to the barn, holding 
about eighty tons of fodder, which will be a most important 
item in the matter of keeping stock this winter. In the 
spring we shall be able to give an intelligent statement con- 
cerning its value ; we trust, as we think, that it will pay its 
cost in one season. 

Repairs and Improvements. 

The buildings have been kept in ordinary repair, and, be- 
sides this, nothing has been undertaken of a costly character ; 
wire fence has been put along the roadside about one-half a 
mile in length, maples set by the same, on the back line 
towards Bolton. 

Health of the Inmates. 

Under this head nothing of importance can be added to 
the remarks made in former years. We have only to say 
that the physical condition of the school is excellent; there 
is no malaria in this locality, and the robust appearance of 
the girls indicates that the diet is sufficient and good. A 
little colored girl died at the " consumptives' home " in 
June : she was predisdosed to that complaint, if not already 
afflicted with it, when committed to the school. Another 
little girl died of meningitis in May. In both cases they 
were tenderly nursed and treated with the utmost kindness. 
Many of the girls committed to us are pale and thin ; and in 
a short time the generous diet provided, with regular habits, 
work a wonderful change for the better. 

Officers. 

There have been a few changes of officers the past year, 
but we feel that we have their entire co-operation ; we thank 
them for this, and for the patience and kindness they have 
manifested towards the girls. 

Conclusion. 

In conclusion, we think the year has been a prosperous 
one ; while our standard is higher than in previous years, we 
have as many girls upon the roll of honor as ever before. 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 125 

This is an indication — yes, it is proof — that the spirit of 
emulation is greater ; that the struggle, though hard, is suc- 
cessful. 

We have had fewer cases of punishment ; in fact, it is 
rare now that we have to punish. Of course I need not 
add that, with such a state of things, the girls are happy and 
cheerful in their obedience to the necessary rules of the 
school. No school can be successful without good discipline, 
and we hope the happiest results will be attained by all the 
efforts put forth. We trust that in the future, as in the 
past, the blessing of God may rest upon us, and we will ex- 
press heartfelt gratitude for his watchful care over us in the 
past year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

N. PORTER BROWN. 

Superintendent, 
Lancaster, Sep. 30, 1881. 



126 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



STATISTICS. 



Number in the school Sept. 30, 1880 
received from the courts, 
returned from service 

Number in the school Sept. 30, 1881 
sent to friends on probation 
placed at service and returned since Sept. 30, 1880 
married during the year . 
become of age 
escaped .... 
died .... 

Number of girls sent to places during the year 
Whole number in the school during the year 

now out at service, on trial . 

under the care of the school . 
Number remaining of those in the school Sept. 30, 1880 



71 
29 

25 



125 

55 



32 

60 
125 

85 
148 

25 



Of those now in the school, there were born, — 

In Massachusetts 
Ehode Island . 
New Hampihire 
New York 
Maine 
Georgia . 
Nova Scotia . 
England . 
Ireland . 
Unknown 



Of American parentage 
American (colored) 
English . 
Irish 

German . 
French . 
Scotch 



36 
1 
4 
3 
1 
1 
2 
5 
1 
1 

— 55 
14 

3 
4 
28 
1 
2 
3 

— 55 



1881.] FUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 127 

Of those now in the school, — 

Both parents living 24 , 

One parent living ........ 27 

Orphans 2 

Unknown ...» 2 

— 55 

Lived at home 39 

from home 16 

— 55 

Could read and write when committed .... 35 

read and not write ....... 17 

neither read nor write 3 

— 55 

Attended some religious service, — 

Regularly 21 

Seldom 34 

— 55 

Of those now members of the school, there are, — 

Of twelve years of age 3 

thirteen 2 

fifteen 13 

sixteen 16 

seventeen 17 

eighteen 2 

nineteen 1 

twenty 1 

— 55 
Average age, 16 J- years. 

Of those committed the past year, there were, — 

Of eleven years of age 1 

thirteen 1 

fourteen 6 

fifteen 12 

sixteen 7 

seventeen 2 

— 29 
Average age, 14 J years. 

Committed on charge, — 

Of stubbornness 17 

larceny 7 

idle and disorderly 2 

drunkenness • 1 

lewd and lascivious ........ 2 

— 29 



128 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

We have bad committed, this year, — 

From Suffolk County 7 

Middlesex County ....... 5 

Essex County ........ 9 

Bristol County • . 5 

Hampden County 2 

Franklin County 1 

— 29 



Of the number since the opening of the school, we have 
received, — 

From Suffolk County 324 

Middlesex County 202 

Essex County 171 

Worcester County . . . . . . .131 

Bristol County 96 

Norfolk County 56 

Hampden County ....... 37 

Hampshire County ....... 19 

Berkshire County ....... 32 

Plymouth County . . . . . . .19 

Barnstable County 14 

Franklin County 11 

- 1,112 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



129 



Schedule of Persons employed, and Amount paid each. 


NAMES. 


Kature of Service. 


Annual 
Salaries. 


Amount paid . 


N. Porter Brown 


Superintendent . 


$1,300 00 


11,299 9G 


S. N. Brown 




Supt.'s Assistant. 


350 00 


349 92 


Olivia Safford . 




Matron 


350 00 


204 12 


Belinda Rich 




a 




350 00 


303 12 


Martha Bullard . 




u 




350 00 


58 32 


S. P. Pearson 




u 




350 00 


29 16 


M. A. Cook 




(( 




350 00 


50 28 


M. E. Hunt 




(( 




350 00 


1S8 01 


A. D. Holmes . 




(( 




350 00 


37 58 


A. C. Fisher 




<( 




350 00 


98 04 


A. C. Darling . 




Teacher 




300 00 


298 11 


C. C. Chamberlain 




(t 




300 00 


289 79 


F. C. Ela . 




(< 




300 00 


1S4 04 


Irene Ward well . 




<< 




300 00 


85 34 


Abbie Young 




Housekeepei 


r 


250 00 


105 38 


M. A. Sprague . 




<( 




250 00 


115 11 


I. A. Hall . 




u 




250 00 


8 91 


M. E. Mack 




(< 




250 00 


37 96 


M. E. Maxwell . 




(< 




250 00 


99 86 


Jane McLean 




<( 




250 00 


207 96 


Annie McFarland 




(« 




250 00 


33 16 


Elmira Robinson 




<( 




250 00 


62 89 


Elizabeth Orcutt 




<( 




250 00 


88 51 


M. J. Fitz . 




it 




250 00 


30 41 


Harriet Pierson . 




u 




250 00 


50 56 


F. E. Porter 




Physician 




200 00 


200 04 


II. E. Swan 




Farmer 




700 00 


099 96 


E. A. Hersey 




Laborer 




34 00* 


120 00 


John Taylor 




a 




35 00* 


219 00 


Thomas Hickey . 




a 




33 00* 


297 00 


George E. Babcock , 




(( 




35 00* 


175 00 










$6,0S7 50 



Per month. 



17 



130 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Expenditures eor Year ending September 30 
Salaries, wages, and labor .... 

Provisions and supplies .... 

Fuel and lights ...... 

Clothing, furniture, and bedding . 

Tools and sundries for the farm . 

Transportation and medical supplies 

Repairs, lumber, and hardware 

All other current expenses .... 

Total . $15,290 33 

The cost per capita is as follows : — 
Average number of girls for the year ...... 62.94 

Average weekly cost $4 67 

Average weekly cost after paying into the State treasuay receipts 

for produce, labor, etc 3 29 

Daily Programme. 



iooi. 
$G,0S7 50 


3,442 


91 


G40 20 


1,435 


49 


775 


00 


642 


85 


1,4S3 


54 


782 


84 



5.30 to 6 
& to 6 
6.45 to 7 
7.15 to 7 
7.30 to 11 
11.45 to 12 
12 to 12 
12.30 to 12 
12.45 to 2 
2.30 to 
3.15 to 
5.30 to 
5.45 to 
6.15 to 
7.50 to 8 
Chapel bell rings 



From October 1 to April 1. 

Rise, wash, and pass to school-room. 
.45. School. 

.15. Breakfast and devotions. 
.30. Care of rooms, and ready for work. 
.45. Work. 

Ready for dinner. 
,30. Dinner. 
.45. Recess. 
.30. Work. 
,15. Recreation. 
.30. School. 
,45. Recess. 
15. Supper. 
30. Recreation, miscellaneous exercises, etc. 

Call the roll, devotions, and retire, 
in winter at 5.30 a.m.: iu summer at 5.15 p.m. 



Diet Programme. 

Sunday. — Breakfast: Bread and butter, with coffee. Dinner: Baked 
beans, pie or pudding. 

Monday. — Dinner: Meat hash and vegetables. 

Tuesday. — Dinner: Baked fish or chowder and vegetables. 

Wednesday. — Dinner: Roast beef or soup and vegetables. 

Thursday. — Dinner: Beefsteak or ham and vegetables. 

Friday. — Dinner: Salt fish and vegetables. 

Saturday. — Dinner: Corn beef and vegetables. 

Th&L.usual breakfast, shells or coffee, with bread. The usual supper is 
bread and "whole " milk. Vegetables are used in abundance, and fruit; 
currants, berries, and grapes in their season, and apples, cooked or raw, 
nearly the entire year. It will be seen by the farmer's report that the 
item of milk is generous in quantity. 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 131 



INVENTORY OF PROPERTY. 



Real Estate. 

Chapel $3,000 00 

House No. 1 8,500 00 

No. 2 8,500 00 

No. 4 9,000 00 

No. 5 3,500 00 

Superintendent's house ..... 3,250 00 

Hosiery-shop 400 00 

Farmer's house and barn 1,500 00 

Large barn . 4,500 00 

Silo 400 00 

Storehouse 500 00 

Old barn 250 00 

Wood-house 100 00 

Ice-house 200 00 

Storehouse at No. 3 . . . . . . 25 00 

Hen-house ........ 75 00 

Reservoir, etc 100 00 

Farm, 17G acres 7,000 00 

Woodland, 10 acres 300 00 

Personal Property. 

Property in house No. 1 $1,141 98 

No. 2 1,244 94 

No. 4 1,163 58 

No. 5 480 00 

superintendent's house . . . 873 33 

chapel and library .... 650 00 

Provisions and groceries ..... 574 00 

Dry-goods 350 00 

Fuel . . 816 00 

Valuation of stock 2,051 50 

Produce of farm on hand 3,047 37 

Farming tools and carriages . . . . 1,CS2 20 

$14,074 90 

Total $65,174 90 

S. R. MERRICK, 

JEREMIAH MOORE, 



$51,100 00 



>■ Appraisers. 
E, ) 



Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 
Worcester, ss., Oct. 4, 1881. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me. 

J. L. S. THOMPSON, Justice of the Peace, 



132 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



FARMER'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the Industrial School for Girls, Lancaster. 

I heeewith submit for your consideration my annual 
report of the farm department for the year enduring Sept. 
30, 1881, together with the statistics showing the receipts 
and expenditures of the same. 

The expenses of this department have been greater than 
last year, as we have endeavored to make some permanent 
improvements, and to accomplish it, with our ordinary farm 
work, we were obliged to employ extra help. Among the 
improvements of the past year might be mentioned the 
building of one hundred and twenty rods of barb-wire fence, 
at eighty-two and a half cents per rod ; of a "silo," with a 
capacity of eighty tons of green fodder, at a cost of about four 
hundred dollars ; of labor expended in the pasture, removing 
brush, and ploughing some fourteen acres, — eight acres of 
which was planted with corn, the balance ploughed after hay- 
ing and re-seeded to grass, after applying five hundred pounds 
of Bradley's superphosphate, two hundred and fifty pounds of 
ground bone, and five hundred bushels of leached ashes ; and 
the building of one hundred and fifty rods of post-and-rail 
fence. We have also under-drained portions of the mowing 
lands that have for }^ears given growth to rank weeds and 
wild grass ; filled and graded unsightly places that have 
formerly been outlets for the sewage of the institution, 
ploughed and seeded the same, and hope to obtain in the 
future crops more profitable for the farm. 

Our crops, as compared with preceding years, are fair, — 
corn, perhaps, being an exception, the first part of the season 
being unfavorable for its growth. The hay secured this 
season is above the average both in quantit}^ and quality — 
some fifteen tons more upland hay than last season — which, 
together with the ensilage from five acres of corn and the 



1881.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



133 



dry stover from our field corn, we think amply sufficient to 
provide for a larger stock than usual. 

The revenue from the piggery is very encouraging, not 
only in the large amount of fertilizers obtained for the farm, 
but also in the sale of pigs and the production of pork for the 
school; sales and stock on hand amounting to more than 
five hundred dollars. 

The amount of milk produced is larger than last season by 
nearly two thousand quarts, but its aggregate value is less, 
as the price has been lower than usual ; and the price of milk 
consumed is governed by the price in market. We are en- 
deavoring to increase the value and size of the dairy, by 
raising the progeny of the best cows, and we have now 
several promising heifers of the Ayrshire breed. The neat 
stock now numbers thirty-six. 

Several labor-saving farm tools have been purchased the 
past season that should have favorable mention: among which 
are " Kemp's manure-spreader," " Billings' corn-planter," and 
a " horse-hoe" for use among potatoes; all of which have 
assisted us greatly in facilitating our work. 

Before closing this report I wish to express my thanks 
to the employes in this department for their faithfulness; 
and the success we have had is due, in a great measure, to 
the willingness and energy they have shown in the discharge 
of their several duties. 



Produce on Hand. 



English hay, 55 tons 
Meadow hay, 3 tons 
Hungarian hay, 2 tons 
Ensilage, 80 tons . 
Manure, 40 cords . 
Beets, 20 bushels . 
Apples, 35 bushels 
Pears, 12 bushels . 
Turnips, 75 bushels 
Potatoes, first quality 

600 bushels 
Potatoes, second quality 

100 bushels 
Beans, 3 bushels . 
Carrots, 80 bushels 
Onions, 80 bushels 



,100 00 


30 00 


30 00 


250 00 


200 00 


10 00 


17 50 


12 00 


10 88 


600 00 


25 00 


6 00 


30 00 


80 00 



Parsnips, 20 bushels 


120 00 


Corn, 245 bushels . 


159 00 


Sweet corn 


15 00 


Cider, 528 gallons . 


42 24 


Vinegar, 432 gallons 


54 00 


Pickles . 


13 50 


Squashes, 1,500 pounds 


30 00 


Melons . 


5 00 


Grapes . 


10 00 


Corn stover, 151 tons 


155 00 


Tomatoes, 2 bushels 


2 00 


Cabbages, 2,000 . 


100 00 


Ice, 20 tons . 


40 00 



1,047 37 



134 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS, [Oct. 



Produce Consumed. 



Turnips, 7 bushels 


$1 05 


Lettuce 


, 80 dozen . 


$36 00 


Tomatoes, 10 bushels . 


10 00 


Sweet corn, 


211 dozen . 


21 10 


Apples, 15 bushels 


7 50 


Cucumbers 


. • 


3 00 


Beets, 6 bushels . 


3 00 


Melons . 


. 


10 00 


Pears, 6 bushels 


6 00 


Crab-apples 


, 1£ bushels . 


3 75 


Pease, 12 bushels . 


24 00 


Hungarian, 


J ton . 


7 50 


Asparagus, 265 bunches 


37 10 


Green corn 


stover, 15 




Currants, 253 boxes 


25 30 


tons . 




30 00 


Strawberries, 520 boxes . 


54 89 


Pork, 1,367 


pounds 


88 86 


Blackberries, 109 boxes . 


10 90 


Milk, 20,315 quarts 


563 35 


Cabbages, 300 


15 00 









Rhubarb, 577 pounds 


8 64 






$966 94 


Produce Sold. 






Strawberries, 160 boxes 




$17 90 




Currants, 49 boxes 










4 90 




Milk, 31,561 quarts 










802 32 




Vegetables 










8 67 




Calves 










18 00 




Cows ..... 










133 00 




Pigs .... 










186 30 




Old sashes 










27 00 










$1,198 59 






Live S 


tock as Appraised. 




Horses, 4 




$350 00 


• 


Oxen, 1 pair . 










160 00 




Cows, 26 










. 1,040 00 




Bull, 1 










45 00 




Heifer, 1 










30 00 




Yearling heifers, 3 










54 00 




Calves, 3 










20 00 




Boar, 1 ... 










20 00 




Breeding sows, 7 . 










135 00 




Pigs, 29 










72 50 




Fatting hogs, 6 










125 00 










$2,051 50 




Summary. 






Cr. 






Produce ou hand . 




. $3,047 37 




' ' consumed 










403 59 




Amount of sales 










. 1,196 89 




Milk consumed 










563 35 




Increase in value of farm too' 


s, . 








75 59 




" " " stock 










422 00 




Keeping horses for school 










287 75 




Labor for school 


• 








515 25 


ftft 51 1 7.Q 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 135 

i-.t 

Dr. 

Expenses of farm, including labor for school, im- 
provements, and special appropriations . . $2,905 73 

Salary of farmer 700 00 

Labor of girls 38 00 

Balance in favor of farm . 2,868 06 

$6,511 79 



H. E. SWAN, Farmer. 



136 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Industrial School. 

The general health of the school has been very good the 
past year. 

The small amount of sickness, and the freedom from any 
form of malignant disease, show the general excellence of 
the sanitary condition of the school. During the summer 
months the school has been remarkably exempt from sickness. 
The diseases that have occurred have been principally among 
those recently admitted and those who have been sent out 
to places and returned to the school. The diseases treated 
have been tonsillites, conjunctivitis, indigestion, febricula, 
anaemia, amenorrhcea, menorrhagia, uterine and urinary dis- 
eases, and syphilitic affections. 

There have been two deaths this year. Dell Cummings, 
aged fourteen, died in May of inflammation of the brain. 

Ida Martin, aged fourteen, died of consumption ; she had 
evidently inherited the disease, and was in a weak debilitated 
condition when admitted. She was sent to the consumptives' 
home and died there. 

Though we have been remarkably free from acute forms of 
sickness, yet most of the girls sent to the school are of an 
age when hereditary diseases are likely to manifest them- 
selves ; and for this reason we have always many cases of 
chronic disease to treat. 

In former years the girls were retained longer in the school 
than they are now. This year all of the strongest and most 
capable girls have been sent out to places, and those sent to 
the school are generally in a worse condition when they come 
than they are after being for a time surrounded by the 
superior hygienic conditions of the school. 

There is, however, no suitable provision for the care of the 
sick. When cases of sickness occur, the presence of so many 



1881.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 137 

in the house, and the small and inconvenient rooms, make it 
extremely imperative that some proper provision be made 
for the better care of the sick. From year to year this has 
been urged, but only when the immediate necessity appears 
does the demand seem urgent. It is impossible to take 
proper care of any severe form of illness under the present 
circumstances. I hope this will receive your early attention. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. E. PORTER, M.D. 

WORCESTER. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18. 



FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 



THE TRUSTEES 



State Primary and Reform Schools, 



WITH THE 



ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE RESIDENT OFFICERS, 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1882. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 
♦* 1883. 



(Eommonroealt!) of JttasBacl)U0ett0. 



TRUSTEES' REPORT. 



To His Excellency Governor John D. Long and the Honorable Council. 

The Trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools 
respectfully submit for the fourth time their reports of the three 
schools to the care of which they have the honor to be 
appointed. 

It is with pleasure that they call your attention to the fact 
that but five deaths have occurred among the many inmates 
of these schools during the past year. 

They would also ask your careful consideration of their 
recommendations as to the proper limitation of age for 
commitment to the State Reform School and to the State 
Industrial School respectively; the Reform School being 
especially needed for the younger boys, while the younger 
girls, with few exceptions, can readily be placed in families 
with advantage to themselves. The Trustees venture to hope 
that a reformatory may without long delay be established for 
older boys and young men. 

STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL AT MONSON. 

It is with pleasure we report another successful year for 
this institution in all that regards the purposes for which it 
was established, viz., the care, nourishment and education 
of those poor waifs of the State who have no one to care for 
them ; and of those others, in more pitiable condition, whose 
natural protectors are so steeped in vice and crime as to 



4 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

make it the duty of the State to assume the position of their 
friend and parent. The farm suffered severely from the 
drouth of July and August, and the crops have not been 
equal to those of former years. In all other respects we 
have to congratulate the Superintendent, his officers and the 
Commonwealth on the success of the school. We have no 
startling events to report, and few recommendations to make. 
The administration and government of the school have oper- 
ated smoothly and regularly, without friction or jar* per- 
forming their kind offices so quietly and well that they have 
attracted the attention of those only especially interested in 
or connected with them, and since its establishment, by the 
Act of 1866, there has been a steady improvement in the 
character, condition and methods of the school. 

The buildings are not such as would probably be erected 
were the State now beginning to provide a home for its des- 
titute children, as the almost unanimous opinion of those 
who have thoughtfully considered the means and conditions 
of success is in favor of smaller detached buildings, in which 
better opportunities are afforded for family influence and 
training. But the advantages of the family have been secured 
to some extent by the division of the school into classes, each 
with its own matron, teacher and supervisor, and the build- 
ings, on the whole, subserve their present use satisfactorily. 
The rooms are large and airy, well lighted and well venti- 
lated. 

It has been frequently remarked by visitors, that no hotel 
in the country provided rooms for its guests with purer air 
or of cleanlier appearance. 

This institution is peculiarly hopeful and beneficent in its 
field of labor and in its results. Taking its inmates at the 
earliest and most impressible age (the average age is about 
nine years) from the State Almshouse, from the streets, and 
from the neglected homes of poverty-stricken or vicious par- 
ents, it removes them from these circumstances and environ- 
ments of poverty, misery, and of prospective, sometimes of 
actual crime, to a pleasant home, where they enjoy all the 
advantages and surroundings fitted to afford them a happy 
childhood. Here they are nurtured and trained until they 
can be placed in good families. Many of them have inher- 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 5 

ited weak and diseased constitutions, others have become un- 
healthy and feeble through neglect and the want of proper 
nourishment, and nearly all are in a condition requiring 
especial care and provision for their physical restoration. 
Before they can be hopeful material for mental and moral 
work, their bodies must be built up and renovated. 

They are supplied with good, wholesome, nourishing food, 
plenty of milk, good bread, oatmeal porridge and similar 
food, that will produce at moderate cost the best results in 
blood and bone, with such changes as shall give zest and 
appetite to the daily meals. At times the children are 
regaled with the luxuries of the seasons, — the strawberries, 
watermelons and apples from the farm ; and occasionally a 
few grapes have served, to the eyes of these unpampered 
ones, to give to the ordinary meal the semblance of a feast. 

The generous diet is supplemented by suitable clothing, 
cleanly habits, and proper exercise and amusements in the 
open air. The beneficial effect of this treatment is apparent 
to the most casual observer. A marked improvement is 
perceptible in the physique and general bearing of the chil- 
dren, a few months sometimes working wonders in the cheer- 
fulness, contentment and strength of those coming here. 

Under these favorable circumstances, and with the care 
used, ophthalmia, that special complaint in institutions for 
the young, has greatly decreased during the past few years. 
Taking into consideration the origin and antecedents of the 
larger number here, and the fact that the more likely and 
prepossessing are continually leaving for places in families, 
the physical condition of the children in the school is most 
hopeful and encouraging. 

It has always been intended to make the discipline of the 
school parental in its character, so far as it is possible to do 
so, and at the same time maintain the proper control of so 
large a number. Every year's experience has shown that, 
having the confidence and respect of the children, a Super- 
intendent can reduce the visible restraints to a minimum. 
The largest liberty is allowed consistent with the welfare of 
the children and the good order of the school. 

The removal of the high fences which formerly surrounded 
the yard continues to be considered an improvement, not 



6 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

only to the general air and appearance of the grounds, but 
also in its moral effect upon the boys. The low, open fence 
substituted for the one taken down, suggests no thought of 
physical restraint or confinement. Very few punishments 
are found necessary, and these of the mildest character. 
The children are controlled more by love and respect than 
by force, or fear of force. 

In fact, so far as the Trustees can judge from observation 
during frequent visits, and from conversations with those in 
the school, and also with many who have left it, and who 
therefore have no motive for concealment or misrepresenta- 
tion, the children regard this school as a pleasant, happy 
home, which they leave with regret, and look back upon 
with pleasure. 

Every attention is paid to the moral and mental culture of 
the children ; and it is the earnest desire and intention of the 
Trustees to obey the injunction contained in the words of the 
statute of 1789, which the legislators of later days have not 
attempted to better : "to exert their best endeavors to im- 
press on the minds of the chidren and youth committed to 
their care and instruction the principles of piety and justice, 
and a sacred regard to truth ; love of their country, hu- 
manity, and universal benevolence ; sobriety, industry, and 
frugality ; chastity, moderation, and temperance ; and those 
other virtues which are the ornament of human society and 
the basis upon which a republican constitution is founded ; " 
and by all the means in their power to fit them to become 
honest, self-supporting, self-reliant, respected and self- 
respecting citizens. 

Among so many it would be strange indeed if some were 
not found intractable and difficult to manage ; but the num- 
bar of such is surprisingly small. It will be seen from the 
foregoing that the Trustees feel well assured that the money 
expended by the Commonwealth in the support of this school 
is well bestowed, and that it brings in a rich return in the 
large number rescued from neglect and want, from vice and 
crime. 

"We give the following summary of a portion of the sta- 
tistics : — 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. V 

Whole number of children in the institution, Oct. 1, 1881, . .414 

adults " "... 21 

Admitted during the year, . . 321 

Total number, . 756 

Placed in families, . . . . . . 183 

Boarded out in families, ...... 14 

Eloped, 1 

Died, 5 

Discharged by Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity, 78 
Remaining Oct. 1, 1882, . . . ' . . . 475 

756;, 

Average number of inmates during the year, ..... 448 

The twenty-one adults are sent here by the Board of 
Health, Lunacy and Charity, as mothers of children in the 
school, from whom it is not desirable to separate them. Their 
services are needed in the institution, and care is taken that 
none are sent whose character and influence are unsuited to 
the positions they occupy. Most of them have two or more 
children in the school. 

The amount appropriated by the legislature of 1882 was : 
for salaries, $17,000; for current expenses, $35,000; total, 
$52,000. 

The average cost per week for each inmate was $2.21. 

Under the "Act relating to indigent and neglected chil- 
dren," chap. 181 of the Acts of 1882, the Board of Health, 
Lunacy and Charity have sent to the school forty children, 
sixteen of whom were committed as*" indigent " or "de- 
pendent" children, according to the provisions of the second 
section of that act ; and twenty-four as " neglected children," 
according to the provisions of the third section of the same act. 

Seven of those committed as "neglected children" have 
been boarded in families at the charge and expense of the 
board committing them. 

The amount expended for thirteen children boarded out by 
the Trustees was, including the outfit given to each child 
going out from the institution, and estimated to cost $10 
each, $1,116.77. The average cost per week of each child 
boarded out by the Trustees, including outfit as above, 
was $1.92. 

The health of the institution has been excellent, there 
having been but five deaths during the year. 



8 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

We take this opportunity to acknowledge our obligation 
to the faithful and valued services of the former principal of 
the schools, who resigned her office last July for other duties 
in her Western home. She performed a work in the grading 
and classification of the schools which will be of permanent 
benefit. 

The supervisor and the matron of the sewing department, 
who resigned their positions last April, possessed peculiar 
qualifications for their duties, and we regretted to lose their 
services. 

Painting Buildings. 

The appropriation of $2,500, made by the legislature of 
1882 for painting, has been expended under the supervision 
of the Trustees, and the exteriors of all the buildings on the 
premises have received two coats of paint. 

The Old Hospital 
has been thoroughly repaired, remodelled, and renovated. 
Nearly all the old partitions and plastering were torn down 
and out. Excavations were made inside and outside of the 
foundations to obtain a better circulation of air under the 
floors. A more convenient division of the rooms was made, 
open fire-places built, and the ventilation otherwise improved 
by the admission of air from the outside through the steam 
coils, and also by the introduction of metal ventilating pipes 
connecting with patent ventilating caps. The old plumbing 
was torn out and replaced by sounder, better, and more 
wholesome conveniences. 

The building is now clean and sweet, and well arranged 
for the health and comfort of the invalids. The new nurse 
in charge is considered a valuable acquisition. 

The appropriation for this purpose by the legislature of 
1881 proved sufficient. 

The New Hospital. 
Owing to delays referred to in our last report, the new 
hospital was not commenced until the latter part of June 
last, and it is not yet completed. It is to be a well con- 
structed two-story building, with outer walls clapboarded, 
roof shingled, partitions and inner walls of lath and plaster 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 9 

sheathed with Michigan pine three feet above the floor, and 
brick underpinning on a solid stone foundation. Provision 
is made for a free circulation of air underneath the building. 

Good Ventilation 
is secured by open fireplaces and an arrangement of the 
upper window-sashes. 

The following diagram suggests the arrangement of the 
interior. 

LOWER FLOOR. 







K 


B 

5x9 y z 






16x16 


10x9>£ 


16x16 




\ 


1 1 1 1 I 






- 



















— 


12x16 








W 


H 




W 







s 




B 






5^x8 




5^x8 








H 




16x16 






16x16 






9x16 




W 




N 


W 



UPPER FLOOR 



W, W— Wards; B, B— Bathrooms; K— Kitchen; H, H— Halls; S— Storeroom ; 
N— Nurse's Room. 



The appropriation by the legislature for this purpose was 
$3,500, of which only $779.95 has been paid out. There is 
no doubt but that the appropriation will prove sufficient to 



10 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

complete the building according to the plans submitted by 
the Trustees, and approved by the Board of Health, Lunacy 
and Charity. 

This building, designed for an isolating hospital for cases 
of contagious disease, may not, and probably will not be 
frequently used for this purpose. Diseases of this character 
do not often visit the institution. But the medical officials 
of the State have deemed it important and necessary that a 
building of this kind should be on the premises ready to meet 
emergencies when they arise. 

It is now thought the building can be utilized and made to 
serve a very valuable purpose as a quarantine station, where 
the children from Tewksbury, and other places, can be pro- 
vided for during a sufficient time to determine their freedom 
from disease of a dangerous character. The physician, in 
his examination of the child when it first enters the institution, 
is unable to detect the existence of a dangerous disease in its 
latent and undeveloped form. The officers, in the majority 
of cases, know nothing as to the previous exposure of the 
child to danger, and the introduction of new members, of un- 
known antecedents, among so large a number of young people, 
is hazardous. 

The measles, which swept through the school in 1880, 
with one hundred and seventy-five cases, some of them very 
severe, were brought here by a boy committed by the Palmer 
Court. In 1881, the school had a second visitation of the 
disease, with thirty cases, imported by children from Tewks- 
bury. Fortunately, none of these cases proved fatal. The 
whooping-cough of the present year came through children 
committed by the Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity under 
the act relating to neglected children. 

All of this sickness, and the care, trouble, and expense 
attendant upon it, might have been avoided, had we possessed 
a building like this, in which new comers could have been 
retained, until they could have shown a clean bill of health. 
This plan, and this use of the building, appears feasible and 
desirable at present. But it must, like all other plans and 
views for reform work, be subjected to the tentative proc- 
esses of time and experience, before we can pronounce 
positively upon their merits. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 11 

The Reservoir on the Hillside 
is one of the most valuable additions made to the institution 
for many years, securing as it does an abundant supply ot 
excellent water forced by gravitation to all parts of the 
buildings. 

It is thought that to it we owe our escape from a large 
amount of sickness during the drouth of July and August ; 
without this reservoir it would have been impossible, without 
great expense, to have procured from other sources of supply 
a sufficient quantity of pure water. The work has been done 
under contract by Messrs. Flynt & Co., of Monson, under 
the supervision of the architect, Charles A. Hammond, of 
Lynn. It has a capacity of about one million gallons, which 
is believed to be ample for all the needs, ordinary and ex- 
traordinary, of the institution. 

Owing to the unforeseen amount of rock excavation found 
necessary, the contractors were unable to complete the basin 
last winter, and were obliged to keep the water at a low 
level during the spring and early summer, to enable them 
to complete the work ; consequently, at the beginning of the 
drouth, the reservoir was only about one-third full ; but 
notwithstanding this great curtailment of our expected 
resources, we have had a plentiful supply, although con- 
strained to exercise a prospective care pending the contin- 
uance of the dry weather. 

The appropriation for this purpose by the legislature of 
1880 was $8,500, of which $5,517.15 has been expended. 
The final account of the contractor has not yet been pre- 
sented to the Trustees for approval. 

We suggest that in future appropriations for current 
expenses, a specific sum be named for the boarding out of 
children, so that this portion of our work may not be im- 
peded or hindered by any strain on our finances to meet the 
ordinary current expenses. We recommend three thousand 
dollars as an appropriation for this purpose, a sum suffi- 
cient for the board of twenty-eight children, including the 
outfit furnished them when leaving the institution. 

We refer to the Superintendent's and other reports, 
hereto annexed, for statistics, and for details of management, 
finances, and improvements of the past year. 



12 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



STATE REFORM SCHOOL. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

In presenting the thirty-sixth annual report of the State 
Reform School the change in its first administrative officer 
first claims attention. 

On the 15th of October, 1881, Mr. E. T. Dooley, for ten 
months Superintendent of the institution, retired, and Mr. 
Joseph A. Allen, who had occupied the position for the 
six years between 1861 and 1867, was reappointed. It is 
not necessary to comment upon Mr. Allen's election. His 
former success, his continued interest in the work of 
reform, with his experience in training and disciplining 
boys were reasons sufficient for his appointment at a time 
when practical knowledge and experience were specially 
needed. 

Commitments. 

The new commitments of the past year have exceeded in 
number those of the three preceding years and are nearly 
up to the average for the past fourteen years. With the 
recommitments and returns to the school of a considerable 
number who had been sent out, or who had escaped prior 
to the beginning of the year, the school might be expected 
to be larger than at the close of 1881. This is not, how- 
ever, its condition ; and yet in one sense, though it may seem 
a paradoxical statement, it is both larger and smaller than 
one year ago. It is larger in the number outside, of those 
who are still in the custody of the school, and liable for mis- 
conduct or other causes to be returned to it ; but smaller in 
the numbers of those at present inmates of the institution. 
The number placed out on probation, either with friends or 
in other places for work, is larger than for three previous 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



13 



years ; and considering the average number of the school, 
larger, perhaps, than in any year since its establishment. 
The following table from the calculations of the Secretary of 
the Board of State Charities and from those of the Super- 
intendents of the school will give the comparative numbers 
of commitments, indentures, etc., of those placed out since 
1869. 



YEARS.* 


Commitments. 


Placed out. 


Whole 
Number. 


Average 
Number. 


Fourteen yrs. 

and over when 

committed. 


1869, » . 


113 


148 


488 


222 


7 


1870, 


93 


139 


474 


269 


17 


1871, 


94* 


128 


472 


298 


8 


1872, 


90* 


163 


.474 


266 


47 


1873. 


140 


118 


480 


289 


117 


1874, 


110 


138 


456 


323 


97 


1875, 


124 


111 


475 


335 


- 


1876, 


132 


130 


508 


318 


112 


1877, 


120 


180 


484 


327 


111 


1878, 


134 


118 


448 


316 


100 


1879, 


102 


116 


457 


258 


68 


1880, 


95 


116 


353 


206 


61 


1881, 


71 


113 


341 


179 


53 


1882, 


108 


146 


290 


113.61 


80 



*I.n these years there were also 45 received from School Ship in 1870, and 42 in 1871. 

Only new commitments are given, while all who were put 
out for employment or allowed to return to friends "on 
probation" are numbered. These latter computations were 
taken from the Superintendents' reports, while the average 
numbers were copied from those of the Secretary of the 
Board of State Charities. 

It has been the custom in past years to wait until the boys 
had arrived at what was called the "honor grade" before 
placing them out and it was not infrequently the case that 
a boy, not at all fitted to be useful or even safe outside, by 
a determination on his part to get out, arrived at this 
grade, and so gained a release ; while many another, trying 
far harder to reform and to retrieve his past, by some slips 
in behavior, lost his marks and was detained in the school 
after it became apparent that he might do well outside. 
There had seemed manifest injustice in this to some of the 
Trustees ever since they had been cognizant of the workings 
of the rule, and they were not sorry to have a change 



14 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

effected even at the risk of making some mistakes. There 
was besides a most disturbing, and to some extent, corrupt- 
ing element, in a number of large boys, who did not seem 
to be improving in the school, and for whom it seamed not 
probable that it could do much more. In justice to those, 
who, to say the least, were not made better by their 
example, and to themselves if perchance anything would 
help them, it was decided not to wait for arrival at any par- 
ticular grade in conduct before placing them out, and a vote 
was passed to allow the Superintendent, with the approval 
of one Trustee, " to release on probation, any boy who, in 
his judgment, should be so released ; this action to be con- 
firmed by the Board at the next meeting after such release." 
Places suitable for boys of the latter class would not be 
numerous and might not be readily found. To help them 
before employment was gained, the Trustees voted to assist 
from the Lyman fund, such as seemed desirous to make 
another effort to do well, in a manner suggested by Mr. 
Lyman on the occasion of his second donation, when he said 
that a certain amount of aid might be well bestowed "to 
enable all to return again to society without being immedi- 
ately exposed to the temptations that probably were often the 
principal causes of their becoming tenants of an institution." 
The following is a copy of this vote : 

" Voted, That the Superintendent of the Reform School, and 
one Trustee, be authorized to appropriate from the Lyman fund, 
for a limited time not to exceed three weeks, such pecuniary assist- 
ance toward the payment of board of a bo} r while obtaining 
employment, as shall be considered expedient ; that this money 
shall always be paid by the Superintendent, and that such action 
shall be confirmed by the Board at their next meeting after such 
payment." 

It was necessary to pay the board in but few cases, and 
for very short periods of time. The expenses too were 
paid to enable them to get away from old associates and sur- 
roundings, amidst which they might not have strength to 
stand. The larger number of these boys are doing fairly 
well, and it is believed that the money spent from the 
Lyman Fund, for the purpose named above, has been 
worthily bestowed. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 15 

It was not to be expected all would do well. There had 
always been those who were morally unable to stand alone, 
and such was the case now. Five of the number put out 
were rearrested and sent to jails or houses of correction. 
Two others, at last accounts, were reported as in danger of 
arrest. A few others were returned to the school as not 
satisfactory to employers. Of some of the remainder the 
reports are most hopeful, while nothing has been heard to 
the discredit of any save of those mentioned above. It is 
not claiming too much to assume that those from whom no 
unfavorable report has been received are doing as well as 
other boys of their age and condition in life, of whom the 
community does not complain, and who are not under the 
surveillance of the police. Iudeed, it is safe to suppose they 
may be even more satisfactory in conduct, because they are 
more closely watched, and their every act is criticised by 
those to whom their antecedents are known. Whether the 
result has justified the course taken by the Superintendent 
with the sanction of the Trustees — in the cases of the 
larger and older boys — there is this to be said : they have 
been so long inmates of the school that the danger of becom- 
ing " institutionized " alone was a cogent reason why some 
other means should be tried for their benefit. Indeed, many of 
them showed in varying degrees the inefficiency which inevi- 
tably follows long detention in an establishment where 
daily needs are supplied without the direct individual exer- 
tion necessary outside, where individual freedom cannot be 
allowed, or individual choice followed, and where routine 
takes the place of individual action. Helplessness, as a con- 
sequence of institution life, is as often the cause of failure to 
suit employers, or to support themselves, as vicious or 
depraved tendencies. It is certain that this kind of life must 
of necessity engender a spirit of dependence, and this is one 
of the consequences to be guarded against and overcome by 
the training during the necessary detention in the school. 

The earnest desire of some of these boys to begin a new 
life with the opportunity thus given, the willingness to take 
the work they were not always able to find for themselves, 
was touching proof of the fact that this course was stimulating 



16 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

them to the industry which would earn for them an honest 
living. 

To others, who have been alluded to as unsatisfactory, 
freedom immediately suggested the opportunity to do wrong, 
and which, as has been seen, they did not neglect. But for 
these, as well as for some of the better behaved, the school 
had ceased to be the best agency for their good, and if now, 
with this chance to begin anew, they persistently followed 
the wrong, the responsibility must rest mainly with them- 
selves, and they must abide the consequences. Their return 
to old associates and old habits was only not delayed. It 
was not, and probably could not have been, averted alto- 
gether. There still remain in the school others, too old and 
too hardened when admitted, to derive good from a system 
inaugurated to benefit " such subjects as may reasonably be 
expected to reform. Those who are adults in stature, and 
hardened in crime, are scarcely to be considered suitable asso- 
ciates for those of more tender years." 

These are the words of the commissioners appointed to 
consider plans and methods for the school. They are as true 
today as they were then. These gentlemen contemplated a 
close school, or one partially so; but were from the first 
firmly of the opinion that its best work would always be to 
prevent boys from becoming criminals, and that, to this end, 
those over fourteen years of age should not be admitted. 
The limit of age has varied from time to time, but has been, 
since 1871, seventeen years. Just so long as this is per- 
mitted to remain as the age up to which boys may be sent to 
the Reform School, just so long will there be a condition of 
things hindering the best work it might do, and the labors 
for the smaller, younger and less vicious will be defeated 
by the influence of the older and more depraved boys. 

Under seventeen means up to seventeen, up to a month, 
to a week, to a day, and instances are not wanting where 
boys over seventeen have been sent to the Reform School 
through the misrepresentations of those who considered it 
as a disgrace less than a sentence to the house of correc- 
tion. 

There is but one opinion on this matter among those who 
are worth quoting. To make reform work successful the 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 17 

younger must be separated from the older, and Massachu- 
setts, usually so watchful of growing evils, has been strangely 
apathetic when this subject, so important to its future wel- 
fare, has been broached. Shall there be nothing between 
the Reform School, endowed and established for boys in 
danger of becoming criminals, and the State prison? Shall 
the youth who now corrupt the children of the former be 
consigned to the latter for want of that intermediate reform- 
atory where they may have one more chance to retrieve 
themselves ? The Secretary of the Board of State Charities 
said, in his report of 1877, after deprecating the departure 
from the original intention of the founders of the West- 
borough School in sending there these older boys : " The 
Commonwealth needs an intermediate prison for young crimi- 
nals. The buildings and appliances at Westborough furnish 
ample accommodation for this class, and are, therefore, as 
necessary to the economy of the State now as they ever were." 
The State today, in 1882, needs this intermediate reforma- 
tory even more than in 1877, and the facilities for accom- 
plishing the object with the same " buildings and appliances " 
are as great, if not greater than then. To utilize the new 
buildings at Westborough in this way would be in the further- 
ance of an object kindred to that of Mr. Lyman in so gener- 
ously endowing the school, and would be restoring the 
money he bestowed, a large sum of which was absorbed in 
building the structure so unfitted for a reform school, but 
so well adapted to a reformatory for young men and youth, 
to a legitimate use. With the present use of the buildings, 
the Reform School must always be partly a close school, 
even if the class sent under existing laws, did not render 
such a state ot things a necessity. However much the 
family system is to be desired (and no intelligent reformer 
will allow any other to be so desirable) a department closer 
than that of the family house may always be necessary 
unless, like the practice at Jamesbury, restraint can be im- 
posed through closely supervised mechanical industry. Even 
with the lowering of the age of commitment, and the intro- 
duction of the whole family system, some means of restraint 
would undoubtedly be necessary, and some one house pro- 
vided with such means. But if the courts continue to send 



18 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

such as they hoav do, boys though they may be, in the 
language of the law, but who are, in their passions, desires 
and intents, men without the judgment or discretion of 
men, the present close department cannot fall into disuse. 
This necessity was anticipated by the commissioners ap- 
pointed to "prepare and mature a system of government" 
for a reform school, and by Mr. Lyman. The family sys- 
tem had not then been so much considered as it has been 
since, nor the dangers of aggregation so fully appreciated, 
but they deprecated a prison system and desired that there 
should be removed " as far as possible everything calculated 
to attach the disgrace of penitentiary punishment to those 
sent" to the Reform School. 

In making this condition, nothing could have been further 
from their intentions than that those who had been arrested 
many times, had even been inmates of penal institutions, 
of whatever age, should be sent to this school, to associate 
with and corrupt those less experienced in wrong-doing, 
for whom the institution surely was established. Hardened, 
desperate boys, who have become so accustomed to the 
police and police surroundings as to have lost all wholesome 
fear of them, are not the subjects for an institution the 
object of which is to " save those who are sent to it from 
further contamination." During the management of the 
school under the present Board of Trustees, there has been 
committed to it one boy, of whose sixteen years nine had 
been spent in places of confinement to which he had been 
sentenced. Of the new commitments of the past year, 
there have been five who had been at the Lawrence Reform 
School, two from the Plummer School at Salem, and ten 
from the Reform School at Lowell. These are all open 
schools, and the fact that these boys were not returned to 
them seems to indicate that a closer watchfulness than they 
could have in the family school was necessary for them, 
and offers an argument in favor of providing for the re- 
straints of a close system, when necessary. This is men- 
tioned by the Trustees as worthy of consideration, although 
their public expression has always been in favor of the fam- 
ily school. 

The difficulties which lie in the way of reform work, and 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 19 

which are constantly arising from the most unexpected 
sources, are calculated to make the honest worker pause, 
doubt the correctness of preconceived opinions, and humbly 
rely on what seems best in individual cases. General ad- 
herence to a preferred system can be obtained, but real suc- 
cess in such work requires the ability to adapt methods to the 
ever-varying circumstances of the individual subjects and to 
the unforeseen exigencies of every day. 

Whatever differences of opinion there may be as to the 
best plans for carrying out reform work, there can be none 
as to so lowering the maximum a^e of commitment as to 
exclude that class of larger and older boys unfit for asso- 
ciation with those for whom the school was designed. That 
this age may be reduced from seventeen to fourteen years, is 
respectfully asked by the Trustees, and the attention of the 
executive and of the legislature earnestly solicited to this 
important subject, while they trust it will not be considered 
intrusive if from their official standpoint they also press 
with urgency the subject of an intermediate reformatory 
upon the consideration of legislators, that while the work of 
the Reform School be permitted to be largely preventive, as 
it was intended to be, there shall not be wanting a place for the 
youth of the State, of whom, with proper discipline and 
restraint, there is still hope, and who have a right to claim 
this one more chance to escape a life of crime and its conse- 
quences. 

Trust Houses. 

These family houses have been the past year, as always 
since their opening, all that their name imports. To many a 
boy they have given his first experience of a real home, while 
the kind and judicious care of the master and matron has 
been more parental in character than any he has ever known. 
They have been somewhat defective in arrangements for the 
number it has been necessary to keep in them, especially so 
in the sleeping apartments. Those in the Peters House were 
thought a year and a half ago to be entirely inadequate in air 
space, and at that time all the available room was added to 
the dormitory. They are still not large enough to be entirely 
satisfactory ; but it is not in the power of the Trustees to 
increase these accommodations without building an addition. 



20 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

The farm-house has been renovated, new heating apparatus 
supplied, and is now altogether convenient and comfortable. 

Schools. 
The schools have been fewer in number, in consequence of 
the general decrease in the numbers at the institution. It 
has thus been necessarv to bring together different ages and 
classes in a way increasing the difficulties of teaching and 
discipline. The desire of the Trustees to reduce as much as 
possible the expenses has been the cause of this consolidation. 

Employment and Labor. 

The " inside boys" have been more less engaged in 
making sleighs for the past three or four years. In conse- 
quence of the small number left after placing out so many 
of the older boys, the expense of supervising officers for this 
work, together with doubts as to the profit arising from it, 
and the large number of sleighs remaining unsold — with an 
amount of stock not thought desirable to retain, — this in- 
dustry has been discontinued for the present, and the boys 
remaining, who were formerly employed in the sleigh shop, 
put into the chair-seating shop. This work requires no out- 
lay for material, is of a kind that all can learn, and is also 
less liable to result in loss from injury to tools and stock. 
As has been the custom in past years, the shoes for the boys 
are still made and repaired by themselves, as well as all the 
clothing worn by them. The laundry, the bakery, the cook- 
room, the officers' dining-room, kitchen and halls have each 
their quota of boys for the work required in each. 

The boys from the trust houses are employed almost en- 
tirely on the farm, under the supervision of the masters of 
these houses. Farm labor is most desirable for the larger 
and more troublesome boys from the " inside," but the great 
obstacle in the way of carrying out such work is the expense 
of maintaining officers enough to supervise such labor, and 
guard against escapes and misconduct ; and here again ap- 
pears forcibly the desirability of so regulating the commit- 
ments to the Reform School, that none shall be received who 
cannot with safety to themselves and to others be trusted to 
engage in agricultural work, which is allowed by all to be 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 21 

th e most satisfactory of any that can be provided for this 
class. 

As an incentive to industry, and as an encouragement to 
the boys, the Trustees have authorized the payment of 
small sums to them for overwork, the account being kept 
by the officer in charge and reported to the Superintendent, 
who pays to each boy the money he has earned in this way, 
minus the sum of twenty-five cents, which is placed to his 
credit as a guarantee fund against losses and breakages, 
or other injury to the State's property. Since this regula- 
tion in their financial affairs, losses seldom result from the 
carelessness of the boys. 

There may come a time when more frequent commitments^ 
and fewer chances to place out will necessitate the revival of 
the sleigh-making or other similar industry. Of whatever 
kind, there must be work for these boys ; work systematic and 
engrossing. M. Bertin, in a recent report of the Mettray 
Schools, speaks of regenerating delinquent children by work, 
and the expression is full of significance to those who have 
known how efficient is work of the head and hand for a boy, 
in displacing and crowding out the thought and desire to do 
wrong, while it deprives him of the time for its execution. 

Farm. 

The farm has, like all Massachusetts farms, suffered greatly 
from the drouth, and will, in consequence, be much less 
productive than in the last few years. 

The spring promised good results, and the work was be- 
gun with enthusiasm, and so continued until all prospect for 
good crops was destroyed. This will, of course, be taken 
into consideration, when comparing this year with former 
ones. 

Health. 

The health has never been better. No cases of severe 
illness have occurred, and the hospital has been untenanted 
during the past ten months, except by two boys, one suffer- 
ing somewhat from rheumatism, the other from an accident, 
for a short time. 

The nurse took the duties of assistant housekeeper last year, 



22 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

a. nd has continued in that position, but will resume those of 
the hospital when required. No death has occurred. The. 
diet, a table of which is added to the report, is, it is thought, 
ample in quantity, nourishing in quality, with sufficient 
variety to make it appetizing. The boys are also supplied 
in the season with what does not appear in the table — 
the fresh fruits and vegetables which the farm produces. 
The milk, provided twice daily, is unskimmed and unstinted 
in quantity. An unstimulating but nourishing diet is that 
best calculated to promote health. This the boys at West- 
borough have. The white bread is made from the same flour 
in use at the officers' table ; brown bread is also frequently 
supplied and eaten with relish. 

Recreation. 

Recreation has been provided in various ways. In winter 
by entertainments in the chapel, and by games in the 
recreation-room or " boys' parlor," fitted up for them 
during the previous year. All the festivals of the year have 
been observed by some pleasant change from the usual 
routine and from the usual food, and have been heartily en- 
joyed. Many gentlemen of culture and benevolence have 
addressed the boys in a manner to interest and arouse. 
Music has been a source of daily enjoyment, and engaged in 
by the officers as well as the boys. 

Removal to the Old Building and Reduction of 

Expenses. 

The entire removal of the boys and of the officers from the 
new to the old building was accomplished during the winter 
of 1881 and 1882, and now no part of the addition of 1877 
is used for school purposes. The expenses of the school have 
been still further reduced by the dismissal of all officers whose 
services could be dispensed with without detriment to the 
discipline of the school or the good of the boys. 

It is not possible to reduce the officers in proportion to the 
reduced numbers in the school, and the Trustees feel that 
they have done in that way as much as will be consistent with 
safety for the present. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 23 

Escapes. 
Escapes have been attempted the past year, as in all pre- 
vious years ; seven have been successful — six of these 
were during the first six weeks of the school-vear. Of all 
who have made the attempt in the remainder of the year, 
only one has escaped being retaken. As showing that es- 
capes seem to be one of the inevitable consequences of the 
detention of boys of the class of those at Westborough, the 
following table is given of the escapes for the last thirteen 
years, or since 1869 : 

In 1870 there were . . . ... 10 successful escapes. 

1871 " • . 16 

1872 " ■ 34 " 

1873 " 26 

1874 " ...... 10 

1875 " ...... 16 

1876 " - 

1877 " 13 

1878 " 10 

1879 " ... 4 

1880 " 21 

1881 " 33 

1882 " ........ 7 " 

By successful escapes are meant those who were not retaken 
the year of which the report was given. 

Discipline. 

The difficulties which have beset every superintendent of 
the school, especially since the raising to its present limits of 
the age of commitment, have not been wanting during the 
present management. The course in meeting them may have 
differed somewhat from former methods. The success of such 
measures can only be judged by the present results. The 
time has not been long since the change in officers occurred, 
and it may be premature to augur for any new measures a 
success not accorded in the past. 

There is a moral atmosphere about an institution which 
one accustomed to it recognizes at once. An outward calm 
may appear to the novice contented obedience and willing 
submission to wonted authority, which, to the initiated, 



24 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

is known to be but the hush preceding a tornado of violence, 
of rebellion and disorder. Officers who can so control the 
elements that the calm shall be genuine, and the appearance 
of obedience a reality, are possessed of qualities which need 
no description, even if they can be described, but which must 
be recognized as invaluable in work for and among boys of a 
reform school. 

Boys are keen to learn who are their friends, and once 
assured of a genuine desire on the part of their superiors to 
be helpful to them, will submit willingly to discipline, against 
which, lacking this assurance, they will rebel. 

It is to be hoped that the pleasant faces and cheerful de- 
meanor of the boys at Westborough are the result of con- 
tentment with their present and hope for their future, and 
this as a consequence of trust in and reliance on the friends 
and advisers they have in the officers in charge of them. 

The difficulty of judging of the success of reformatory work 
by its immediate results is obvious. The difference between 
being and seeming is not less in the little community of the 
school than in the great one outside, and the appearance often 
passes for the reality in both. Still there seems to be no other 
available test by which the work can be judged. 

The State will scarcely wait patiently for years to develop 
the seed sown in such institutions, but there is no doubt it 
is after long lying dormant that this seed expands into 
flower and fruit well worth waiting for, and the thought is 
worthy the consideration of those who are perhaps too hasty 
in judging of the value of an agency they do not always 
understand, or ever take pains to understand. It is easy to 
stand outside and criticise, but it requires time and trouble 
to become really informed upon these matters of such vital 
importance to the future of the State. There is still another 
thought, not perhaps strictly relevant here, but worth the 
attention of those who are apt to deprecate the cost and 
trouble its juvenile offenders are to the State, and to cavil 
at their management in the institutions the State has provided 
for them and it is this : 

Is there no responsibility resting upon these and all others 
to see to it that there shall be more prevention of crime 
and wrong-doing ow^side these institutions, in our cities and 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 25 

towns, from which they are kept full — that there shall be 
more protection from society for these unfortunate ones who, 
by the very circumstances of their surroundings, are deprived 
of the sheltering care the more fortunate classes have ? Is 
there no responsibility resting upon these citizens to see to 
it that the temptations to strong drink — to wrong-doing of 
all kinds — are not thrown in their way, and that they have 
the benefit of good teaching and virtuous example, as well 
as the restraining influence of a police, and finally, deten- 
tion in some place of confinement as their lot? If an 
" ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure," it is the 
part of wise citizens to look to these things — to look to in- 
fluences of the city or town life over which they have some 
control, and endeavor to make it what it should be. That 
the problem is a difficult one — how to do best for offenders 
outside the institutions — is not denied; but there are some 
duties so plainly written down that " Wayfaring men, though 
fools," need " not err therein." The difficulty of caring for 
them after they are once in a place of detention is scarcely less 
— though, because defined by the authority of the law, it is in 
some respects simpler ; but the responsibility of obeying both 
this and that " higher law " — not defined — is great, and the 
Trustees in making a report to that public which has the 
right to claim it, do it with a full appreciation of the work, 
and of their inability to reach to their own standard of its 
importance. 



26 PRIMARY AM) REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOE GIRLS. 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



The work of the Industrial School has been upon a more 
extended scale during the past year, nearly twice as many 
girls having been committed to its custody as during the 
year before, while of those sent out on probation during this 
and previous years, an unusually large number have been 
sent back to the school, some of them for serious misconduct ; 
others not so much for fault as for incapacity ; others to wait 
for new places to be found. The larger part of those sent 
back have been placed out again within the year. 

The increase in number of commitments would be simply 
a matter for regret if it necessarily showed an increase in 
crime ; on the other hand, it may be that the courts and the 
guardians of the girls thus committed have come to recognize 
more fully the need of such a school, and the great advantage 
to the girl of being thus checked and restrained in good 
season. It is certainly to be regretted that eight girls who 
had been committed directly to the care of the Board of 
Health, Lunacy and Charity — having proved to be either un- 
manageable or in danger from bad companions, with no habits 
of industry to fit them for domestic service, and no will to 
acquire such habits — have been transferred to the Industrial 
School for restraint and discipline. 

The return to the school of its wards who have been placed 
out on probation would be wholly discouraging were not two 
noteworthy facts to be considered : First, that, as the Trus- 
tees and officers of the school well know, unusual risks have 
been taken during the past two years in placing out. The 
custom had been to keep each girl in the school for one year 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 27 

at least, and in most cases for a longer time; whereas, the 
policy pursued of late has been to place a girl out the mo- 
ment she seemed lit to have a trial, in order that she might 
learn to stand alone while still under guardianship and liable 
to recall if in danger. The effect of this policy upon the in- 
mates of the school has been excellent, greatly lessening the 
difficulties of management and the dangers arising from too 
long a continuance of institution life, where "hope deferred " 
leaves the mind to seek excitement in mischievous conversa- 
tion. Finding that one after another has gone out as soon as 
reasonable, the rest have been encouraged to work with zeal 
to deserve the same privilege. 

Among those sent out there have, however, been some 
whose offences have been no more serious than the average ; 
whose behavior in the school had been good enough to war- 
rant their having a fair trial outside, yet who were recog- 
nized to be girls of low and evil inclinations. Three such 
were placed with their relatives on probation, without suc- 
cess. Of the five transferred to Sherborn, two were colored 
girls of pleasing manners but with little to build upon ; two 
were Americans, decidedly intelligent, one of whom had been 
with relatives ; the other had proved herself capable in 
excellent places, and her downfall was not expected. Oue 
only, now perhaps the most promising under the prison dis- 
cipline, had been violent and unsafe in the school as well as 
inclined to evil when outside, and was therefore transferred. 

Secondly, it is to be noted that no pains have been spared 
to recover girls who had left their places, unless known to be 
doing well. The combined efforts of the two departments 
have accomplished their recapture in order to prevent their 
leading others astray, and here the law permitting the trans- 
fer of girls unfit for the Industrial School to Sherborn prison 
has greatly relieved the school. 

The report of the Superintendent gives a detailed account 
of the year's work. The Trustees believing the only proper 
test of the value of any institution for the young to be that 
of their behavior when placed out, will not confine their re- 
port to the present year, but will review the results of the 
school discipline and training as they may be gathered from 
personal knowledge and from the faithful records kept 



28 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

by the Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity, of 229 girls 
who have been on the lists, and in the custody of the Industrial 
School during the past two years, visited by the women 
appointed as Auxiliary Visitors by this Board. The first on 
this list of girls had been committed in 1869, being then 
eight years of age, and has lately attained her majority and 
passed out of the care of the State.* The offences of these 
229 have been classified under four heads, but in making 
these classifications the technical offence charged has been 
in many cases set aside and the actual misconduct at the time 
of arrest, as learned from the court records, has been taken 
to be the real cause for commitment ; as, for instance, where 
the gravest offences are found to be covered by the charge of 
stubbornness, and a trifling theft used evidently as a pretext 
for arresting the girl in order to rescue her from bad com- 
panions. 

From these records we learn that 26 were committed for 
stubbornness, and 40 for larceny (no other offence being 
mentioned), 72 apparently because in danger of immoral con- 
duct, 91 for offences against morality. 

Of the 26 committed for stubbornness, 6 remain in the 
school (1 of whom was returned for misconduct, the other 5 
having been committed within the present year) ; 1 has ran 
away from her place, 1 is in prison, 18 have become self- 
supporting (2 of them being well married). 

Of the 40 committed for simple larceny, 8 remain in the 
school (1 of these returned for disability, 6 of them com- 
mitted within two years) ; 2 have run away from places, 2 are 
in prison, 26 have become self-supporting (of whom 1 had 
behaved badly but is now doing well, and 2 are well mar- 
ried) : 2 temporarily in other institutions. 

Of the 72 who were in danger of immoral conduct, 17 re- 
main in the school (4 of those having been returned for mis- 
conduct, 2 for illness, 1 for incapacity, 2 of the 17 having 

* The Statistical Tables of the report of the U. S. Commissioner of Education for 
1879, mention hut two instances, the Connecticut and the Wisconsin schools where 
oversight is continued and records kept of behavior, after leaving reformatories, 
until twenty-one years of age, with any approach to the accuracy of the Massachu- 
setts system. The Commissioners of Prisons regret that the short sentences prevent 
the possibility of keeping such knowledge of the career of those who leave the prison. 
— (See Rep. for 1882.) 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 29 

been committed within two years) ; 1 has run away from 
place, 1 from school, 2 are in prison, 47 have become self-sup- 
porting (of whom 2 had behaved ill but are now doing well, 
and 9 are well married) ; 2 in other institutions, 1 doubtful, 
1 died. 

Of the fourth class, 32 remain in the school (5 of whom 
have been returned for misconduct, 4 of the 5 having been 
committed within the past two years) ; 2 have run away from 
school and 6 from places, 3 are in prison, 2 married, doing 
badly, 40 have become self-supporting (of whom 5 had 
behaved ill, now doing well ; 11 of them married and doing 
well) ; 3 doubtful, 1 died in the school, 2 have behaved badly, 
now better. 

Besides these classed as above, there are 4 who are out of 
the State, their behavior uncertain. 

To sum up the record : of 229 girls, 26 were committed for 
simple stubbornness, 6 of them within the past two years ; 40 
for simple larceny, 8 of them within two years ; 72 apparently 
because in danger of immoral conduct, 19 of them within 
two years ; 91 for immoral conduct, 44 of them within two 
years ; 2 died in the school ; 164 have been placed ©ut, of 
whom 131 have become self-supporting ; 4 are temporarily 
placed in other institutions; 4 said to be doing well, but 
uncertain ; while on 23 the care has apparently been wasted. 

Since being placed out 4 have died, 50 have been dis- 
charged from custody, 63 remain in the school, 10 of whom 
were returned for misconduct, 110 remain outside, i. e. , 
173* now in care of the Trustees. 

Of those committed within the past two years, 63 have come 
from cities and factory towns, 14 from other towns. 

Of the 66 committed simply for stubbornness and larceny, 
only 14, or 21 per cent, have been committed since October 
1st, 1880 ; while of the 163 girls committed for the more 
serious offences, or for dangerous inclination to the same, 63, 
or 38 per cent, have been sent within the same two years. It 
is to be presumed, therefore, that a larger proportion of the 



* Thirteen of these are married, but according to the decision of the attorney- 
general are still in the custody of the school, unless discharged by vote. 
Their names, therefore, stand upon the list, but they will not be interfered with 
unless they should misbehave and lead others astray. 



30 PRIMAEY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

lighter cases have been disposed of in families, while those 
only have been sent to the Industrial School who have worn 
out the patience of relatives and neighbors, and who have 
been considered neither worthy nor safe to be taken on pro- 
bation by the Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity, because 
in their condition at the time of arrest they would be 
injurious to the children of the Primary School and unfit 
inmates for families. 

It is interesting to look back to the spirited report of the 
Board of State Charities in 1869, when interest in the refor- 
mation of juvenile offenders was in its full vigor, and all 
questions concerning this subject were discussed in plain 
language. This report of 1869 makes various suggestions, 
which from time to time have been considered, and in their 
spirit, if not to the letter, adopted. That most urged is the 
placing out or early apprenticeship of the younger and more 
innocent girls by the Visiting Agency, then just going into 
operation. " In other words," the Secretary writes, " children 
and youth who can be properly placed in families where they 
will have religious and moral training shall not be retained in 
reformatories either for instruction or for service they can 
render." Since 1869 the Visiting Agency of the Board of 
State Charities (since 1879 of the Board of Health, Lunacy 
and Charity) has sent officers to attend the trial of juvenile 
offenders throughout the State, and taken on probation all who 
could be safely placed or admitted temporarily to the Primary 
School to wait for places, intending never to send to 
the latter children of a responsible age who have sinned 
against chastity. The same department has found places for 
the wards sent out from the schools, has visited them, has 
kept records of their behavior, and returned them to the 
school only in case of necessity. 

As this work has gone on year after year for the past thir- 
teen years, the Trustees and the Visiting Department cor- 
dially working and consulting together by word or by letter 
in their perplexities, the same result has been brought about 
as by any other sifting process ; the finer material having 
passed out through the sieve, the coarser is left behind. It 
is on this account that the school no longer receives " children 
of tender years, innocent of crime," nor retains those who can 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 31 

properly be placed in families. Meantime, it continues to 
care not only for its newly committed wards, but equally for 
those who are in clanger or who have been returned for mis- 
conduct, receiving all who are judged to be capable of being 
helped by its discipline. 

The return of a girl to the Industrial School is not to be 
considered as a recommitment,* but in many cases rather as 
a recall to avoid danger, and it will readily be seen that the 
commitment during minority proves in such cases to be of 
the greatest value, having, as regards the girl, all the ad- 
vantages of the " indeterminate or reformatory sentences " so 
greatly approved by Dr. E. H. Wines, when combined with 
the security that probation will be given to all who show them- 
selves ready for it, and with liability to recall in case of mis- 
conduct. Those who have failed the first time have in many 
instances, when returned to the school, been brought to a 
more serious mood, perhaps of self-distrust, and at least of 
thoughtfulness, which has turned their course in the right 
direction. Nearly a dozen such occur to us out of the list 
above mentioned. In placing out, preference is given to 
country towns until a girl has proved herself trusty enough 
to be allowed to work in a mill or at a trade if she desires 
to do so, under careful supervision, as is the case with ten or 
more of the present wards. There is no longer need of secrecy 
with regard to placing out from the school, for its wards are 
in constant demand as well trained to assist in housework, 
and, in spite of instances of misconduct, the demand con- 
tinues ; while to our personal knowledge happy marriages 
are contracted with full recognition of the fact that the young 
girl has been a member of the State Industrial School. 

Among those committed to the school's custody for these 
various classes of offences are, as has been shown, a few so 
depraved or so hardened as to be apparently incapable of a 
better life ; but there are others, and by far the largest pro- 
portion, such as are referred to by the well-known historian 
of European morals. After acknowledging the problem of 
sin against chastity to be the most difficult with which 

* No case of recommitment to the Industrial School by the courts has occurred, 
and hut few arc known to have reached the Reformatory Prison by commitment of 
the courts. 



32 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

religion, philosophy, or legislation has to deal, the writer calls 
for a more charitable consideration for those who have 
committed " acts which neither imply nor produce a total 
subversion of the moral feelings, and which are often 
followed by happy, virtuous, and affectionate lives." While 
deprecating any sentimental leniency towards this class of 
sins, and while recognizing them as the very most degrading, 
there is truth in the statement above quoted, that sinful acts 
committed in girlhood, under a pressure of temptation un- 
known in the shelter of good and happy homes, may be 
outlived and trodden under foot. 

The records from which are gathered the statistics given 
above show that in many instances even those who have 
committed such acts, when rightly guided, have redeemed 
their character and have " turned to that which is lawful and 
right." The Massachusetts laws with regard to juvenile 
offenders presuppose in them this power to rally. These 
laws were carefully framed for the benefit of the individual, 
and not merely for the protection of society. There has 
been a gradual change in this direction since " the antient 
Saxon laws nominally punished theft with death if above the 
value of twelve pence," and so remained when Blackstone 
wrote his commentaries ; and " an infant at the age of four- 
teen years might be capitally punished for any capital 
offence." On the other hand, where rights and responsi- 
bilities with regard to property were concerned, " on account 
of the imbecility of judgment at fourteen years of age," a 
guardian was to be appointed, and until the completion of 
the seventeeth year no male could be an executor and no 
female an executrix, the right of the former to aliene goods 
and chattels, or of the latter to dispose of herself and lands 
being reserved till twenty-one years were completed. 

Under existing laws in this Commonwealth ''the imbe- 
cility of judgment" under seventeen years of age is con- 
sidered in dealing with girls who are falling into dangerous 
ways, and such may, on complaint often made by parent or 
guardian, be committed to the State Industrial School. 

There is necessarily some danger of contamination in 
bringing even twenty-five girls together in one house, but 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 33 

this can scarcely be compared with the danger in the sur- 
roundings from which most of them are taken. 

Sore and indignant at the arrest and trial a girl comes ex- 
pecting harshness and severity, and is surprised at the atmos- 
phere of kindliness and good cheer ; at the sunny school-room 
and the absence of high walls around the grounds. Her 
better feelings are soon roused, her sullenness melts away, 
and after a few days she longs to send word to her home, if 
she has a home, how sorry she is for her misconduct. If 
genuine home-sickness follows for a time, and attempts are 
made to run away, it is no wonder. Then comes ambition 
to succeed in lessons and to get good marks for behavior, 
soon followed by loyalty to the matron and the wish to come 
to her for a quiet talk and to win her good opinion. As has 
been wisely said, "the fault committed by the scholar, if 
rightly dealt with, may be made the teacher's opportunity." 
If the girl becomes interested in her own reformation she is 
encouraged and helped, There are some hypocrites to be 
found, and there are others whose good resolutions are 
quickly formed and lightly broken, but all have a chance to 
learn to earn an honest living, and on going out they will 
still be under close guardianship if the employers and visi- 
tors do their duty. 

The housework, at first irksome to a girl who has been 
leading a lazy life of self-indulence, becomes interesting when 
carried on with companions. Recognizing the difficulty 
which seems to belong to all institution life, the contrast of 
its shelter and security as compared with the unexpected 
trials and insecurities of a life of honest self-support, it is the 
constant study of the Trustees to make the family system of 
the school a preparation for family life outside ; to train the 
girls not only to submit to rules, but also to obey conscience 
when rules are withdrawn. They are taught the economies 
necessary to good housekeeping ; they see the little vexations 
resulting from carelessness, and learn what is meant by 
" duty" and "individual responsibility," as they could not 
under the restraint found necessary for a more hardened 
class of offenders. As Mary Carpenter well said: "It is 
too often forgotten that low tastes and desires cannot be 
rooted out except by the introduction of more agreeable ones ; 



34 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

that the intellectual powers cannot be cultivated in those who 
have no sense of duty unless the doing so is made pleasant ; 
that corrupt affections cannot be expelled except by the 
awakening of pure ones ; and it is from this forgetfulness 
that the conductors of penitentaries for erring females have 
so often to lament failures." 

When the numbers increased in August, of this year, the 
pleasant cottage called House No. 5 was opened to receive a 
dozen of the younger girls with only two officers. The use 
of three houses gives opportunities for classification of a 
better sort than is possible where the girls must be divided 
between but two families. Aware of the difficulties recog- 
nized by former Boards of Trustees, great caution will be 
exercised in making such separation, the best classification 
consisting, as has been said, in placing out at the earliest 
possible moment. 

The discipline and instruction have been excellent, inter- 
rupted only by too frequent change of officers in one of the 
houses. The girls have been kept busy, and, with few ex- 
ceptions, happy and cheerful. The Superintendent has had 
to contend with unusual difficulties, but his devotion to duty 
has been unceasing, as well as his study to- combine true 
economy with due regard for health and comfort. An im- 
portant reduction of expenses was made by dismissing the 
farmer, the Superintendent adding to his own former cares 
the immediate direction and oversight of the farm laborers, 
as well as the girls in their out-of-door work. His experi- 
ence and skill will doubtless insure good results. 

The best tribute to the matrons is found in the regard of 
their girls, more or less sincere and lasting in each case, 
according to their depth or shallowness of character. The 
persistence through fatigue and discouragement which en- 
ables the " mother" of one of the households to declare the 
work more and more interesting year by year, thus brings 
its own reward. 

Lastly, this report would call attention to the very repre- 
hensible neglect of parents in allowing their daughters too 
much freedom in the streets at an age when peculiarly ex- 
posed to temptation from within and from without, especially 
when they quit the shelter of homes which are, in many 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 35 

cases, above the needs of actual poverty, to seek unprotected 
the excitement of city or factory life, to find themselves 
perhaps ill or thrown out of work, without money to pay the 
week's rent, tempted to follow the example of others all 
about them, to supplement their wages by evil doing. If, at 
the same time, any citizens of this Commonwealth are led to 
consider whether it is worth while to defend our community 
from licentiousness at least as vigorously as from intem- 
perance of other kinds, and to raise somewhat the tone of 
public sentiment in this direction, so that those who tempt 
and bribe young girls may be put under its ban, as well as 
punished by enforcement of the laws, the work of the State 
Industrial Schdol will be at once less needed and better 
rewarded. 

GEORGE W. JOHNSON, Brookfield. 

ANNE B. RICHARDSON, Lowell. 

ELIZABETH C. PUTNAM, Boston. 

SAMUEL R. HEY WOOD,* Worcester. 

LYMAN BELKNAP, Westborough. 

MILO HILDRETH, Nortliborough. 

THOMAS DWIGHT, Boston. 

The undersigned, though assenting to the above report, 
feels that he must express his dissent from the views of the 
majority of the Board concerning religious liberty, which he 
believes is denied to the majority of the inmates of these 
institutions. He prefers, however, not to present a minority 
report, as he hopes that in the course of another year the 
difference of opinion between his colleagues and himself will 
be materially diminished. 

THOMAS DWIGHT. 

* Chairman of the Board. 



36 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



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M 
o 

ft 
. w 

H 
H 

a 
o 
u 


Stubbornness, ....... 

Larceny, 

Immoral conduct, 




Have become self-supporting, .... 

Apparently work wasted on, 

Have behaved badly, 

Died in the school, . . ... 
Temporarily in other institutions, . 

In the school, 

Not reported, but doing well at last reports, 





1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 



37 



TRUST FUNDS OF STATE REFORM 
SCHOOL. 



TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Lyman Fund. 
Lyman Belknap, Treasurer, in Account with Income of Lyman Fund. 



1881. 

Sept. 30. 



Dr. 



Oct. 



1. 

2. 

10. 





14. 


Nov. 


1. 


Dec. 


1. 




15. 




31. 


1882. 




Jan. 


7. 




9. 



Balance on hand, 

Interest on town of Marlboro' note, six months, 
on two $1,000 Government bonds, three 

months, 

Dividend on 100 shares Boston & Albany R. R 

stock, 

on 40 shares of Citizens 1 National Bank 
Interest on balance of Westborough Bank, . 
on balance in Westborough bank, . 
on note of A. W. Seaver and C. D. Davis 
Dividend on 100 shares Boston & Albany R. R 
stock, 



on 66 shares Fitchburg R. R. stock, 

on 10 shares of Boston & Maine R. R 

stock, ...... 

Interest on $1,000 Old Colony R. R. 6 per cent 

bond, six months .... 
on two $1,000 Government bonds, three 

months, 

on two $1,000 Boston & Albany R. R 

bonds, six months, at seven per cent 
March 31. Dividend on 100 shares Boston & Albany R. R 

stock, . . . . 

4. Interest on town of Marlborough note, six 
months, 

5. Dividend on 40 shares Citizens' National Bank, 
4. Interest on two $1,000 Government bonds, three 

months, 

15. Dividend on 10 shares of Boston & Maine R. R 
stock, 



Feb. 



Apr. 
May 



$44 75 
206 25 

20 00 



200 00 


120 


00 




62 




60 


30 


03 


200 


00 




• 


198 00 


40 


00 


30 


00 


20 


00 


70 


00 


200 


00 


206 


25 


120 


00 


20 00 


40 00 



38 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



1882 

June 



July 

Auo:. 



'ept. 



17. Dividend on amount of A. W. Seaver and C. D 

Davis's note, 

Dividend on 100 shares Boston & Albany R. R 

stock, 

Interest on balance in Westborough Bank, . 
on balance in Westborough Bank, . 
on two $1,000 Boston & Albany R. R 
bonds, six months at seven per cent. . 
on amount of Holton & Thurston's bill 

returned, 

Interest on balance in Westborough Bank, . 
Dividend on 66 shares Fitchburg R. R. stock, six 
months, ...... 

Interest on $1,000 Old Colony R. R. six per cent 
bond, six months, 
on two $1,000 Government bonds, . 
Balance from check to National Temperance So 
ciety and Publication House, . 



1. 
I. 



5. 

1. 

30 



$1,530 00 

200 00 
3 75 
3 40 

70 00 

27 00 
3 38 

198 00 



30 


00 


20 


00 


1 


02 



,853 23 



12. 
Nov. 7. 

28. 
Dec. 7. 



Payments as authorized by vote of the Trustees. 

1881. Cr. 

Oct. 7. Paid E. A. Nason for teaching music, . 
Braman, Dow & Co., gas fixtures, 
Unitarian Sunday School Society, "Day 
spring, 11 ...... 

S. Woodberry & Co., printing, 
Security Safe Deposit Co., 

J. R. Bean, labor, 

R. H. Burke, labor, .... 
J. W. Griggs, tank, .... 
Forbes & Fay, shoes, .... 
Dalton & Ingersoll, iron trap, etc., 
W. A. Reed & Co., paints, . 
Gibbs & Co., clothing, . 

D. I. Deland, peanuts, .... 
O. K. Newton, candy, .... 
Rice & Griffin Manufacturing Co., window 
Jas. Hewitson, painting, 
Jos. A. Allen, sundry bills, . 
J. W. Whitman, travelling expenses, 
C. Whitney, sawing, ... 
C. A. Harrington, labor, 

Wadswqrth & Woodman, hardware, 

E. S. Nason, teaching music, 
Curtis & Weld, costumes, 



19. 

1882. 

Jan. 1. 

2. 

11. 



. $132 


85 


137 


88 


13 75 


5 


25 


5 


00 


40 


50 


41 


25 


95 


00 


3 


75 


1 


58 


11 


40 


12 


75 


5 


35 


3 


60 


1 


35 


15 


00 


14 


00 


1 


30 




82 


144 


46 


114 


29 


109 


00 


6 


25 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



39 



1882. 

Jan, 11. Paid National Temperance Society and Publica- 
tion House, " Advocate," . 
Nellie B. Allen, entertainment, 
I. W. Munroe, candy, etc., 
C. Whitney, lumber, .... 
Feb. 7. C. A. Harrington, labor, 

25. C. A. Harrington, labor, 

Apr. 7. S. R. Heywood, clothing forF. C. Whitney 

17. Milo Hildreth, board for boy, 

Bradford & Anthony, skates, 

R. S. Allen, 

S. W. Perry, travelling expenses, 
Jas. Hewitson, labor, . . . 
I. W. Munroe & Co., oranges, 
Hiland Chessman & Co., fruit, 
Dalton & Ingersoll, gas and steam fixtures 
Wadsworth & Woodman, hardware, 
Braman, Dow & Co., steam and gas pipes, 
25. J. A. Allen, overwork of boys, 

Anne B. Richardson, board of boy, 
Unitarian Sunday School Society, " Day 
spring," ...... 

June 12. Alfred Mudge & Son, pamphlets, 

19. A. H. Rofife & Co., periodicals, 

Braman, Dow & Co., . 
July 12. J. A. Allen, board of boy, 

Forbes & Fay, boots and slippers 
James Fennessy, board, 
Holton & Thurston, printing, 
S. M. Griggs & Co., cretonne, 
DeWolfe, Fiske & Co., books, 
22. Security and Safe Deposit Co., 

Aug. 1. J. A. Allen, overwork of boys, 

2. O. K. Newton, fancy goods, . 

Heyer Bros., crackers, . 
C. D. Cobb & Co., fruit and candy, 
Sept. 23. Worthley, Dowries & Co., footballs, 

L. Belknap, stationery, . 
30. Balance on hand, .... 



$3,853 23 
LYMAN BELKNAP, Treasurer. 



. $12 


00 


5 80 


15 


75 


101 


QQ 


100 


00 


52 


54 


50 00 


12 


00 


27 


00 


1 


35 


10 


53 


35 


00 


9 


00 


1 


75 


76 


20 


44 


48 


35 


58 


25 


00 


4 


54 


12 


50 


68 


00 


flt 115 


40 


" 693 


10 


4 


00 


3 


75 


13 50 


27 


00 


1 


20 


37 


83- 


5 


00 


25 


00 


7 


73 


5 


00 


18 


00 


7 


65 


3 


78 


. 1,268 


23 



40 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Mary Lamb Fund. 
Lyman Belknap, Treasurer, in Account with Income Mary Lamb Fund. 

i88i. dr. 

Sept. 30. Balance received from Milo Hildreth, . . .. $65 99 

Oct, 10. Interest on $1,000 Government bond, 3 months, . 10 00 
Dec. 15. ■ on note of A. W. Seaver and C. D. 

Davis, 10 00 

1882. 

Feb. 4. on $1,000 Government bond, three 

months, . • 10 00 

May 4. on $ 1,000 Government bond, three 

months, 10 00 

June 17. Amount of A. W. Seaver and C. D, Davis's note, 510 00 

Sept. 30. Interest on $1,000 Government bond, 3 months, . 10 00 

$625 99 

1882. CR. 

Sept. 30. Balance on hand, ....... $625 99 

ft LYMAN BELKNAP, Treasurer. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 41 



Inventory Lyman Fund. 

Par Val tie 

1882. Value. Sept. 30, 1882. 

Sept. 30. 100 shares of Boston & Albany 

stock, . . . $10,000 00 $17,500 00 
66 " Fitchburg R. R. stock, 6,600 00 8,580 00 

10 " Boston & Maine R. 

R. stock, . . 1,000 00 1,560 00 
40 " Citizens 1 National Bank 

stock, . . . 4,000 00 4,400 00 
Two $1,000 Boston & Albany R. R. 

Co. bonds at 7 per cent., . . 2,000 00 2,490 00 
Two $1,000 Government bonds, 4 

per cent., . . . . • . 2,000 00 2,360 00 
One $1,000 Old Colony R. R. Co. 

bond, 1,000 00 1,172 50 

Note of Town of Marlborough, . 10,000 00 
Cash on hand, .... 1,268 23 



$47,868 23 
Inventory of Mary Lamb Fund. 

1882. 

Sept. 30. One $1,000 Government bond, No. 

143,407, $1,000 00 $1,180 00 

Cash on hand, .... 625 99 



$1,625 99 
LYMAN BELKNAP, Treasurer. 



Examined and approved. 

S. R. Heywood. 
E. C. Putnam. 



42 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



TEUST FUNDS 

OF STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. 



TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 

Lyman B. Belknap, Treasurer, in account with income of Trust Funds 
of State Industrial School. 

1881. Dk- 

Sept. 30. Balance on hand, $1, 

Oct. 14. Dividend on 13 shares of Boston National Bank 

stock, 

22. Check from Clinton Savings Bank for Agnes O. 

Hart, 

22. Check from Clinton Savings Bank for Elizabeth 

Chapman, . . . . - . 
22. Check from Clinton Savings Bank for M. E, 

Wright, 

Nov. 1. Interest on balance in Westborough Bank, . 
Dec. 1. Interest on balance in Westborough Bank, . 

7. Check from Miss E. C. Putnam, overdrawn for 

E. M, 

28. Check from Boston Five Cents Savings Bank. 

Marietta Smith, 

28. Check from Boston Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Phebe Gouldie, 

1882. # 

Jan. 1. Interest on balance in Westborough Bank, . 

7. Check from Clinton Savings Bank for Mary Moul 

ton, 

7. Check from Clinton Savings Bank for Emma 
Finn, .... ... 

Feb. 1. Interest on balance in Westborough Bank, . 

4. Check from Five Cents Savings Bank for Hannah 

Bulkly, 

March 1. Interest on balance in Westborough Bank, . 

28. Check from Clinton Savings Bank for Emma 

Shute, . 7 96 



159 


78 


39 


00 


16 


05 


5 


30 


16 


93 


2 


62 


2 


62 


36 


00 


11 


93 


8 


33 


2 


50 


27 


71 


15 06 


2 


30 


65 


21 


2 


35 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



43 



1882. 

March 28. Check from Clinton Savings Bank for Mary Hunt, 

28. Check from Clinton Savings Bank for Mary Daley, 
April 1 . Interest on balance in Westborough Bank, . 
May 1. Interest on balance in Westborough Bank, . 
June 1. Interest on balance in Westborough Bank, . 

3. Check from Clinton Savings Bank for Elizabeth 

Callahan, . 

July 1. Interest on balance in Westborough Bank, . 

13. Check from S. C. Wrightington for M. M„ . 

Aug. 1. Interest on balance in Westborough Bank, . 

12. Check from Five Cents Savings Bank for Annie 
B. Collins, 

29. Check from Clinton Savings Bank for Nellie 

Potter, 

29. Check from Westborough Savings Bank for Nel- 
lie Potter, 

Sept. 1. Interest on balance in Westborough Bank, . 

7. Check from Westborough Savings Bank for 
Mary Cote, 



Cr. 

Payments as authorized by Vote of Trustees. 



$16 24 


19 


49 


2 


08 


2 


08 


2 


08 


6 


12 


1 


87 


150 


00 


2 


13 


37 


26 


6 


12 


20 


65 


2 31 



7 50 



$1,697 58 



1881. 




Oct. 


25. 


Check to Agnes O. Hart, 




25. 


Elizabeth Chapman, 




25. 


M. E. Wright, . 


Nov. 


1. 


Miss E. C. Putnam for E. M., 




1. 


S. Woodbury, printing, 




13. 


Security and Safe Deposit Co., 




31. 


E. M., for board of child, 




31. 


Margaret Duggan, 


Dec. 


7. 


Margaret Duggan, . 




19. 


Marietta Smith, . 




19. 


Phebe Gouidie, . 




20. 


Mary Moulton, . 




20. 


Emma Finn, 


1882. 




Jan. 


5. 


Margaret Duggan, 


Feb. 


3. 


Check to E. M., . 




6. 


Hannah Bulkly, 


Marcr 


l 9. 


Mary E. Shute, 




13. 


Ida Lyloa, 




24. 


Mary A. Hunt, 




30. 


Mary F. Daley, 


April 


25. 


E. M., board of child, . 


May 


11. 


Elizabeth Callahan, 


June 


12. 


Miss E. C. Putnam, foi 
D. child, . 



board of E 



116 


05 


5 


30 


16 


93 


88 


29 


5 


25 


5 00 


26 


00 


22 


00 


16 


00 


11 


93 


8 


33 


27 


71 


15 06 


25 00 


26 


00 


65 21 


7 


96 


25 00 


16 


24 


19 


49 


26 


00 


6 


12 



75 00 



44 


PRIMARY AXD REFORM SCHOOLS 


. [Oct. 


1882 








July 


12. 


Check to S. C. Wrightington for M. W., 


$23 00 




22. 


Security and Safe Deposit Co., 






5 00 


Aug. 


L2. 


Annie B. Collins, . 






37 26 




29. 


Nellie Potter, .... 






26 77 


Sept. 


7. 


Mary Cote, .... 






7 50 




23. 


E.M., board of child, 






8 71 




30. 


Lyman Belknap, stationery, . 






3 00 




30. 


Balance carried forward, , . 






1,030 47 








$1,697 58 






LYMAN BELKNAP, 


Treasurer. 



In 1855 Miss Mary Lamb of Boston made an unconditional bequest of 
$1,000 to the " Girls' Reform School," in 1856 called the State Industrial 
School for Girls. This sum was invested in ten shares of the Boston 
National Bank, three new shares being added later, bought with extra 
dividends and $100 added from the income. One hundred dollars was 
received from Mr. Gayton Pickman in 1859, and $100 from Mr. Daniel 
Denny in 1863. A State grant of f 200 was allowed for the benefit of 
deserving and destitute girls (see Resolve 56 of 1863 *). 

The statement on page 45 shows the receipts and expenditures ot 
money not appropriated by the State for the expenses of the school, 
which has passed through the hands of the treasurers since its founda- 
tion. 



* Resolved, That the trustees of the Industrial School at Lancaster be authorized to pay- 
out of the sum appropriated for the current expenses of said institution a sum not exceeding 
$200, annually, for the purpose of aiding deserving and destitute girls who have left the 
institution, and are out of employment. Approved April 13, 1863. 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 1 



45 



RECEIPTS. 




1856. 




Mary Lamb Legacy, . $1,000 00 


1859. 




Gift from Gayton Pickman, 


$100 00 


1863. 




Gift from Daniel Denny, . 


100 00 


State grant for deserving and 




destitute girls, 


230 00 


Error in account of 1855, . 


24 79 


Loans returned by girls, . 


304 11 


Dividends Boston Nat'l Bank, 


2,007 00 


Bank stock taxes refunded, 


132 65 


Interest on deposits in North- 




boro' Bank, .... 


21 41 


Interest on deposits in West- 




boro' Bank, .... 


24 94 


1877, 




Unexpended balance of a sum 




collected by a former Board 




of Trustees in cases of bas- 




tardy 


.424 95 


1878. 




Bank deposits of earnings of 




deceased wards of the school, 


85 26 


1880. 




S. C. Wrightington, for suit in 




case of W. v. W., . 


175 00 


1881. 




S. C Wrightinaton, for suit in 




case of M. v. G., . 


175 00 


S. C Wrightington, for suit in 




case of D. v. B., 


75 00 


1882, 




S. C. Wrightington, for suit in 




case of M. v. P., 


150 00 


Total, .... $4,000 11 



EXPENDITURES. 



1856. 



Ten shares Nat'l Bank Boston, $1,000 00 



Three new shares Boston Nat'l 
Bank, bought with extra divi- 
dends, with addition of . . $100 00 
1872. 

Tax on bank stock, . . . 19 07 

Error in account, ... 02 

Moneys lent and expended for 
wards of the school in cases 
of illness, or for board or edu- 
cation, 2,554 30 

1881-82. 

Printing, etc., . . . . 18 25 

Toward maintenance of W. 
child, 28 00 

Toward maintenance of M. 

child 175 00 

Toward maintenance of D. 

child, 75 00 



Balance, 
Total, . 



. 1,030 47 
$4,000 11 



Balance brought to new account, $1,030 47 

This balance consists of trust for W. child, ...... $14700 

Trust for M. child, . 150 00 

Balance of income of Mary Lamb Fund, 223 26 

Unexpended balance of a sum collected by a former Board of Trustees in 
cases of bastardy, and by them deposited in the Lancaster Savings 

Bank *424 95 

Bank deposits of earnings of deceased wards of the school, . . . *85 26 

Total, $1,030 47 

LYMAN BELKNAP, 
GEO. W. JOHNSON, 
ELIZABETH C PUTNAM, 

Committee. 



* A question having been raised within the Board of Trustees as to the rightful custody 
by the trustees of the two last-mentioned sums, the matter was referred to the attorney- 
general for his opinion; and, in accordance therewith, these sums, amounting to $510.21 
have been paid into the State treasury since the date of the Treasurer's account rendered 
above. 



46 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. 



[Oct, 



Fat Fund. 

1881. Dr. 

Sept. 30. Balance received from Mile- Hildreth, . 

1882. 

May 4. Dividend from Chelsea Savings Bank, . 



1882. 






tJR. 


Jan. 2. 

2. 


Cash 


paid Mary E. Campbell 
Alice Haven, . 


2. 






Carrie E. Dunham 


2. 






Abbie Bnrlingame 


2. 






Alecia Small, 


2. 






Elizabeth Clark, 


2. 






Mary Robinson, 








Emma Finn, . 


2. 






Cora L. Houtaling 


2. 






Ida Dunning, 


Sept. 30. 


Balance 


carried forward, 



1106 


78 


40 40 


1147 


18 


$10 68 


10 


68 


10 


68 


10 


68 


10 68 


10 


68 


10 


68 


10 


68 


10 


67 


10 


67 


40 


40 



$147 11 
LYMAN BELKNAP, Treasurer. 



Henry B. Rogers Fund. 

State Industrial School Library account from Oct., 1881, to Oct., 1882. 



Balance of income of 1881, . 
Jan. 20. Received of State Treasurer, 
July. State Treasurer, 



$12 98 
60 00 
30 00 



Paid bill for magazines, 
papers, 
books, 
Sept. 30. Balance carried forward, 



$102 98 

$41 30 

17 50 

21 69 

• 22 49 



$102 98 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 47 



SCHEDULE OF STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL 

FUNDS. 



MARY LAMB FUND. 

1882. 

Pav value. V jjfrgp- 

Sept. 30. 13 shares of Boston National Bank 

stock, $1,300 00 $1,540 50 

Cash on hand from accumulated di- 
vidends, 223 26 



,523 26 



FAY FUND. 



Deposited in Chelsea Savings Bank, income to 

be dividedy early among best deserving girls, $1,000 00 
Balance on hand, 40 40 

$1,040 40 

ROGERS FUND. 
1 State of Maine bond, 6 per cent., deposited in 

State Treasury, — income to be expended for 

books $1,000 00 $1,114 75 

Cash on hand, 22 49 

$1,022 49 

SAVINGS BANK DEPOSITS FOR GIRLS. 

43 depositors in Boston Five Cents Savings 
Bank, — amount deposited, .... $73326 

29 depositors in Clinton Savings Bank, — amount 

deposited, 451 47 

39 depositors in Westborough Savings Bank,— 
amount deposited, 542 38 

$1,727 11 

LYMAN BELKNAP, Treasurer, 
Examined and approved. 

Sam'l R. Hey wood. 
E. C, Putnam. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18 



EEPOET OF THE OFFICERS 



STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL 



MONSON. 



1882. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 

1883. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



October, 1882. 
To the Trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools. 

I herewith respectfully submit the sixteenth annual report 
of the administration and affairs at the State Primary School, 
being for the year ending Sept. 30, 1882. It was a year of 
general prosperity. 

The school was not changed in its purpose and character 
during the year, although changes occurred therein. It 
remains the school of the State, for boys and girls — de- 
pendent, neglected, or rescued at the courts. The endeavor 
of its government was to increase its social, educational and 
moral efficiency, and to produce good results in its pupils. 
Concord helped the administration of its affairs. Lib- 
erality and kindness promoted the well-being of the chil- 
dren ; brought contentment and somewhat of joy to them. 
There was improvement in scholarship, deportment, conduct 
and character. More than before was ambition in study and 
good purposes developed. Regularity of habits, cleanliness, 
pure air, abundant, nutritious food in variety, good medical 
treatment and hospital care, with the blessing of God, im- 
proved and preserved health, and made the death-rate low. 

Reservoir. 
The ample and substantial reservoir upon the west hill- 
side, begun last year, was, with connections, completed this 
year. The very long drouth of the summer tested its sup- 
plying capacity without a failure thereof. A settlement with 
the contractors has not yet been made, but nearly three thou- 
sand dollars are available from the special appropriation 
therefor, for such settlement. The delay is not from a 
disagreement. 



52 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Painting Buildings. 
The buildings of the institution were all repainted two 
coats in white, the blinds in green, in the early summer, 
thereby greatly improving the appearance and condition of 
them. Nearly four tons of pure lead were used in the work, 
which was done by the day, in quite a satisfactory manner ; 
all at a cost within the special appropriation therefor. 

Repairs of Hospital. 
The repairs of the hospital, not completed at the close of 
the preceding institutional year, were finished in this, mak- 
ing thereby a hospital attractive, convenient, and adapted to 
its purpose. The special appropriation for the work was 
exhausted, but not overdrawn. 

New Hospital. 
The new hospital, designed for contagious and other dis- 
eases needing special treatment, was begun, and is now 
" closed in" and nearly ready for plastering. It is different 
in size and form from the plans first suggested, but it will 
be sufficient and well adapted for its intended use. Its 
location is removed from the other buildings, and is excel- 
lent. The special appropriation for its erection is sufficient 
for its completion. 

Changes of Officers. 
The changes of officers during the year were fourteen. 
They were in most instances by resignations. The causes 
were ill-health, marriage, greater pecuniary reward, or fam- 
ily considerations. The more important resignations were 
those of Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Andrews, respectively senior 
supervisor and dress-maker in charge of the sewing-room, 
after a service here of eight years, and Miss Genevieve 
Mills, principal of schools. These officers were exception- 
ally well fitted for the places they filled. Their services 
were of great value to the children individually and to the 
institution as a whole. Each of them can look back with 
satisfaction and pride upon his and her work, and may look 
forward to good growths from seed of their planting here. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 53 

The places of these officers were filled by promotions ; new 
officers taking the places made vacant by promotions. Other 
officers retired with merit. While the resignation of good 
officers is deplored, they may be expected in view of the 
exacting service of the institution and the comparatively 
small pay therefor. 

The Farm. 
The farm was under the same management as for many 
years past. There was about the usual breadth of sowing, 
planting and growth, in variety to suit the wants of the in- 
stitution. The crops were lessened by severe drouth in 
July, August and a part of September. The yield of hay 
was about 30 tons less than last year ; potatoes, 200 bushels 
less; the milk product, 20,500 pounds less. The roots are 
still growing ; the latter rains have given them a start which 
may be sufficient to bring the yield to the usual amount. 
On account of the high price of meat the calves during the 
summer were raised for the table. By so doing the quantity 
of milk for the tables was reduced and the record of this 
product made smaller. A sufficient number of the best 
calves are being raised to keep the herd of milch cows up to 
the full capacity of the farm. 

The Schools. 
The schools were conducted through the year upon the 
plan sketched in the report for 1881. They are in quite a 
satisfactory condition : improvement is observed. Now, as 
formerly, are the lower schools crowded. The number of 
small or backward children who must be assigned to them 
increases. Special provision for them is required. The 
additional school in session last winter was discontinued, 
when the number of children in the institution was consid- 
erably reduced in the spring. Again, when the numbers 
increased, special provision was made by giving the kinder- 
garten teacher a primary-school division, she having a 
kindergarten session in the morning and a primary session 
in the afternoon. Three hours schooling per day for such 
small children is considered enough. During the school 
hours the children not in school are in charge of a super- 



54 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

visor : in good weather out of doors ; in bad weather in the 
play-room. 

The work of the teachers is satisfactory. They are capa- 
ble and faithful. In addition to their school work proper, 
and their Sunday-school sessions, they alternate on duty in 
the chapel and dining-hall, and join in the preparation of 
evening entertainments for the children for eight months in 
the year. Miss E. M. Fullington, the present principal, be- 
fore promotion had been in service here as teacher continu- 
ously for eight years, gaining thereby a valuable experience 
for the new position. She is successful, and is keeping the 
school work well up to the high standard of her immediate 
predecessor. 

I have observed with pleasure a greater devotion to study 
among the children ; some at least are real students. One 
of the things to be regretted in placing out children is the 
closing therewith of their school-days and opportunities. 
Such loss of schooling may be worth considering. 

Industries. 

The necessary work of the institution and farm, suitable 
for the children to do, is sufficient to employ all who can 
work ; and it is in kind such as will come to their hands in 
most cases first when going from the school, or such as will 
make them handy in that which will come to them to do. 
The work of the boys upon the farm and in the barns cannot 
be statistically stated, as can that of the workshops, but it is 
considerable in amount. They plant, weed, hoe, dig pota- 
toes, pick bugs, gather crops, repair roads, clean the cows 
and horses, cut their food, and do a variety of other work. 
The boys in the dormitories, kitchen, dining-hall, laundry, 
bakery, and in the tailor-shop especially, have work, a 
knowledge of which will help them in after life. 

The girls in household duties and in the sewing-room gain 
valuable knowledge and experience. All the household 
goods, and all the garments for boys and girls and inmates, 
except shoes and stockings (which are repaired), are made 
in the institution, mainly by the children. The number of 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 55 

workers, and employment of each, can be seen in the follow- 
ing statement : — 

There are employed in the 

Sewing-rooin, .32 girls. 

Wards, and other parts of the house, 16 " 

Tailor-shop, 25 boys. 

Dining-hall, . . . . 19 " 

Kitchen, . 4 " 

Shoe-shop, 3 " 

Bakery, 6. " 

Laundry and wash-room, 9 " 

Hospital, • 1 " 

Wards, and miscellaneous work about the house and 

grounds, 31 " 

On the farm and at the barns, 60 " 

Total employed, 42 girls : 161 boys — 203. 

Children and Inmates. 

During the year there were under care 676 different per- 
sons. There were in the institution Oct. 1, 1881, as pupils 
or inmates, 435 persons, of whom 21 were women. During 
the year 321 persons were admitted, of whom 13 were 
women, and 275 persons went from the institution by dis- 
charge to friends or to homes found for them, of whom 11 
were adults; and 5 died. There were remaining Sept. 30, 
1882, 475 persons, of whom 23 were women. The larg- 
est number at any one time was 475 ; the smallest, 383. 
The average number was 448. 

The population of the institution is technically of different 
classes ; yet in social, intellectual and moral status the indi- 
viduals are not widely different. The histories generally 
show similar promoting or primal causes for the distress or 
fault of each, irrespective of statutory distinction. Good 
and hopeful ones there are in each class ; and the many are 
bright and attractive, with promise. Nearly all at once 
begin to amend in body, mind and spirit. To the aid of all 
we bring the same agencies and influences. For our pur- 
poses and work they are alike, yet by the differing incidents 
of their individual histories, we attempt to divine their 
individual aspirations and powers ; to find the approaches 



56 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

to their hearts and hopes, that thereon we may carry to 
them food and gladness, ever hoping " to bring them up in 
the nurture and admonition of the Lord." The cheer is that 
those who labor here " do not labor in vain." 

Mortuary Record. 

During the ten years preceding the three last past the 
deaths in the institution were 190, or an average of 19 each 
year. During that period the average population of the 
institution was 487. Thus the deaths equalled 3 T 9 ¥ per 
cent, of the average population of the institution ; or, in 
other words, 39 to a thousand. 

During the three years last past the deaths in the institu- 
tion were 15, an average of 5 each year. In this period the 
average population was 440. It thus appears that the 
deaths of these later years (the term of the present admin- 
istration) was less than 1^ per cent, of the average popula- 
tion of the institution, or about 11 to a thousand. This 
signal preservation of life among those supposed to be un- 
usually liable to death, calls for special gratitude to the Giver 
and Preserver of life and health ; yet we may not be wrong 
in seeking for some of the means of its preservation in the 
more generous medical and hospital care of the later time, 
the abundance of good food, and the freedom of out-of-door 
life. 

Sunday Services. 

The morning services on Sunday are made especially 
attractive and profitable in the employment of many differ- 
ent clergymen from widely separated places. The interest 
which strangers awaken in the children serves to open their 
minds and hearts to a fuller reception of the truths uttered, 
and the variety of presentation of the same truths fixes 
them in remembrance. Thirty-five different clergymen con- 
ducted the Sunday morning services during the year. 

The Catholic clergyman (Father Sullivan of Palmer) has 
a large class Sunday afternoon, to whom he gives earnest 
and faithful instruction. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 57 

Entertainment. 
The teachers and children prepare entertainments consist- 
ino- of recitations, dialogues, songs, acted pieces, etc., which 
they present fortnightly with a success which affords pleas- 
ure to large audiences. These home entertainments are 
supplemented with such concerts, stereopticon exhibitions 
and other entertainments as can be procured from abroad. 
I regret that more of such are not within our reach and 
procuring. 

Statistical Tables. 

The accompanying tables and statements have information 
in variety and detail concerning the persons, things and 
affairs of the institution. 

Table A is a summary of admissions and discharges, show- 
ing the ways in which different persons came to and went 
from the institution during the year, with the respective 
numbers. 

Table B is one of comparative statistics, showing the 
whole, the average, the largest, the smallest numbers in the 
institution, the numbers received in various ways, born, 
discharged, placed on trial, died, eloped, and remaining at 
the close of the year, for the four years just closed. 

Table C is a table of nativity, showing so far as can be 
ascertained, the birthplace of each person cared for in the 
institution during the year, and the per cent, of children 
from large and small places. 

Table D contains interesting facts concerning children 
placed out and returned. I commend it to your perusal. 

Table E is an exhibit of current and extraordinary ex- 
penditures, as made each month, for all things purchased 
and other outlays, with totals and general totals, also show- 
ing from which appropriation the payments were made. It 
will be observed that the current expenses were well within 
the appropriation therefor. 

Table F shows the names of officers and employees at this 
institution — the nature and time of their services and com- 
pensation therefor, including those now on duty as well as 
those who have served and gone. 

Table G shows the farm and garden product. 



58 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Table H is a statement of the work done in the sewing- 
room — girls. 

Table I shows the work done in the tailor-shop — boys. 

Table J is the Superintendent's account with the State 
treasury as disbursing officer. It shows the amounts re- 
ceived from each appropriation separately, with the amounts 
paid on account thereof. To it is attached a note showing 
the per capita cost of maintenance at the Primary School 
to be $2.21 per week, also referring to other items of 
expenditure. 

Table K is the summary of the inventory; The increase 
of valuation is $12,381.85. 

Also accompanying this report is a chart showing the 
movement of population at the school. At a glance the 
continuous changing of population may be seen. 

Reports of Principal and Physician. 
The reports of the Principal of Schools and the Physician 
of the institution, accompany and are a part of this report. 
They contain information not found elsewhere in these pages. 
They are valuable and interesting. 

Conclusion. 
Being a delegate in attendance at the session of the Con- 
ference of Charities and Corrections, in Madison, Wiscon- 
sin, in August of the present year, I was enabled to visit 
several Western institutions for children, and to compare 
this institution, its administration and children, with such 
as I there saw; notably with the " State Public School" at 
Coldwater, Michigan (an excellent institution in plan and 
management), which in its population more nearly resembles 
this than any other one in the country. I saw and learned 
at that institution things of value to me as a superintendent. 
I was renewedly impressed with the responsibility of officers 
of public institutions, and saw with clearer vision what 
should and may be done in the training and management of 
children in public care. I saw even more clearly than before 
that the family or cottage system of institutional organization 
(which is the plan at Coldwater) is easier of administration 
than is a congregate institution, and I am inclined to the 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 59 

belief that in a series of years institutions upon the family 
plan can be more economically conducted than congregate 
ones can be. Yet the needs of institutions are not altogether 
provided for by organization ; broader than plans is admin- 
istration ; better than systems is the personal fitness and 
fidelity of officers. 

A constant striving for larger knowledge, greater skill and 
better action, with an ever-pervading sense of the dignity 
and magnitude of the work of lifting children from a low to 
a higher life, from a bad to a good condition, is necessary 
for success or accomplishment, whatever the plan of organ- 
ization or method of execution. 

I was impressed with the belief that the children of our 
school are as a whole quite as tractable, teachable, improv- 
able and well appearing as the best ones I saw elsewhere in 
institutions. By thus seeing and comparing I am stimulated 
to more earnest work for the children in my charge, with 
new hopes for them, feeling that they will repay us for a 
more liberal provision, and for the best work we can do for 
them. 

I again with gratitude acknowledge Divine favor and help 
in this work ; your assistance and cordiality, and that of the 
officers of the school. Their devotion to duty, cheerfulness, 
good fellowship, fitness, and adaptability to various needs 
has aided me and greatly helped the children in all good 
things and ways. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

GARDINER TUFTS, Sujtt. 



60 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Table A. 
Summary of Admissions and Discharges. 



Boys. 



Girls. 



Women 



Number in the institution Oct. 1, 1881,435, 
Transferred from State Almshouse at 

Tewksbury, 

Received from Superintendent Indoor Poor 

taken from court as offenders, . 
Received from Superintendent Indoor Poor 

taken from court as neglected children, 
Received from Superintendent Indoor Poor 

as dependent children, 
Returned, having been released on trial in 

previous years, .... 

Returned, having been released on trial 

since Sept. 30, 1881, 
Recaptured after eloping from institution 

Born, 

Transferred from Reform School, 

Whole No. under care during the year, 763, 

Discharged by H. L. and C , 

Placed out on trial, .... 

Boarded out by S. P. S., . 

Boarded out (paid for by H. L. and C), 

Eloped, 

Died, 

Total departures, 



Remaining Sept. 30, 1882, 475, 



302 



G3 



58 



11 



33 

28 

7 



513 

41 

131 

2 

o 
O 

8 
4 

189 



324 



112 



17 



10 



13 



14 



11 



215 

26 

52 

5 

4 

1 
88 



127 



21 
13 



34 
11 



11 



2:] 



Table B. 

COMPARATIVE STATISTICS. 

Whole Number of Persons in the Institution. 

Sept. 30, 1879, . .475 

" 30, 1880, 437 

" 30, 1881, 435 

" 30, 1882, ...... ... 475 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 61 



Average Number of Persons in the Institution. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 501 

" 30, 1880, 448+ 

" 30, 1881, 424+ 

" 30, 1882, 448— 



Largest Number of Persons in the Institution. 

During the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 547 

" 30, 1880, 486 

" 30, 1881, 450 

" 30, 1882, 475 

I 

Smallest Number in the Institution. 



During the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 

" 30, 1880, 
" 30, 1881, 

" 30, 1882, 



450 

407 
396 
383 



Number received from State Almshouse at Tewksbury. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 118 

" 30, 1880, 104 

" 30, 1881, 106 

" 30, 1882, 124 



Number of Children received from Superintendent of Indoor Poor, 
taken from Court as offenders. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 34 

" 30, 1880, 46 

" 30, 1881, 50 

" 30, 1882, 68 



Number of Children received from Superintendent of Indoor Poor, taken 
from Court, as neglected children. 

For the year ending Sept 30, 1882, 24 

Previously, none 

Note. — These children — " neglected " — came under the provisions 
of Sect. 3, Chap. 181, Acts of 1882, a law not in force prior to May 29, 

1882. 



62 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Number of Children received from Superintendent of Indoor Poor, as 
dependent children. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1882, 16 

Previously, none 

Note. — These children were received under the provisions of Sect 2, 

Chap. 181, Acts of 1882. 

Children bom in the Institution. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 2 

" 30, 1880, 

" 30, 1881, 2 

" 30, 1882, 1 



Number of Children returned from place having been placed out during 
the current years. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 29 

" 30,1880, 35 

" 30, 1881, .47 

" 30, 1882, 39 



Number of Children returned from place having been placed out in 
previous years. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, .10 

" 30, 1880, 41 

" 30, 1881, 47 

" 30, 1882, 47 



Number discharged by Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity 

During the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 

" 30, 1880 

" 30, 1881, 

" 30, 1882, 



71 
64 
46 
78 



Number of Children placed out on trial. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 153 

" 30, 1880, 181 

" 30, 1881, 201 

" 30, 1882, 197 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



63 



Number of Elopers. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 
" 30, 1880, 
" 30, 1881, 
" 30, 1882, 



6 Returned 4 

7 
3 "3 

8 "7 



Deaths in the Institution. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 14 

" 30, 1880, 5 

" 30, 1881, 5 

" 30, 1882, 5 



Table C. 

Nativity. 

The nativity of 672 children who have been under care at this institu- 
tion during the year is as follows : — 

Native born, 527 

Foreign, 94 

Unknown, 51 



Of the for 


eign-boi 


•n there were bo 


rn in 




Denmark, 


t 


. 1 


Nova Scotia, . 


. 7 


England, . 




. 24 


Prince Edward Island, . 


. 1 


Germany, 




. 5 


Province of Quebec, 


. 1 


India, 


. 


. 2 


Sweden, .... 


. 3 


Ireland, . 




. 38 


Scotland,. 


. 1 


Italy, 


. 


. 1 


At sea, .... 


. 1 


New Brunswick, 


. 4 







Of those born in the United States, there were born in 



Connecticut, . 


8 


New York, . 






12 


District of Columb 


ia, . . 3 


North Carolina, 






1 


Georgia, 


1 


Ohio, . 






2 


Kentucky, 


1 


Pennsylvania, 






1 


Maine, . 


r 


Rhode Island, 






12 


Massachusetts, 


.452 


South Carolina, 






1 


Maryland, 


1 


Tennessee, 






1 


Michigan, 


1 


Vermont, 






9 


New Hampshire, 


8 


Virginia, 






2 


New Jersey, . 


... 4 











64 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Of those born in Massachusetts, there were born in 

Abington, 

Amesbury, 

Ashburnham, 

Attleborough. 

Bar re, . 

Beverly, 

Billerica, 

Boston, . 

Bridgewater, 

Brimtield, 

Cambridge, 

Chelsea, . 

Chicopee, 

Conway, 

Cottage City, 

Danvers, 

Dover, . 

Dracut, . 

East Bridgewater 

Easthampton, 

Enfield, . 

Fall River, 

Florida, . 

Franklin, 

Gay Head, 

Gloucester, 

Grafton, . 

Greenfield, 

Haverhill, 

Holbrook, 

Holden, . 

Holyoke, 

Hopkinton, 

Hull, . 

Lawrence, 

Leominster, 

Leverett, 

Lowell, . 

Lynn, 

Maiden, . 

Marblehead, 

Medway, 

Melrose, 

Methuen, 

Milford, . 

Milton, . 

Monson, 

Montague, 



1 


Natick, . 






2 


Needham, 






1 


New Bedford, 






1 


New Braintree, 






2 


New Marlborough, 






2 


Newburyport, 






2 
24 


North Adams, 
Northampton, 






1 


■ North Andover, 






1 


North Brookfield, 






11 


Norton, . 






4 


Otis, 






3 


Peabody, 






1 


Pittsfield, 






1 


Plympton, 






1 


Provincetown, 






1 


Randolph, 






1 


Richmond, 






3 


Rockport, 






] 


Salem, . 






1 


Sandwich, 






17 


Somerville, . 






1 


South Abington, 






1 


Spencer, 






2 


Springfield, . 






6 


Stockbridge, . 


- 




3 


Stoneham, 






1 


Stoughton, 






12 


Swampscott, . 






2 


Taunton, 






1 


Upton, . 






8 


Wakefield, . 






1 


Wales, . 






1 


Waltham, 






8 


Wareham, 






1 


Warwick, 






2 


Westfield, 






19 


Westport, 






17 


West Stockbridge, 






1 


Weymouth, . 






1 


Wilbraham, . 






1 


Williamsburg, 






2 


Williamstown, 






1 


Winchester, . 






1 


Windsor, 






1 


Woburn, 






4 


Worcester, 






5 


State Almshouse, T 


ewks 


bury 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 65 

State Primary School, Mon- I State Workhouse, Bridge- 
son, 7 I water, .... 7 

From the foregoing tables of nativity it will appear that 
78 \ per cent, are natives of the United States, that 14 per 
cent, are foreign born, and that of 1\ per cent, the birth- 
places are unknown. 

Of those born in Massachusetts, 313 are natives of cities 
and towns of 10,000 or more inhabitants, and 139 are 
natives of towns having less than 10,000 inhabitants. Thus 
the cities and large towns, comprising 59^ per cent, of 
the State's population, furnish 69 J per cent, of those cared 
for at this institution during the year. 

Table D. 
Of the 197 children placed out on trial and on board dur- 
ing the year, there were placed 

In other States, 54 

In Massachusetts, 143 

Of those placed in this State, 48 were placed in cities and 
towns having 10,000 or more inhabitants, and 95 were placed 
in towns having less than that number of inhabitants. 

During the year children placed out on trial and on board 
have been returned as follows : 

From other States, 23 

From Massachusetts, .63 

Of the returns from this State, 13 or 27^ per cent, of 
the placing in cities and towns of 10,000 or more inhabi- 
tants have been returned ; from the smaller towns, 50 or 53 t 2 q- 
per cent, of the placing out in this class of towns ; from 
other States, 23 or 42 T 6 g- per cent, of the placing therein. 

The whole number, as before stated, of those placed out 
on trial and on board during the year is 197 ; the whole 
number of returns is 86, equal to 43^ per cent, of the 
total placing out. 

It must not be inferred, however, that of the 197 placed 
out during the year, 86 have been returned. Such is not the 
fact. Of those placed out during the year, 39 or 19 t 8 q per 
cent, only have been returned. The other 47 had been 
placed out in previous years. 






66 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



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1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



69 



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1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



71 



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72 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Table G. 
Farm and Garden Products. 



Apples, cider, 

" winter, 
Asparagus, . 
Beans, . 
Beets, turnip, 
Beef, . 
Cabbage, 
Carrots, 
Celery, . 
Corn, fodder, 
" sweet, . 
Cucumbers, . 
Currants, 
Eggs, . 
English turnips, 
Hay, . 
Lumber, 
Mangolds, 
Milk, . 
Muskmelons, 
Oats, 

Oat straw, 
Onions, . 
Parsnips, 
Pease, . 
Pork, . 
Potatoes, 
Poultry, 
Rhubarb, 
Rowen, . 
Strawberries, 
Tomatoes, . 
Veal, . 
Watermelons, 
Wood, . '. 



500 


bushels 


100 


barrels 


12 


bushels 


7 


" 


130 


(t 


4,287 


pounds 


2,212 


heads 


650 


bushels 


350 


heads 


80 


tons 


40 


bushels 


6 


" 


173 


quarts 


2u; 


- dozens 


100 


bushels 


1571 


tons 


4,000 


feet 


2,350 


bushels 


62,062 


pounds 


865 


cc 


60 


bushels 


n 


tons 


95 


bushels 


75 


" 


21 


" 


12,023 


pounds- 


1,410 


bushels 


52 


pounds 


1.100 


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10 


tons 


465 


quarts 


15 


bushels 


2,635 


pounds 


1,000 


u 


30 


Cora's 



Table H. 

Work done in Sewing-Room. 
Articles and Garments made for Superintendent's Department. 

Holders, 18 

Napkins, 48 

Pillow-slips, 36 

Spreads, 1 

Table cloths, 2 

Towels, • . 5 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



73 



Articles and Garments made for Inmates' 1 Department. 

Aprons, . 105 

Bed-ticks, 78 

Capes, . 96 

Caps, 18 

Chemises, . 303 

Circulars, . 25 

Curtains, 30 

Drawers, . . . 339 

Dresses, 391 

Handkerchiefs, 40 

Hoods, 50 

Night-dresses, 142 

Pillow-slips, ' . . 808 

Pillow-ticks, 78 

Roller towels, 751 

Sacques, 65 

Sheets, 470 

Shirts, 743 

Skirts, . 165 

Spreads, . 

Tiers, 564 

Towels, ......... 751 

Underwaists, 46 

Waists, 147 

Wash cloths, 85 



Articles repaired, . 



9,500 



Table I. 

Work done in Tailor Shop. 

Articles and Garments made for Inmates'* Department. 

Aprons, 12 

Caps, 428 

Jackets, 397 

Pants, 865 pain 

Shirts, 22 * 

Waists, 125 



Articles repaired, . 



8,464 



74 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Table J. 

Gardiner Tufts, Superintendent and Disbursing Officer of the State 
Primary School, in account with the State Treasury. 

Dr. 
To cash received from appropriation for 1881, . . . $8,784 33 

" 1882, . . . 42,877 57 
" repair of hospital, 507 23 

" " " " " increased water 

supply, 3,038 97 

To cash received from appropriation for painting buildings 

of the institution, 2,497 63 

To cash received from appropriation for building new hos- 
pital, 779 95 

To cash received from sales, ....... 137 79 



$58,623 47 
Cr. 

By disbursements for three months ending Dec. 31, 1881, as 

per schedules on file in State Auditor's office, . . $12,330 53 

By disbursements for nine months ending Sept. 30, 1882, as 

per schedule on file in State Auditor's office, . . 46,155 15 

By payments to State Treasurer, ...... 137 79 



$58,623 47 



Note. — This institution is supported wholly from the State Treasury 
by annual legislative appropriation. It ha3 no " fund " from which to 
draw for any expenditure whatever. 

The per capita cost, including all expenses, ordinary and extraordi- 
nary, during the year, is $2.50 ; excluding extraordinary expenditures — 
repairs on hospital, building new hospital, new reservoir, painting 
buildings, etc. — it is $2.21. The latter sum represents the actual cost 
of clothing, feeding, lodging, teaching, medical attendance, supervision 
— in short, the entire maintenance of all inmates of the institution — to- 
gether with such repairs as are needed to prevent the buildings and 
appliances from deteriorating ; also including heating and lighting the 
buildings, providing an outfit for those going away from the institution 
and their travelling expenses to their destination. 

Each inmate upon leaving the institution to go to a place, is provided 
with two complete suits of clothing, a low average valuation of which is 
$14 per capita. About $3,000 has been expended in this way. The 
cost of transportation of those going to place is borne by the institution, 
and amounts this year to about $300. 

In arriving at the per capita cost, thirteen children who are in families, 
whose board is paid and clothing furnished by the institution, are 
included. 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



75 



Table K. 



Recapitulation of Inventory. 



Taken by Enos Calkins and James B. Shaw, of Palmer, Mass. 
as of Sept. 30, 1882. 



Buildings, 

Land, .... 

Products of farm on hand, 

Carriages and farming tools 

Mechanical appliances, . 

Personal property in Superintendents department 

" " " Inmates 1 department 

Beds and bedding, . 
Clothing, boots and shoes, 
Dry-goods, 

Groceries and provisions, 
Medical supplies, . 
Fuel, .... 
Heating, water and gas, 
Library and school-books, 
Live stock, 
Miscellaneous, 



$96,000 00 
22,664 81 

6,531 90 

3,790 40 

8,976 20 

5,951 34 

5,322 71 

5,839 35 

5,297 95 

1,410 62 

1,580 13 

242 00 

2,700 00 

21,000 00 

1,040 50 

6,465 00 

1,292 43 



Total, 



$196,105 34 



76 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



PHYSICIAN'S EBPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Primary School, Monson, Mass. 

I again present to you the annual report of the medical 
department of the State Primary School, year ending Sept. 
30, 1882. 

Number remaining in hospital Sept. 30, 1881, .... 18 

admitted during the } r ear, ....;. 388 

births during the year, 1 

died during the year, 5 

discharged during the year, . . . . . . 355 

remaining in hospital, Sept. 30, 1882, .... 37 



As before, no name is placed upon the record unless in 
hospital twenty-four consecutive hours. 

The number of deaths the same as last year and year 
before. 

and Diseases of those who died. 



NAME. 



Dates of Death. 


Age. 


Nov. 5, 1881 

Jan. 30, 1882 
Apr. 12, " 
Sept. 25, " 


Yrs. Mos. 

15 9 
6 

6 9 
5 6 

10 6 



Thomas J. Smith, 
Abraham Fergueson, 
Thomas Pike, . . . 
Joseph Cook, . 
Bridget Fleming, 



Typhoid pneumonia. 
Typhoid pneumonia. 
Typhoid fever. 
Membraneous croup. 
Paralysis. 



There has been no severe epidemic in the school during 
the year. We have now quite a large number of cases of 
whooping-cough, brought here by a child from Tewksbury, 
which accounts for our present increased number in the hos- 
pital. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No'. 18. 77 

I would call attention to the fact that last year measles 
developed in a few days in a child brought from Tewksbury ; 
this year, whooping-cough — thus exposing the whole school 
to diseases which are very annoying and troublesome among 
so many children. 

The old hospital building, undergoing repairs at the time 
of making the last report, has been completed, and thanks to 
the Superintendent, we have now one of the most airy, 
pleasant, cheerful, and well-ventilated hospitals connected 
with any of the charitable institutions in the State. 

The new hospital building just east of the old one, for 
diseases of a contagious nature, nears completion, a place 
having long been needed for isolating diphtheritic and other 
cases of like nature. 

As the Trustees have the power to place out in families 
any of the children of the Primary School, and provide for 
the maintenance of any child so placed, I would suggest 
that the feeble ones of this large family, are the ones, which, 
it seems to me, would be the most benefited by the act of 
the legislature of 1880, for boarding out children. 

I can appreciate the difficulty of finding places for these 
weakly and ill-favored ones, but, nevertheless, they are the 
ones that should reap the benefit of this change to home life. 

I call your attention to the death record for the past three 
years, it being the same each year. The last year the 
number of inmates has been larger than in years just previ- 
ous. The whole number cared for was 763 ; average number 
about 448. 

To a kind Providence, attention to every want by the 
Superintendent, unwearied care by the nurses, wholesome 
food and regular habits, I attribute the very good health of 
the inmates of the institution. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WM. HOLBROOK, 

Physician State Primary School. 

Monson, Sept. 30, 1882. 



78 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



PRINCIPAL'S REPORT. 



To the Superintendent of the State Primary School. 

I respectfully submit the following report of the schools 
for the past year : 

The number of pupils in school Oct. 1, 1881, was 293 
boys, 106 girls ; total, 399. There were admitted during 
the year 130 boys, 65 girls; total, 195. Readmitted, 53 
boys, 24 girls ; total, 77. Number of different pupils during 
the year, 460 boys, 190 girls; total, 650; discharged, 161 
boys, 75 girls ; total, 236 ; died, 5 ; remaining in the school 
Sept. 30, 1882, 296 boys, 113 girls; total, 409. Average 
attendance for the year was 367. Average age of the pupils 
is nine years and seven months. Number admitted who 
could neither read nor write, 57 ; who could read and not 
write, 34. 

Unfortunately for the schools several changes have occurred 
during the year in the corps of teachers. The general de- 
portment of the pupils, and the relation existing between 
them and their teachers, must be a source of satisfaction to 
all who are interested in the welfare of the school. The 
course of study remains the same as last year, with a few 
additions, as will be seen from the following : 

Kindergarten (Mixed). 
Froebel's Method. — Object-teaching, gifts and occupations. 

Physical Exercises — Gymnastics, marching, singing, from three to five 
minutes, twice at least, each session. 

Eighth School (Mixed). 
Reading. — Elementary sounds and names of letters begun, with les- 
sons from chart and blackboard. Special attention is paid to pronun- 
ciation and articulation. Concert exercises in vocal sounds. 

Spelling. — Words from reading lessons spelled by sounds and letters. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 79 

Writing. — Small letters and words used in the reading lessons, written 
on slates and blackboard ; such lessons are prescribed as class exercises, 
and the results examined and criticised. 

Seventh School (Mixed). 
Reading. — Chart finished. First Reader begun. Daily exercise in 
phonic elements continued. 

Spelling. — Both phonic and oral, Words from Reader, their own 
names, the name of the town, State, days of the week, months of the 
year. 

Writing. — Script writing taught by means of the slate and black- 
board. Capitals used in reading-lessons. 

Numbers. — The idea of number is developed as far as 50 by the use 
of objects, such as beans, blocks, and marbles. , Counting from 1 to 100 
on the numeral frame. 

Sentence Building. — Objects taken as a whole. Conversations upon 
common objects in or out of the school-room ; common errors in the use 
of language corrected. Pupils encouraged to give their answers in 
complete sentences. 

Oral Instruction. — Oral lessons on size, form, and color, illustrated 
by objects in the school-room ; also upon plants and animals, illustrated 
by the objects themselves or by pictures. 

Sixth School (Mixed). 
Beading. — First Reader finished. Second Reader begun. Reading 
script writing on slate and blackboard. Daily drill in sounds of vowels 
and consonants. Pupils are encouraged to repeat in their own lan- 
guage the substance of each lesson. Names, forms, and uses of marks 
of punctuation and the ordinary use of capitals. 

Spelling. — Both phonic and oral from Reader, 

Sentence Building. — As in Seventh School. 

Numbers. — Writing and reading Roman Numerals to 30, Mental 
exercises dictated daily in addition of small numbers. Addition tables ; 
meaning and use of the signs plus and equality. Writing, reading, and 
addition of numbers through one period. 

Writing. — Script writing on slates. 

Fifth School (Girls). 
Reading. — Third and Fourth Readers. Explaining the meaning of 
words in each lesson, before the class attempt to read it, remembering 
that proper emphasis and inflection can only be secured by a thorough 
comprehension of the thought on the part of the pupil. 

Spelling. — Written and oral. Securing correct spelling of common 
and short words. 



80 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

Writing. — Payscm, Dunton, and Scribner's Books, Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 
4. Lessons twice a week, half an hour each. 

Sentence Building. — Short and simple stories read or related, and 
pupils called upon to repeat or write them in their own language. 
Short compositions on familiar objects. These exercises are found to 
be of great value. 

Arithmetic. — Primary finished ; Intellectual begun. Written Arith- 
metic, Ray's New Practical. Writing, reading, and adding numbers of 
three periods, on indefinitely. 

Geography. — Harper's Primary and Harper's School Geography 
Map drawing on slates and blackboard. 

(Pupils received in this grade remain until they leave the school.) 

Fourth School {Boys). 

Beading. — Second Reader finished. Previous directions observed. 
Conversations are held on the meaning of what is to be read before 
and after reading. Pupils are required to write a portion of their read- 
ing lessons every day, with careful attention to capitals, spelling, and 
punctuation. 

Spelling. — Oral and written. Words occurring in the Reader. Con- 
tinued drill in phonics. 

Writing. — Script writing on slates. 

Sentence Building. — Previous directions observed. Talks on famil- 
iar things, their parts, uses of parts, and uses to man. 

Arithmetic. — Addition tables reviewed. Writing, reading, and add- 
ing numbers through two periods. Subtraction tables, sign and use. 
Written arithmetic, into subtraction. Frequent exercises in ready 'reck- 
oning. Lines and angles taught. 

Third School (Boys). 

Beading. — Third Reader. The meaning of all words required from 
the pupils. 

Spelling. — - Both phonic and written. Important words in reading 
lessons form part of the lesson in spelling. 

Writing. — Books Nos. 1 and 2, with pen. 

Sentence Building. — The same course pursued as in the fifth School. 

Arithmetic. — Primary finished. Written, through addition and sub- 
traction of miscellaneous examples. Multiplication tables and sign. 
Rapid work and practical examples. 

Geography. — Oral and Harper's Primary begun. Map drawing on 
slates and blackboard. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 81 

Second School (Boys). 
Beading. — Fourth Reader. Phonic exercises continued. 

Spelling. — Written, Worcester's Speller. Spelling of common words 
continued. Drill in Abbreviations. 

Writing. — Books Nos. 2 and 3. 

Sentence Building. — Faulty and ungrammatical expressions criti- 
cised, abstracts of oral lessons written. 

Arithmetic. — Addition and subtraction reviewed with books. Multi- 
plication, and miscellaneous examples combining first three rules. 

Geigraphy. — Primary finished and reviewed. Map drawing upon 
the blackboard. 

First School (Boys). 

Beading. — Fourth Reader. For supplementary reading classes use 
Topics ol the Day, Youth's Companion, and newspaper items. 

Spelling. — Written definitions given. Worcester's Speller. Dicta- 
tion exercises. 

Writing. — Books Nos. 3, 4, and 5. 

Language, and Composition Writing. — Swinton's New Language 
Lessons. Common errors of speech corrected. Short compositions on 
subjects taken from Geography and various other topics. Practice 
given in use of dictionary. 

Arithmetic. — Ray's New Practical. Division on indefinitely. Exam- 
ples illustrating principles are dictated by teacher at each lesson and 
worked out by pupils on slates or blackboard. 

Geography. — Harper's School Geography. Map drawing. 

Oral instruction is given in all the schools, particularly 
upon morals and manners, constant appeal being made to 
principles on which conduct ought to rest. Pupils are held 
to a constant observance of those rules of politeness which 
have their origin in a just regard for the rights and feelings 
of others, and to a daily practice of a kindly courtesy in their 
intercourse with their teachers, and with each other. The 
habits of pupils and whatever tends to the promotion of 
character are carefully observed by the teacher, and lessons 
drawn from every-day incidents so as to make durable moral 
impression. 

One day in each month is devoted to letter-writing in all 
the schools excepting the seventh and eighth. Entertain- 
ments consisting of recitations, dialogues, music, etc., are 
given by the children, once in two weeks, during eight months 



82 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

of the year. Each teacher conducts a Sabbath-school class 
one hour each Sabbath, composed of the pupils under her 
charge; the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth schools 
using the lesson leaf that is in general usage. Teachers of 
the sixth and seventh schools read and impart religious in- 
struction. A concert exercise is given in chapel every Sab- 
bath evening by the schools in regular succession. These 
exercises have been interesting, and much pains has been 
taken by the teachers in preparing them. The seed sown 
in the minds of these children now will doubtless bear 
fruit in God's own time. A general concert occurs at 
Christmas and Easter time, in which nearly all the schools 
participate. 

The library is well patronized, and newspapers are eagerly 
sought by the boys. The system of marking has clone much 
toward securing good order and behavior. Written examina- 
tions are held at the close of each term. Promotions are 
made twice a year, at the close of the fall and spring terms. 
A higher rank of scholarship has been sustained throughout 
the year than in the previous years, owing to a better clas- 
sification. The year closes with a larger attendance of 
pupils than last year. The winter months will probably 
brino; considerable addition. In the month of December 
it was found expedient to organize another school, owing 
to the crow r ded condition of the two lowest schools. Being 
in attendance the entire day they are more restless than 
older pupils, and cannot resist the effects of an over- 
crowded atmosphere as well. The outgo is from the more 
advanced schools, while the incoming ones have been chil- 
dren of a smaller growth ; especially has this been the case 
the past year. This school was discontinued in May, the 
number having diminished by children going to homes. 

Five of the schools consist of two divisions — morning 
and afternoon ; each division attends school half a day and 
labors the other half. 

When the many obstacles to the success of this school are 
considered, the progress is encouraging. Many admitted to 
the school are sadly deficient in the rudiments of a practical 
education. Several whose knowledge of reading and arith- 
metic entitles them to enter the higher grades, are deficient in 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 83 

other branches. Many are indifferent and must be made to 
study; others are dull, necessitating the repetition of the 
same thing, time and time again, until it becomes a part of 
themselves. The impetus to ambition and the training good 
parents give their children is sadly missed by teachers here. 
The previous social or home condition of these children 
did not tend to awaken but rather to nullify ambition in 
them. While most of our children are of good promise, some 
appear to have no moral or mental foundation upon which to 
build. Many, previous to their coming here, were not under 
authority, had no habits of persistent application, were un- 
used to propriety of speech and manner, and those rules 
which constitute the basis of moral government. It is with 
pleasure and satisfaction that I testify to the efforts made by 
the teachers to improve the character of the pupils under 
their charge, and many a child owes his best and it may be 
his first lesson in right living to the teacher whom he has 
learned to love and obey. 

If we discover superior native talent that may be developed 
by culture and discipline, we are ready to bestow upon it 
special pains, that the material thus providentially placed in 
our hands may be moulded into such shape as will render it 
serviceable to the world. 

The very best advantages are furnished for study to all 
who enter the school and are disposed to learn. It is our 
aim that all the children intrusted to our care may be 
thoroughly instructed in elementary knowledge which is 
necessary to all, and that they may learn something of the 
great lesson of life. 

I greatly appreciate your assistance and counsel, and with 
gratefulness for your kindness and forbearance, I shall 
earnestly endeavor to merit a continuance of your approval. 

Very respectfully, 

EUGENIA M. FULLINGTON, 

Principal. 



&JAGRAM(L ), Showing movement or population at the State Primary School. 





October. 


JVt? V0irib er. 


-December. 


(January. 


February. 


IMarcTi^. 


.April. 


Jtfay. 


O^uj^c.. 


July. 


^August. 


September. 




















































































I 






















| 




t 


470 
460 












































































































A 






























J 




























\ 


^ 


\ 












































S 






















"/ 








\ 














1 
































> 








































/ 


T 
/ 






















^ 
















^ 


























/^», 






\ 








































t , 


i — 


~"^ 


..... 


430 
































"s 


\ 












. s 








i 




\ 


V 




\| 




































/' 


'"'"" 
























































V— 


- 


-' 










> 




\ 


/ S N 








, 


'\ 


/ 


) 






\ 






/ 


/ 














































































'' 


% 

v 






V - 


,„.. 


_/ 






V 


/ 




\ 


\ 


ill / 


k / 


















400 - 










" 






































































/ 






























300 
















































































































J SO 


■3 80 
STO 
































































































1 














S70 


4- ■ 


























































































1 


















SGO 
























































































1 ! 








\ 











NOTE . This tabic sltorvs five weekly movement of population for Huz year ending Sept .30, 1882. and. for tJte previous yeai~. 



Tlte plain line sJ-lotvs tive 
Hie dotted I 



movemeiit. » ■• » * 

ine tltat for the year previous. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18. 



REPORT OF THE OFFICERS 



STATE REFORM SCHOOL 



WESTBOROUGK 



1882, 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 

1883. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



State Reform School, 

Westborough, Oct. 2, 1882. 

To the Board of Trustees of the State Primary and Reform School. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : — I respectfully submit the 
annual report of the Westborough Reform School for the 
year ending Sept. 30, 1882. 

Of the management of the institution for the last few 
years, it is unnecessary for me to speak, as it has been twice 
publicly investigated, the last time under your direction. 

Its condition immediately following this investigation when 
I took charge, you are supposed to understand, and it would 
be difficult for me to describe. 

The improvements, if any, during the past year, you have 
had an opportunity of seeing. 

It was with no pleasant anticipations that I again under- 
took the management of this institution, but the general de- 
sire that I should do so, as expressed in the various journals 
of the State and private communications, in connection with 
the causes which led to my resignation in 1867, left me 
scarcely a choice. 

I arrived here in the afternoon of the 15th of last October, 
and before the keys of the institution were in my possession 
twenty boys made their escape, having duplicate keys. 
These keys, and many others, have since been voluntarily 
brought to me. 

The desire to escape seemed to have taken possession of 
every boy, and for a time it required the utmost vigilance to 
keep them in the institution. This feeling has gradually 
been eliminated, and for many months no general spirit of 
discontent has been manifested. There is, however, a cer- 
tain number of boys — a gypsy, restless class — that will never 



88 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

be content anywhere. Such boys we are occasionally re- 
ceiving from the different family schools in this State, and 
that is why a congregate department seems to be necessary 
in connection with the " Family System." 

Taking the school after an investigation which disclosed 
an amount of corporal punishment the community did not 
approve, and which left the inmates in an ugly and restless 
state, it seemed absolutely necessary to dispense with such 
methods of discipline at once, and entirely, which was done. 
A much smaller amount of locking up, as compared with the 
former practice, has since been found necessary. I think no 
boy now in the school can be found in an ugly and defiant 
state of mind. 

This change has been brought about by many influences. 
The removal, as soon as possible, from the ill-adapted " New 
Part" into the original Lyman buildings, was of very great 
advantage. Here the supervision of the boys is much easier, 
and the chances to escape much less. No female teachers 
were employed in the school ; now there are four. What- 
ever amusements they may have had outside, there was no 
regular provision except occasional games of ball and foot- 
ball for active attractive play in the yard ; we now have the 
gymnasium refurnished and fitted for daily use. The whole 
family mingle more socially with the boys ; once a week, dur- 
ing the winter all meet together, and play games of various 
kinds. The officers and boys sing together every evening at 
the devotional exercises. For many weeks I sang with them 
myself every evening for half an hour. Much less meat, 
which excites the passions, is used, and in its place much 
more milk. 

The system of grading was such that most of the large 
boys had given up all hope of an honorable discharge. This 
was changed, and they were encouraged by the prospect of 
an early release if their conduct was satisfactory. A large 
number of those boys are now doing well at their homes, or 
in places provided for them. 

This experiment, which caused anxiety to some of your 
number, has resulted much more satisfactorily than any of 
us anticipated. 

Many boys remain in public institutions too long. Having 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 89 

everything provided for them without thought or trouble on 
their part, they become incapable or unwilling to support 
themselves, and remain a public burden through life. 

The schools have been gradually improving, but are still 
far from what they should be. Not much has been attempted 
beyond the three R's, and cultivating a taste for reading 
books from our library. 

About six per cent, of the boys committed could not read 
or write ; not more than one-half could read so as to get much 
pleasure or information from books, and a less number that 
could write an intelligent letter. 

It seems strange that Massachusetts, with all the money 
she expends for schools, cannot teach all her children to read 
and write, as is done in Germany, at a comparatively small 
cost. The only remedy for illiteracy is a phonetic alphabet, 
as shown by the American Philological and Spelling Reform 
Association. When will our educators come to see that it is 
more important that all learn to read than that a few learn 
Latin ; when they do, a less number will be sent to Reform 
Schools. 

We have endeavored to reduce the expenses of this insti- 
tution as much as possible. The pro rata expense for sala- 
ries alone for the month of September was $3,000 less than for 
the corresponding month of the previous year, and if the 
support of the officers be added it would be about $5,000. 

For the cost of running the sleigh-shop (now given up), 
we have nothing to show, except 156 sleighs unsold, which 
adds to the apparent expense of the boys. 

The cost of keeping these two large institutions, capable 
of accommodating from five to six hundred inmates, and the 
various out-buildings in repair, is a large item to add to the 
expense of maintaining less than one hundred and fifty boys, 
and liable to give a false impression. 

The cost of putting the Lyman buildings in proper con- 
dition, after being unoccupied so long, getting supplies of 
various kinds which was found immediately necessary when 
I came, and paying bills of the previous year, added much to 
our expenses. But this institution must always be expen- 
sive, as the water used has to be pumped from the lake, and 
the heat for the buildings brought a long distance under 



90 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

ground, so that even in summer one large boiler has to be 
constantly in use. 

Although many more boys have been put out during the 
year than ever before, pro rata, the number of inmates 
remain nearly the same as at the beginning of the year. 

It is hoped that the present law which permits boys to be 
committed here between seven and seventeen years of age, 
will be changed to between seven and fourteen, as it was 
before the school-ship was given up. As long as the young 
and comparatively innocent boys have to mingle with the 
older and most restless of criminals (for boys of seventeen to 
twenty are usually so considered), this school will be of little 
advantage to the boys or credit to the State. The trouble in 
the management of this school for the last ten years was 
mainly owing to this cause. 

There should be established at once some intermediate re- 
formatory institution between this school and an ordinary 
prison for the proper care and discipline of these large boys. 

Those who have read the paper given before the " Ameri- 
can Social Science Association," last summer, by the Hon. 
Hamilton A. Hill, whether or not they agree with the views 
therein expressed, will see that we have many things yet to 
learn concerning the proper treatment and classification of 
criminals." 

Until the drouth, the crops upon the farm promised well, 
but have suffered exceedingly since. The statistics will show 
the results of the management. 

The health of the boys has been excellent. There has 
been no death, and scarcely anything one could call sick- 
ness. 

Every Sunday morning there has been a Sunday-school in 
the school-room, and a regular service in the afternoon in the 
chapel, conducted by clergymen of different denominations. 
The Catholic priest of Westborough has met the boys of his 
faith Saturday afternoons and Sunday mornings, at his con- 
venience. 

Our thanks are due to those who have gratuitously sup- 
plied "The Essex County Mercury," "Salem Register," 
" Woburn Advertiser," " Dumb Animals," "Westborough 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 91 

Chronotype," and many pamphlets and periodicals during 
the year. 

I desire to express my obligations to the officers of this 
school for their faithful services, and to you for the large 
liberty I have had in its management. 

Very respectfully, 

JOSEPH A. ALLEN. 



92 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Table No. 1. 

Showing Number of Boys received and discharged for the Year ending 

Sept. 30, 1882. 



Boys in school Sept. 30, 1881, . 
Received — Since committed, .... 
" recommitted, 
" returned, . . . ■ 
Board Health, Lunacy, and Charity, 



Whole number in school during the year 



Discharged — On probation, 

To State Primary School, 
To Board Health, Lunacy, 
To Overseers of the Poor, 

Elopers, * 




. 142 

108 

7 

32 

1 

— 148 

. 290 



— 157 
Remaining in School Sept 30, 1882, 133 



Only one since Oct. 15,1881. 



Table No. 2. 

Showing the Admissions, Number Discharged, and average Number of 

each Month. 



MONTHS. 


Admitted. 


Discharged. 


Average 
Number. 


1881. 








October, 


17 


24 


137.00 


November, . . . . . 


17 


28 


126.66 


December, 


19 


28 


119.67 


1882. 








January, 


7 


14 


108.80 


February, 












12 


8 


109.07 


March, 












11 


19 


108.58 


April, 












12 


16 


100.63 


May, . 












16 


19 


98.13 


June. . 












12 


9 


100.01 


July, . 












24 


9 


105.29 


August, 












20 


8 


122.45 


September, 








19 


13 


127.10 


Totals, 












186 


195 


113.61-f- 



Average time spent here by boys who left during the past year, 1 year 
11 months 23 days. 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



93 



Table No. 3. 

Showing the Commitments from the several Counties the past Year and 

previously. 



COUNTIES. 


Past Year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


Barnstable, * . 




45 


45 


Berkshire, . 










_ 


196 


196 


Bristol, 












21 


444 


465 


Dukes, 

Essex, 












31 


9 

864 


9 
895 


Franklin, . 












2 


47 


49 


Hampden, . 












4 


296 


300 


Hampshire, 
Middlesex, 












18 


68 
879- 


68 
897 


Nantucket, 












- 


16 


16 


Norfolk, . 












5 


910 


915 


Plymouth, . 












4 


91 


95 


Suffolk, . 












17 


1,116 


1,133 


Worcester, 












6 


596 


602 


Total, 


108 


5,577 


5,685 


Nativity. 








American, 


78 


4,205 


4,283 


Foreign, . 




15 


824 


839 


Unknown, . 




15 


- 


15 


Totals, 












108 


- 


5,137 



Table No. 4. 

Showing by ivhat Authority the Commitments have been made the 

past year. 



COMMITMENTS. 



By State Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity 
Police Court, . 
District Court, 
Trial Justice, 
Municipal Court, 
Superior Court, 

Total, 



4 

40 
36 
14 
11 
3 

108 



94 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Table No. 5. 
Showing the Age of Boys when Committed. 



AGE. 


Past Year. 


Freviously. 


Total. 


Six years, 




5 


5 


Seven years, 








- 


25 


25 


Eight years, 








- 


116 


116 


Nine years, 








- 


232 


232 


Ten years, . 








3 


434 


437 


Eleven years, . 








2 


609 


611 


Twelve years, . 








8 


648 


656 


Thirteen years, . 








18 


736 


754 


Fourteen years, . 








22 


897 


919 


Fifteen years, . 








23 


785 


808 


Sixteen years, . 








32 


829 


861 


Seventeen years, 








- 


261 


261 


Eighteen years and over, . 








- 


57 


57 


Unknown, .... 








- 


25 


25 


Totals, . 








108 


5,767 


5,875 



Note. — Between the years 1860 and 1870 the average age of boys 
when committed was about 1 1^ years. For the last ten years, since the 
law has permitted boys from the age of 7 to 17 to be committed, the 
average age has been about 14^ years; the past year, 14^ years — 
higher, with the exception of two years, than since the institution was 
established. From Sept, 30, 1881, to Sept. 30, 1882, 80 boys were com- 
mitted over 14 years of age, or 74 per cent, of the whole number com- 
mitted. 

Table No. 6. 

Showing the Domestic Condition, etc., of Boys Committed during the 

Year. 



CONDITION. 



Number. 



Had no parents, . 
no father, . 
no mother, . 
step-father, . 
step-mother, 
intemperate father, 
intemperate mother, . 
parents separated, 
been arrested before, . 
been inmates of other institutions, 
other members of the family arrested 
used ardent spirits 
used tobacco, 
Catholic parents, 
Others, 



3 

18 

8 

4 

5 

34 

8 

8 

65 

20 

27 

15 

67 

65 

43 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



95 



Table No. 7. 
Showing the Employment of the Boys. 



About one-third work upon the land. The rest are engaged 
in domestic and mechanical work. 



Chair-shop. 



Number of chairs seated, 



Shoe-shop. 

Number of shoes made (pairs), 

Number of shoes repaired, 

Other repairing, harnesses, etc. (pieces), 

Laundry. 
Number of articles washed, 

Sewing-room. 

Number of articles made, . 
Number of articles repaired, 



18,893 



272 
649 
446 



56,684 



2,297 
9,944 



July, 1882. 
Boys' Bill of Fare. 

Sunday. — Breakfast: W. bread, butter or cheese, coffee. Dinner: 
Baked beans, warm brown bread. Supper: W. bread, milk, ginger- 
bread. 

Monday. — Breakfast : W. bread, coffee, Dinner : Chowder, W. bread. 
Supper : Milk, molasses, hasty pudding. 

Tuesday. — Breakfast: W. Bread, coffee. Dinner: Stew, bread, veg- 
etables. Supper: Hulled corn or bread, milk. 

Wednesday. — Breakfast: W. bread, coffee. Dinner: Beans, B. bread. 
Supper : W. bread, milk, molasses. 

Thursday. — Breakfast: W. bread, coffee. Dinner: Stew, bread, 
vegetables. Supper : Milk, molasses, hasty pudding. 

Friday. — Breakfast : W. bread, coffee. Dinner : Fish, bread, vegeta- 
bles. Supper : W. bread, milk, molasses. 

Saturday. — Breakfast : W. bread, coffee. Dinner : Boiled dinner, W. 
bread. Supper : Milk, molasses, hasty pudding. 



96 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



TREASURER'S EEPOET. 



1881- 


— October. Received from State Treasurer, 


$3,340 99 




November. " 


it c 








5,715 62 




December. " 


" 








3,925 54 


1882- 


— January. " 
February. " 
March. " 
April. " 
May. 

June. " 
July. 

August. M 
September. " 


tt i 

tt i 
It t 
tt i 
it i 








3,333 04 
3,591 60 
3,282 03 
2,582 39 
3,314 98 
2,378 99 
2,431 19 
3,157 35 
2,394 97 












— $39,448 69 






Expenditures. 






1881- 


— Nov. Paid bills 


audited on Schedule No. 


1, 


$3,340 99 




Dec. 


U tt 


No. 


2, 


5,715 62 


1882- 


— Jan. " 


tt u 


No. 


3, 


3,925 54 




Feb. 


It It 


No. 


4, 


3,333 04 




March. " 


it tt 


No. 


5, 


3,591 60 




April. " 


tt it 


No. 


6, 


3,282 03 




May. " 


it it 


No. 


7, 


2,582 39 




June. " 


It It 


No. 


8, 


3,314 98 




July. 


it tt 


No. 


9, 


2,378 99 




Aug. " 


it it 


No. 


10, 


2,431 19 




Sept. 


tt tt 


No. 


11, 


3,157 35 




tt tc 


tt tt 


No. 


12, 


2,394 97 














$39,448 69 



s 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



97 



& 



a 



© 
Eh 


$15,446 71 
1,187 40 

164 37 
9,006 49 

326 21 
3,517 53 
1,856 18 
1,892 84 
3,022 45 


o 

o 
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403 68 

325 87 

10 09 

543 97 

563 60 

511 44 

99 32 
306 59 

66 77 


r- o 
o m 

M iO 


- 


OS 

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oo 

CO 


w 

90 
90 

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$1,162 74 

77 72 
4 60 

533 41 

10 48 

131 69 

199 81 

78 28 
15 98 


O 
id 

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125 38 

19 57 

2 00 

15 58 

15 23 


' 


• 


1 ' 


1 


CS 
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3 
<1 


$1,036 96 
38 52 

17 42 
809 67 

88 25 
168 10 
180 31 

18 52 
678 27 


' 


11 09 

43 50 

24 67 

7 15 


a 


' 


1 

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iO 

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»-5 


$1,156 83 

176 03 

9 75 

409 37 

65 66 
160 63 
247 69 

30 24 


' 


5 00 

14 98 

92 93 

25 83 

4 20 


' 


' 


o 

O 


o 
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05 

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oj 

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$1,179 58 

53 55 

15 57 

455 01 

285 05 

65 90 

101 44 

25 26 


1 


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106 79 
50 15 


' 


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1 


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00 

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of 


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$1,290 44 
160 34 

14 15 
761 51 

19 20 
578 07 
269 45 

46 57 

10 67 


' 


41 67 

41 34 
69 40 

9 75 


' 


01 


1 1 


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CM 


T-H 
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3. 
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$1,227 12 

83 57 

5 14 

506 54 

5 23 

97 22 

39 50 
263 43 

40 74 


' 


41 67 
2 70 

75 35 

152 20 

17 20 

12 78 


' 


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1 1 


© 

o 

Tl 


05 
CO 

CM 

CO 

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o 

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oo 
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$1,189 46 

71 63 

9 63 

578 78 

33 15 

344 99 

153 22 

106 89 

535 44 


o 
o 

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41 67 

42.09 

1 50 

137 54 

6 50 


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a> 


$1,256 34 

63 59 

13 97 

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43 81 

249 06 

116 74 

362 02 

148 02 


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100 59 
100 00 


-t 
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1- 


iH 

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o 
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$1,423 85 

79 30 

21 85 

509 18 

114 61 

492 37 

24 11 

293 98 

106 80 


o 
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41 66 
30 37 

152 11 

1 90 

4 75 


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OK! 
90 




$1,557 47 

119 92 

7 92 

1,051 15 

603 64 
92 35 

262 83 
86 09 


O 

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5 25 
58 25 

9 15 

37 75 

5 20 


1 


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$1,387 76 

144 41 

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1,876 44 

11 48 

387 04 

223 50 

52 73 

1,299 48 


o 
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00 


126 99 

57 90 

90 

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48 10 

10 75 


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$1,578 16 

118 82 

19 13 

736 83 

114 64 
330 66 

58 46 
45 46 


1 


41 66 

51 27 
9 19 

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95 28 

52 22 
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m 
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/ Wood dep't, 
Sleigh shop, \ Paint " 

( Blacksmith dep't, 

Furniture, beds and bedding, . 

Plants, seeds and fertilizers, . 

Farm tools, &c, 

Horse and cattle shoeing, . 


fl 
p 

3 
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M 
o 
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to 
<£> 
> 

3 


> 

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a 
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cS 
DC 


Drugs and medical supplies, . 

Printing, 

Petties 

Total 


Salaries, wages and labor, 
Trans, and travelling expe 
Postage and telegrams, 
Provisions and groceries, 
School property, 
Clothing, . 

Grain and meal for stock, 
Ordinary repairs, 
Fuel and lights, . 


OS 

a 

03 • 

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C3 
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P" 
02 

n 



!)S 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. 



[Oct. 



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1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



99 



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100 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



PHYSICIAN'S RBPOET. 



To the Trustees of the Reform School. 

My acquaintance with the health of the institution covers 
only the last quarter of the year. 

During that time no case of sickness has required deten- 
tion in the hospital. 

One accident — dislocation of clavicle — is all that has 
required surgical treatment. 

There is reason to believe some sickness has been avoided 
by the timely use of simple remedies in the hands of the 
Superintendent. 

I can learn of only two cases occurring in the first three- 
quarters of the year worthy of notice — one an accident, 
while at play, by which John Doherty lost an eye ; the other 
a protracted case of rheumatism in Charles Belden. 

The state of health at this time is generally good. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. E. COREY, Physician. 

Westborough Reform School, Sept. 30, 1882. 



1882.J 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 



101 



SCHEDULE OF PROPERTY, 



The following schedule shows the productions on hand, con- 
sumed and sold, of the farm, together with a list of the live 
stock, and the appraised value of agricultural implements, 
carriages, wagon, harnesses, etc. : 



Produce on Hand, 


as Appraised. 


English hay, 70 tons, . . $1,540 00 


Meadow hay, 22 tons, . 










230 00 


Rye fodder, 6 tons, 










102 00 


Oat straw, 5 tons, 










100 00 


Onions, 115 bushels, 










100 00 


Beets, 200 bushels, 










80 00 


Carrots, 150 bushels, . 










37 50 


Mangolds, 500 bushels, 










100 00 


Pears, 50 bushels, 










75 00 


Potatoes, 600 bushels, . 










390 00 


Quinces, 1 bushel, 










3 00 


Tomatoes, 16 bushels, . 






. 




4 00 


Turnips, 200 bushels, . 










40 00 


Apples, 350 barrels, 










612 50 


Corn, 210 bushels, 










189 00 


Corn fodder, . 










106 00 


Cabbage fodder, . 










15 00 


Squash, 3 tons, 










150 00 


Cabbages, 8,000 heads, 










400 00 


Melons, 










10 00 


Rye, 35 bushels, . 




. 






35 00 


Oats, 175 bushels, . 










105 00 


Beans, 8 bushels, . 










25 00 


Pease, .... 










6 00 


Plants, '. 










20 00 



$4,475 00 



102 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Fertilizers. 



Hog manure, 50 cords, 
Stable manure, 
Hen manure, 
Ground bone, I ton, 



Produce Consumed. 



Milk, 7,547 cans, . 








. $2,062 31 




Beef, 5,099 pounds, 






385 55 




Veal, 1,971-^ pounds, 








228 46 




Pork, 10,475 pounds, . 








979 52 




Poultry, 199 pounds, 








24 65 




Eggs, 323§ dozen, 








76 39 




Cucumbers, .... 








61 50 




Beets, 10 bushels, . 








12 50 




Turnips, 10 bushels, 








7 50 




Pease, 42 bushels, . 








63 00 




Beans, 38 bushels, 








44 25 




Tomatoes, 15 bushels, . 








15 00 




Onions, 4 bushels 








6 00 




Apples, 60 bushels 








. . 36 no 




Strawberries, 180 boxes, 








22 50 




Cabbages, 900 pounds, . 








27 00 




Squashes, 








10 (>0 




Sweet corn, 1,070 dozen, 








L54 00 




Melons, .... 








48 00 




Blueberries, 150 quarts, 








15 00 




Lettuce, 








7 00 




Asparagus, . 








7 00 






$4,293 13 




Rye fodder, 5| tons, ...... 48 87 




Corn fodder, 13 tons, 9100 




Hungarian, 6 tons, . . . . . . 48 00 




Cider apples, 500 bushels, 4') 00 




$1,521 


00 


Produce Sold. 




Milk, 1,933 cans, . . $433 57 




Apples, .... 








81 10 




Asparagus, . 








232 95 




Strawberries, 








117 60 




Vegetables, . 








114 07 




Pigs, .... 








314 40 




Hides, .... 








84 29 




Calves, .... 








54 63 





$200 00 

175 00 

6 00 

20 00 



$4,876 00 



$1,432 61 



1882. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



103 



Live Stock. 



Cows, 36, 

Bulls, 2, 
Boars, 2, 

Breeding sows, 29, 
Fatting hogs, 34, . 
Pigs, 87, 
Shotes, 9, 
Fowls, 109, . 



Yoke oxen, . 
Pair bay horses, . 
Mare, "Jennie," . 
Gelding, " Major," 

"Ned," . 
" " General, 
"Jack," 



Farming Implements, Carriages, Harnesses, Etc. 

Carriages, sleighs, and pungs, .... $465 00 

Farm w^agons, carts, and sheds, .... 853 00 

Harnesses, robes, and blankets, .... 349 75 

Farm, garden implements, 1,077 63 

Ice tools, - 62 00 



. $2,190 00 


110 


00 


29 


00 


587 


50 


500 


00 


200 


()0 


63 


00 


42 


50 


$3,722 00 


175 00 


275 


00 


65 


00 


150 


00 


100 


00 


75 


00 


25 


00 



_ $4,587 00 



52,807 38 



Grains, grass seeds, 
Phosphate, plaster, 
Ashes, 480 bushels, 
Lumber, 



Miscellaneous. 



$33 40 


22 


65 


81 


60 


20 


00 



$157 65 



Si .MMARY. 



Produce on hand, . 
Produce consumed, 
Produce sold, 



Live stock, . 

Farming tools, carriages, et( 

Miscellaneous, 



$4,876 00 
4,521 00 
1,432 61 

$10,829 61 

4,587 00 

2,807 38 

157 65 



Total, . 



18,381 64 



104 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



SUMMARY 



Real Estate. 

220 acres 35 poles cultivated land, 

19 acres woodland, .... 

28 acres 120 poles pasturage, 



$19,800 00 
700 00 
700 00 



21,200 00 



Buildings. 



Main building and yard-fence, 

Garden House, 

Farm House, .... 

Peters House, 

Steam-mill, not including boilers, 

Sleigh storehouse, . 

Horse-barn, soap-house, and shed 

Barn and shed at Peters House, 

Greenhouse, . 

Cottage House, 

Thompson House, 

Ice-house, 

Farm-barn and tool-house, 

Piggery, 

Chair, tool, and cart house 

Gas-house, 

Hennery, 

Boat-house, . 



Personal Estate. 

Live stock on the farm, 
Produce of the farm on hand, 
Carriages and agricultural implements, 
Machinery and mechanical fixtures, 
Beds and bedding in inmates 1 department, 



Amount carried forward, 



$15,700 


00 


6,500 


00 


4,200 


00 


2,400 


00 


2,000 


00 


1,200 00 


550 00 


500 


00 


300 


00 


1,200 


00 


600 00 


150 


00 


7,200 


00 


2,000 00 


700 


00 


100 


00 


150 


00 


25 


00 


£186,775 


00 


$4,587 


00 


4,876 


00 


2,965 


43 


13,876 


64 


3,804 


85 


$30,109 92 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 105 

Amount brought forward, $30,109 92 

Other furniture in inmates' department, .... 3,421 89 

Personal property of State in superintendent's department, 12,190 16 

Ready-made clothing, 3,323 56 

Dry goods, 914 51 

Provisions and groceries, ....... 823 78 

Drugs and medicines, 150 00 

Fuel, . . . . . . . . . . . 788 35 

Library and school-books, . . . . . . 572 68 

Personal, $52,294 85 

Real, 207,975 00 

Total, . $260,269 85 

CYRUS POTTER, 
J. W. BRITTAN, 

Appraisers. 
A true copy. Attest : Jos. A„ Allen, Supt. 



Westborough, Oct. 12, 1882. 



106 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



LIST OF SALARIED OFFICERS AND ALL 
EMPLOYEES, WITH THEIR SALARIES. 



Jos. A. Allen, superintendent, . 

H. E. Swan, assistant superintendent, 

F. E. Corey, M.D., physician, . 

Nelly B. Allen, matron, .... 

Lydia J. Perry, assistant matron, 

Mrs. II. E. Swan, housekeeper, 

E. II. Howard, teacher, .... 

Mary Holbrook, teacher, .... 

Emma J. Putnam, teacher, 

Margaret W. Perkins, teacher, . 

Arabella C. Darling, teacher, . 

Mr. and Mrs. E. Howard, charge of Peters House, 

Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Merrill, charge of Farm IIous< 

J. S. Carson, overseer of chair-shop, 

J. II. Cummings, overseer of shoe-shop, . 

T. F. Greenleaf, baker, .... 

J. W. Clark, engineer, .... 

S. W. Perry, watchman, .... 

J. T. Perkins, man of all work, 

Geo. E. Allen, charge of stores, 

R. G. Newman, fireman, .... 

Mrs. C. H. Howard, cook, 

Mrs. J. E. Reed, laundress, 

Jennie E. Perry, seamstress, . 

Emma E. Mayhew, assistant cook, . 

E. A. Hersey, farmer, .... 

C. E. Hardy, farm-hand, $25 per month. 

J. E. Reed, farm-hand, $23 per month. 

Eugene M. Deveraux, farm-hand, $25 per month 

W. II. Powers, carpenter, $1.50 per day. 

John Ervan, farm-hand, $25 per month 



$1,(300 00 
575 00 
100 00 
400 00 
300 00 
225 00 
440 00 
300 00 
300 00 
300 00 
300 00 
700 00 
700 00 
400 00 
400 00 
500 00 
800 00 
400 00 
400 00 
308 00 
350 00 
2G0 00 
250 00 
200 00 
228 00 
400 00 



1882.] 



1'UHLIC DOCUMENT 



No. 18. 



107 



Expenditures 

Superintendent, 

Assistant superintendent, 

Clerk, 

Physician, . 

Ministers, . 

Matron, 

Assistant matron, 

Teachers, . 

Masters and matrons of I' 

Overseers of* chair-shop, 

Overseer of sleigh-shop, 

Engineer, . 

Assistant engineer, 

Carpenter,. 

Blacksmith, 

Baker, 

Watchman, 

II all-men, . 

Man of all work, 

Vacancies, 

Seamstress, 

Laundress, 

Care of boys' dining-rooi 

Cooks, 

Assistant cooks, 

Housekeepers, . 

Fanner, 

Farm labor, 

Appraisers 1 services, . 

("arc of stores, . 

Painter, 

Sanitary engineer, 

Extra services, . 

Boiler inspector, 

Fence viewers, . 

Piano tuner, 

Overseer of shoe-shop, 



or Salaries, Wages and Labor. 



milv 



houses, 



$1,(574 47 

775 74 

266 71 

212 51 

2(50 00 

413 62 

357 37 

1,684 37 

1,671 68 

375 06 

11 (57 

71)7 75 

312 50 

524 07 

201 0(5 

499 92 

400 06 

275 ;5;5 

400 08 

51 41 

287 32 

383 78 

201 1(5 

329 05 

140 40 

220 08 

434 21 

1,399 58 

49 00 

260 :57 

131 00 

21 00 

25 00 

1(5 00 

6 00 

4 00 

15 12 IS 



$15,446 71 



108 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



SUPERINTENDENTS. 



Date of 
Appointment. 


NAMES. 


Date of 
Retirement. 


1848, 

1853, 

1857, 

1861, 

1867, 

1868, 

May, 1873, 

Aug. 1878, 

Dec. 1880, 

Oct. 1881, 


William R. Lincoln, . 
James M. Talcott, 
W T illiam E. Starr, 
Joseph A. Allen, . 
Orville K. Hutchinson, 
Benjamin Evans, 
Allen G. Shepherd, 
Luther H. Sheldon, 
Edmund T. Dooley, . 
Joseph A. Allen, . 






1853. 

1857. 

1861. 

1867. 

1868. 
May, 1873. 
Aug. 1878. 
Dec. 1880. 
Oct. 1881. 
Still in office. 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



109 



TEUSTEES. 



Names, Residences, Commissions and Retirement of the Trustees 

of the State Reform School, from the Commencement 

to the Present Time. 



Date of 






Date of 




NAMES. 


Residence. 




Commission. 






Retirement. 


1847, 


Nahum Fisher,* . 


Westborough, . 


1849 


1847, 


John W. Graves, 


Lowell, 


1849 


1847, 


Samuel Williston, 


Easthampton, 


1853 


1847, 


Thomas A. Green,* 


New Bedford, . 


1860 


1847, 


Otis Adams,* 


Grafton, 


1851 


1847, 


George Denney,* 


Westborough, . 


1851 


1847, 


William P. Andrews,* 


Boston, 


1851 


1849, 


William Livingston,* . 


Lowell, 


1851 


1849, 


Russell A. Gibbs,* 


Lanesborough, . 


1853 


1851, 


George H. Kuhn, 


Boston, 


1855 


1851, 


J. B. French,* . 


Lowell, 


1854 


1851, 


Daniel H. Forbes,* 


Westborough, . 


1854 


1851, 


Edward B. Bigelow,* 


Grafton, 


1855 


1853, 


J. W. H. Page,* . 


New Bedford, . 


1856 


1853, 


Harvey Dodge, . 


Sutton, 


1867 


1854, 


G. Howland Shaw,* . 


Boston, 


1856 


1854, 


Henry W. Cushman,* 


Bernardston, 


1860 


1855, 


Albert H. Nelson,* . 


Woburn, . 


1855 


1855, 


Joseph A. Fitch, 


Hopkinton, 


1858 


1855, 


Parley Hammond, 


Worcester, 


1860 


1856, 


Simon Brown, . 


Concord, . 


1860 


1856, 


John A. Fayerweather, 


Westborough, . 


1859 


1857, 


Josiah H. Temple, 


Framingham, . 


1860 


1858, 


Judson S. Brown, 


Fitchburg, 


1860 


1859, 


Theodore Lyman, 


Brookline, 


1860 


1860, 


George C. Davis,* 


Northborough, . 


1873 


1860, 


Carver Hotchkiss, 


Shelburne, 


1863 


1860, 


Julius A. Palmer,* 


Boston, 


1862 


1860, 


Henry Chickering, 


Pittslield, . 


1869 


1860, 


George W. Bentley, . 


Worcester, 


1861 


1860, 


Alden Leland, . 


Holliston, . 


1864 


1861, 


Pliny Nickerson, 


Boston, 


1868 


1861, 


Samuel G. Howe,* 


Boston, 


1863 


1862, 


Benjamin Boynton,* . 


Westborough, . 


1864 


1863, 


J. H. Stephenson, 


Boston, 


1866 


1863, 


John Ayres, 


Charlestown, . 


1867 



* Deceased. 



110 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct.'82. 

Names, Residences, etc., of Trustees — Concluded. 



Date of 






Date of 




NAMES. 


Residence. 




Commission. 






Retirement. 


1864, 


A. E. Goodnow, . 


Worcester, 


1874 


1864, 


Isaac Ames, 


Haverhill, . 


1865 


1865, 


Jones S. Davis, . 


Holyoke, . 


1868 


1866, 


Joseph A. Pond,* 


Brighton, . 


1867 


1867, 


Stephen G. Deblois, . 


Boston, 


1878 


1868, 


John Ayers, 


Medford, . 


1874 


1868, 


Harmon Hall, 


Saugus, 


1871 


1868, 
1869, 


L. L. Goodspeed, 


Bridgewater, 


1872 


E. A. Hubbard, . 


Springfield, 


1877 


1871, 


Lucius W. Pond, 


Worcester, 


1875 


1871, 


•John W. Olmstead, . 


Boston, 


1873 


1872, 


Moses H. Sargent, 


Newton, . 


1877 


1873, 


A. S. Wood worth, 


Boston, 


1876 


1873, 


Edwin B. Harvey, 


Westborough, . 


1878 


1874, 


W. H. Baldwin, . 


Boston, 


1876 


1875, 


John L. Cummings, . 


Ashburnham, 


1879 


1876, 


Jackson B. Swett, 


Haverhill, . 


1878 


1877, 


Samuel R. Heywood, . 


Worcester, 


1879 


1877, 


Milo Hildreth, . 


Northborough, . 


1879 


1878, 


Lyman Belknap, 


Westborough, . 


1879 


1878, 


Franklin Williams,* . 


Boston, 


1879 


1878, 


Robert Couch, . 


Newburyport, . 


1879 


1879, 


John T. Clark, . 


Boston, 


1879 


1879, 


M. J. Flatley, . 


Boston, 


1881 


1879, 


Adelaide A. Calkins, . 


Springfield, 


1880 


July 1,79, 


Lyman Belknap, 


Westborough, . 


Still in office. 


" 1879, 


Anne B. Richardson, . 


Lowell, 


it it 


" 1879, 


Milo Hildreth, . 


Northborough, . 


ti it 


" 1879, 


George W. Johnson, . 


Brookfield, 


tt tt 


" 1879, 


Samuel R. Heywood, . 


Worcester, 


tt tt 


" 9/80, 


Elizabeth C. Putnam, 


Boston, 


tt tt 


- 1881, 


Thomas Dwight, 


Boston, 





* Deceased. 






PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18, 



KEPORT OF THE OFFICERS 



State Industrial School for Girls, 



LANCASTER. 



1882. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 

1883. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : — The following is my report for 
the year ending Sept. 30, 1882. We hope some good results 
have been attained, and while we have not accomplished as 
much as we desire, yet we trust the influences of the school 
have been good, in improving the characters and giving an 
impetus in the right direction to many who have been under 
our charge. Personally, the longer we are engaged in this 
work, the more we find there is to learn, and that all of us 
can profit from experience. 

Number in the School. 

The past year has been remarkable, chiefly on account of 
the fluctudling numbers in the school. At one time the 
number was reduced to 42, while now we have 63. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1881, the number com- 
mitted to the school was 29 ; while for the present year, we 
have received 48. Our number is very likely to be further 
augmented by commitments, and from those returned from 
service, so that our school may before many months ap- 
proximate the highest number for several years. We must 
consider that most of those in the school today have been 
with us less than one year, and that the small proportion who 
have been with us a longer time are nearly all returned girls, 
who have been tried at places, but for various reasons have 
been returned to the school, and it is necessary to retain 
them for the benefit of its discipline, before going out again 
to service or to their homes. 



114 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

No. 5. 
As the number of the school had exceeded the capacity of 
Nos.^2 and 4, it was thought best to open No. 5, which was 
done Sept. 12. This building has not been in use since 
April, 1879, and we have selected twelve of the younger in- 
mates for this family. The house is in excellent repair, and 
the location is a most beautiful one. Thus far, the girls are 
delighted and happy, and we are confident it will prove a 
success. 

Returned Girls. 

A larger number of girls have been returned than in pre- 
vious years, but of this number many have gone out again, 
some having remained with us only a few days, until they 
could be re-located ; five were sent to Sherborn Prison. An- 
other reason for the large number returned is the fact that an 
unusual per cent, were sent out during the year 1881. It 
seemed during that year best to place out these girls, while 
the sequel has proved that some of the selections were unwise 
and premature. This leads us to the conclusion that while 
for mild offences some ma)' be sent out in a year, or in some 
special instances in less than that time, yet others must re- 
main long enough to derive the largest benefit from its 
restraint, and not to unfit them for an active and useful life 
by too long a period of confinement. What we wish is to 
raise the moral tone, and to inculcate in the girls self-respect, 
and, if possible, induce them to work from a better class of 
motives, and convince them that true and lasting happiness is 
only to be had by leading a life of virtue and uprightness. 
Before coming here, many of these girls were recreant to moral 
principle, and some appeared to glory in wrong doing, while 
home influences and evil associates were working their ruin ; 
but after awhile in the school a very radical change seems 
to be effected, which is very marked and gratifying. This is 
obvious to the most superficial observer, and while many 
times we may be and are deceived, yet, on the contrary, we 
are often cheered by good results, and pleased to see that 
our labor has not been in vain. 

In our opinion it is generally better to send the girls to 
places than to release them to their own homes, as it is prob- 
able that the home that could not hold them in the first 



882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 115 

case, will not be a benefit to them if they return to it, but 
an irreparable injury. All this is on the supposition that 
the place is a good one, selected with great cave, and that the 
auxiliary visitor watches over thern judiciously. 

Work. 
Under this head we will say that however much mankind 
in general may desire to live, breathe and have their being 
without work, we believe that for many of the ails and ills 
that flesh is afflicted with, work is a wonderful panacea, and 
for this class it is absolutely necessary. 

Hosiery Work. 
During the last quarter of 1881 the number of inmates 
diminished to such an extent, that the Chauncy Woollen 
Mills, which had employed twenty or more girls upon hos- 
iery, were obliged to abandon this branch of industry, and 
accordingly, in December, it ceased altogether, to our regret, 
as this business had helped the finances to the amount of 
$2,000 since it was introduced, and also indirectly had 
been an aid to discipline. If our numbers increase, as they 
may, we very probably will be able to introduce something 
in the future iu the way of profitable industry. 

House-work. 
The girls in the houses are taught, as far as supervision 
can be brought to bear upon them, plain sewing, making 
their clothes, some of the most skilful being allowed to cut 
garments, while all are expected to knit and mend their 
own stockings. In the kitchen, by a system of rotation, 
nearly all are able to obtain a practical insight of bread mak- 
ing, washing and ironing, etc. ; just in proportion as t'.ie 
girl shows an aptness to acquire this knowledge will she be 
profited. There is also as great a difference in house- 
keepers, as in teachers, in the gift or faculty of imparting 
instruction. 

Miscellaneous Work. 

On the farm the girls have been employed at dropping 
potatoes, weeding various crops, such as carrots, beets and 
onions, picking strawberries and currants, pease and bans, 



116 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

and rendering great assistance in collecting and distributing 
the vegetables from day to day for the school, and in gath- 
ering the apples for use here and for market. They have 
also been employed in raking the roads and walks, and in 
cleaning off the lawns, etc. 

Schools. 
With the many changes that have occurred, the schools 
compare very favorably with previous years. The common 
English branches are taught ; many are quite proficient, espe- 
cially in reading. None are excused from the school-room 
except for sickness, so that all of the inmates have the bene- 
fit of the full quota of time marked out in the programme. 

Farm and Farm Crops. 
The general verdict is that the present year has not been 
a very propitious one for farmers of New England. We 
have suffered in a diminished second crop of hay, about one- 
fourth crop of potatoes, and probably one-half crop of other 
varieties of vegetables. Field corn is a failure, apples are 
reduced in size and in quantity. It has lessened also the 
income from milk. But then, on the other hand, the first 
crop of hay was a good one, and well secured, and we have 
filled the silo with corn fodder of medium growth, and will 
be well supplied for the winter. Notwithstanding the sea- 
son has been adverse, we are able to show a comfortable 
surplus after deducting expenses, and we think there has 
been no exaggerated value placed upon the crops on hand 
and consumed, and in the matter of quantity we have also 
been extremely careful to keep within bounds. We have 
not made any radical improvements upon the farm, yet 
many minor jobs have been accomplished, which cannot be 
here enumerated, such as tile draining, etc. On account of 
change of plans the farmer's report is omitted. 

Repairs. 

In the way of repairs we have had considerable plumbing 

done, also mason- work, and whitewashing. The sashes 

and frames of the houses have been re-glazed and painted. 

Double entries have been made in each of three houses. A 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 117 

portion of the buildings connected with the office have been 
re-shingled, and quite a quantity of work has been per- 
formed, in the aggregate amounting to a large sum. 

Health of the School. 
There has been no sickness the past year worth mention- 
ing, except in one instance. The robust condition of the 
girls proves conclusively the benefit of systematic living, 
and a plain, substantial, but generous diet. In this connec- 
tion we will say that we believe in rational enjoyment, 
especially out of doors upon the play-grounds, and in pleas- 
ant walks off the grounds. In the winter the girls have 
also sleigh-rides, etc. 

Conclusion. 

The general conduct of the girls, for the year just closed, 
has been excellent, and we need not add that the discipline 
has been kept up to a higher standard than at any time 
since we assumed the office, while the outlook for the future 
is hopeful. 

For the co-operation of officers in carrying out the general 
plan, we are thankful, and we will here say that much peace 
and comfort are afforded by pleasant relations between the 
subordinate officers and the Superintendent, and equally so 
by the many kind assurances of confidence in us by our 
Trustees. 

We are thankful to the Giver of all good, for the many 
blessings received the past year, and for his kind protection 
over us. 

Respectfully submitted, 

N. PORTER BROWN, 

Superintendent, 



118 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



STATISTICS. 



The following table shows the 

Number in the school Sept. 30, 1881, . 

received from the courts during the year, 
returned from service, . . 



55 
48 
39 



142 



The following table shows where the girls are, who were 
with us at the beginning of the year, and who have been 
received during the year. 



Number of girls in the school Sept. 30, 1882, 

sent to service during the year, 
sent to Sherborn prison, . 
escaped, .... 



63 

72 
5 

— 142* 



Miscellaneous Statistics. 
Whole number in the school during the year, 
at service and at home on trial, 
married, but still under the care of the school, 
returned during the year, .... 
become of age during the year, 
died while out at service, .... 
married during the year, .... 



^ 1 10 

97 
13 
39 

9 

4 
14 



Of those now in the school, there were born 



In Massachusetts, . 








37 


Rhode Island, . 








1 


New Hampshire, 








3 


Vermont, . 








3 


Maine, 








2 


Connecticut, 








1 


New York, 


i 






4 


England, . 








2 


Scotland, . 








2 


Germany, . 


. . 






1 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



119 



In Ireland, 


3 


New Brunswick, .... 


1 


Canada, ...... 


1 


Nova Scotia, 


1 


Unknown, 


1 


Of American parentage, 


19 


American (colored), 


1 


Scotch, . . . . , . 


4 


French, 


3 


English, 


2 


German, ....... 


1 


Portuguese, . . . . 


1 


Irish, ...... 


32 



— 63 



— 63 



Of those now in the school, — 

Both parents living, 29 

One parent living, 29 

Orphans, 3 

Unknown, 2 

Lived at home, . 33 

from home, 30 



— 68 



— 63 



Could read and write when committed, 
read and not write, 
neither read nor write, 



54 
5 
4 



63 



Attended some religious service, 



Regularly, 
Seldom, . 



25 
38 



63 



Of those now members of the school, there are. 

Of twelve years of age, 
thirteen, 
fourteen, 
fifteen, 
sixteen, 
seventeen, 
eighteen, 
nineteen, 
twenty, 

Average age 16 years. 



1 

2 

5 

L5 

14 

20 

4 

1 

1 



63 



120 PEIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Committed on charge 

Of stubborness, 
larceny, 

idle and disorderly, . 
drunkenness, 
lewd and lascivious, . 
attempt to burn, 



19 
11 

4 

2 

11 

1 



We have had committed this year, — 

From Suffolk County, 16 

Middlesex County, 4 

Essex County, 19 

Hampden County, 1 

Franklin County, 1 

Worcester County, 6 

Plymouth County, 1 






48 



— 48 



Of the number received since the opening of the school, 
we have had committed, — 



From Suffolk County, . 
Middlesex County, 
Essex County, 
Worcester County, 
Bristol County, . 
Norfolk County, . 
Hampden County, 
Hampshire County, 
Berkshire County, 
Plymouth County, 
Barnstable County, 
Franklin County, 



340 

206 

190 

137 

96 

56 

39 

19 

32 

20 

14 

12 



1,160 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



121 



Schedule of Persons employed, and Amount paid each. 







Annual 


Amount 


NAMES. 


Nature of Service. 










Salaries. 


Paid. 


N. Porter Brown, 


Superintendent, . 


$1,300 00 


$1,262 83 


S. M. Brown, 




Supt.'s Assistant, . 


350 00 


339 96 


Belinda N. Rich, . 




Matron, . 


350 00 


333 24 


Adelaide Fisher, . 




u 






350 00 


106 32 


S. P. Pearson, 




" 






350 00 


6 72 


Julia Gray, . 




" 






350 00 


35 88 


Myra Godfrey, . 




" 






350 00 


66 96 


H. E. Patch, 




" 






350 00 


127 20 


S. K. Pierce, 




11 






350 00 


27 84 


A. D. Holmes, 




(1 






350 00 


13 74 


C. C. Chamberlain, 




Teachei 






300 00 


115 61 


A. C. Darling, 




" 






300 00 


30 75 


A. D. Holmes, 




" 






300 00 


21 37 


E. F. Walker, . 




" 






300 00 


84 43 


Jennie Dow, 




ti 






300 00 


8 22 


C. B. Willey, 




" 






300 00 


38 97 


A. C Currier, 




" 






300 00 


147 20 


Anna Wifcox, 




•< 






300 00 


136 51 


H L. Putnam, 




" 






300 00 


17 26 


Abbie Young, 




Housekeeper, 




250 00 


242 83 


Jane McLean, 










250 00 


69 32 


Hattie Pierson, . 










250 00 


160 19 


C. L. Walker, 










250 00 


9 59 


N. A. Lathrop, . 










250 00 


20 83 


S. A. Clough, 










250 00 


7 48 


C. F Templeton, . 










250 00 


82 70 


Mary Parker, 










250 00 


28 76 


Emma Clarke, . 










250 00 


34 94 


Laura Rich, . 










250 00 


4 80 


Margaret Torrey, 










250 00 


41 66 


C. P. Ackerman, . 










250 00 


24 24 


Rebecca Bliss, 










250 00 


7 40 


F. E. Porter, 




Physician, 




200 00 


194 32 


A. Dame, 




Nurse, . 




520 00 


25 72 


H. E. Swan, . 




Farmer, . 




700-00 


116 66 


E. Tolman, . 




" 




700 00 


554 91 


E. A. Hersey, 




Laborer, 




240 00 


46 67 


John H. Taylor, . 




" 




282 00 


267 44 


Thos. Hickey, . 




" 




432 00 


380 00 


., 






$5,365 93 



122 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Expenditures for Year ending September 30, 1882. 

Salaries, wages and labor, 
Provisions and supplies, 
Fuel and lights, .... 
Clothing, furniture and bedding, . 
Tools and sundries for the farm, 
Transportation and medical supplies, 
Repairs, lumber and hardware, 
All other current expenses, . 



Total, 







. $5,808 54 


3,531 


14 






1,014 87 






1,347 


78 






300 


00 






796 


00 






1,441 


67 






878 


77 




. $15,118 77 



The cost per capita is as follows : — 

Average weekly cost, $5 77 

Average weekly cost after paying into the State treasury receipts 

for produce and labor, etc., $5 19 



Daily Programme. 



5.30 to 6. 

6 to 6.45. 

6.45 to 7.15. 

7.15 to 8. 

8 to 11.45. 
11.45 to 12. 
12 to 12.30. 
12.30 to 1. 

1 to 2.30. 

2.30 to 

3.30 to 

5.30 to 

5.45 to 

6.15 to 

7.20 to 



3.30. 
5.30. 
5.45. 
6.15. 

7.30. 
8. 



In winter the Chapel 



From October 1 to April 1. 

Rise, wash and pass to school-room. 
School. 

Breakfast and devotions. 
Care of rooms. 
Work. 

Ready for dinner. 
Dinner. 
Recess. 
Work. 

Ready for school and- recreation. 
School. 
Recess. 
Supper. 

Recreation, miscellaneous exercises, etc. 
Call the roll, devotions and retire, 
bell rings at 5.30, in summer at 5.15 a. m. 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 123 



Diet Programme. 

Sunday. — Breakfast : Bread and butter, with coffee. Dinner : Baked 
beans, pie or pudding. 

Monday. — Dinner : Meat hash and vegetables. 

Wednesday . — Dinner : Roast beef, or soup and vegetables. 

Thursday. — Dinner : Beefsteak, or ham and vegetables. 

Friday. — Dinner : Salt fish and vegetables. 

Most generally the breakfast consists of shells or coffee, with wheat 
bread. 

The usual supper is bread and unskimmed milk, varied occasionally 
with mush and milk, oatmeal pudding, with molasses, etc. 

Fruits in their season are used freely, both cooked and raw, and vege- 
tables in abundance at all times. 

Pastry is not given out to any extent, except on the holidays. 

Brown and Graham bread are used at dinner two or three days of each 
week, nearly or quite excluding wheat bread. 



124 PRIMAKY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



INVENTORY OF PROPERTY. 



Chapel, 






$3,000 00 




House No. 1, 








8,250 00 




No 2, 








8,500 00 




No. 4, 








9,000 00 




No. 5, 








3,500 00 




Superintendent's house, 








3,000 00 




Hosiery-shop, 








300 00 




Farm house and barn, 








1,500 00 




Large barn, . 








4,500 00 




Silo, . 








400 00 




Storehouse, . 








400 00 




Old barn, 








150 00 




Wood-house, 








100 00 




Ice-house, . 








100 00 




Storehouse at No. 3, . 








25 00 




Hen-house, . 








75 00 




Reservoir, etc., . 








100 00 




Farm, 176 acres, . 








7,000 00 




Wood-lot, 10 acres, 








300 00 










$50,200 00 






Personal 1 


Property 






Property in house No 1, 




$841 00 




No. 2, . 




1,110 72 




No. 4, . 




1,080 95 




No. 5, . 




890.00 




in superintendent's house. 




825 00 




in chapel and library, . 




650 00 




Provisions and groceries, . 




570 00 




Dry-goods, 




590 00 




Fuel, 




782 00 




Valuation of stock, 




. 2,099 00 




Produce of farm on hand, . 




. 2,385 25 




Farming tools and carriages, 




. 1,629 60 


13,353 52 






Total, 




$63,553 52 


2 


rEREMIAH MOORE, ^ 


Appraisers. 






i 


5. R. MER 


RICK, ) 





Worcester, ss., Lancaster, Sept. 22, 1882. 
Personally appeared the above-named Jeremiah Moore and S. R. 
Merrick, and made oath to the truth of the foregoing instrument by 
them subscribed. Before me. 

J. L. S. THOMPSON, Justice of the Peace, 



1882.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



125 



Produce on Hand. 



English hay, 49 tons, 












31,078 00 




Oat fodder, 5 tons, 










80 00 




Rye fodder, 5 tons, 










60 00 




Meadow hay, 4 tons, . 










40 00 




Ensilage, 78 tons, 










234 00 




Manure, 45 cords, 










202 50 




Beets, 30 bushels, 










22 50 




Carrots, 15 bushels, 










9 00 




Onions, 25 bushels, 










31 25 




Pears, 3 bushels,. 










3 00 




Turnips, 90 bushels, . 










26 00 




Potatoes, 150 bushels, . 










187 50 




Mangels, 50 bushels, . 










55 00 




Parsnips, 12 bushels, . 










12 00 




Tomatoes, 8 bushels, . 










8 00 




Melons, 1,500 pounds, 










15 00 




Squash, 800 pounds, . 










24 00 




Cabbage, 1,500 pounds, 










37 50 




Green corn, 20 bushels, 










20 00 




Apples, 150 barrels, . 










240 00 




Cider apples, 400 bushels, 










40 00 








$2,385 25 




Produce Sold. 




Cabbages, $65 04 




Pigs, . 








226 46 




Cows and calves, 








126 67 




Onions, 








21 57 




Parsnips, 








6 25 




Strawberries, 








110 80 




Potatoes, 








180 22 




Milk, ... 








546 23 










$1,283 24 






Cash received for hosi 


3ry v 


vork, 










110 12 



Total. 



$1,393 36 



Produce Consumed. 



Asparagus, 250 bunches, 
Lettuce, 45 dozen, 
Strawberries, 400 boxes, 
Currants, 275 boxes, 
Turnips, 6 bushels, 
Beets, 8 bushels, , 
Pears, 2 bushels, . 
Potatoes, 60 bushels, 

Amount carried forward, 



$20 00 


16 


20 


48 00 


22 


00 


3 


00 


8 


00 


2 


00 


75 


00 



$194 20 



126 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Amount brought forwa' 


yZ, 






$194 20 




Pease, 25 bushels, 








37 50 




Crab-apples, 1 bushel, 










1 00 




Apples, 40 bushels, 










30 00 




Sweet corn, 250 dozen, 










37 50 




Cucumbers, 50 dozen, . 










6 00 




Melons, 1,000 pounds, . 










10 00 




Rhubarb, 400 pounds, . 










6 00 




Pork , 1,100 pounds, . 










110 00 




Milk, 16,250 quarts, . 










487 50 




Corn fodder, 12 tons, . 










48 00 




Sundry vegetables, 










60 00 










$1,027 70 








Summary. 








Or. 






Produce on hand, 






$2,385 25 




Produce consumed, 








1,027 70 




Produce sold, 








. 1,283 24 




Increase of stock, 








47 49 




Keeping horses for the 


school, 






231 00 




Miscellaneous work for the school, 




450 00 
















$5,424 68 



Dr. 
Expenses of farm, including labor for school, 

improvements, etc , 

Salary paid the farmer, 

Labor of girls on the farm, . 
Balance in favor of the farm, . 



$1,922 47 


671 


57 


. 60 


00 


2,770 


64 



$5,424 68 



1882.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 127 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the State Industrial School for Girls. 

The hygienic condition of the school is very satisfactory. 
There has been no death in the institution during the year, 
and but two cases of long-continued sickness, — one, of 
acute inflammatory rheumatism, and another of chronic 
syphilitic rheumatism at the beginning of the year. With 
these exceptions there have been no cases requiring deten- 
tion in bed for more than a few hours at a time. 

The value of the excellent sanitary and hygienic condi- 
tions of the school, of its regularity of life and of its freedom 
from excitement, becomes apparent in the rapid improve- 
ment in health of the inmates; — those who, in some few 
instances, when placed out, having fallen back into their for- 
mer bad ways, are returned in an enfeebled condition, as well 
as of the girls newly committed. 

It is fortunate that the school has been exempt from epi- 
demic or acute diseases, as at present there are no hospital 
or dispensary accommodations. It is to be hoped that some 
provision may be made, if only within the present buildings, 
to meet the need that might arise, especially in case the 
School should continue to increase in numbers, 

• 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. E. PORTER, M. D. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18. 



FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



THE TEUSTEES 






State Primary and Reform Schools, 



WITH THE 



AMUAL REPORTS OF THE RESIDENT OFFICERS, 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1883. 



BOSTON: • 
WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE HUNTERS. 
IS Post Office Square. 
1884. 



i 



CnmmfliUtt'ealt^ of lllassatjpiitttts. 



TRUSTEES' EEPOET. 



THE STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL. 

To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council: 

The Trustees of State Primary and Reform Schools re- 
spectfully present to you the Fifth Annual Report of the 
three schools under their care. 

The State Primary School has provided hospitable shelter 
for its large but cheerful household, " whose population," as 
has been said, " equals in number that of many a country 
village." The largest number of inmates at any one time 
was 470 ; the smallest, 385 ; 54 have been discharged to 
relatives ; 203 have been sent out on probation ; 22 of these 
were placed at board, of whom 12 are paid for from the 
special appropriation granted for the purpose in July ; 10 
are paid for by the Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity. 

With one exception, the boarding places have proved sat- 
isfactory. Experience has proved that it is unwise to board 
out feeble children, who need the special diet and care that 
can be secured for them in the school. It is not worth while 
to board out children who are likely to be claimed by their 
parents, the intention being to give to orphans and un- 
claimed waifs an early start in country homes, where there 
may be a fair chance for adoption. One dollar and fifty 
cents per week, $78 per year, with $10 for outfit and from $12 
to $15 for additional clothing to be supplied through the 
year, is well expended if, as has already occurred in several 



4 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

cases, the child finds a permanent home and ceases to be- 
come a charge upon the State. The demand for little girls 
to be boarded, with a view to adoption, has exceeded the 
supply, while several boys selected for boarding are still 
waiting for homes. The Trustees desire to fill with healthy 
children all boarding places approved by the excellent offi- 
cer employed by the State Board, and will respectfully 
request the legislature to grant another appropriation for 
the coming year. 

The thorough report of the Superintendent leaves little to 
be recorded. In order to appreciate the difficulties under 
which the Primary School has been brought to its present 
condition of prosperity, while some radical improvements 
still remain to be effected, it may be worth while to note 
the fact that, whereas the two reformatory schools were 
deliberately planned, each for its definite object, assisted 
more or less by private donations, with the understanding 
that enough should be allowed annually by the State for 
carrying on the work undertaken, the Primary School was 
simply an outgrowth of, or rather an offset from, a great 
almshouse, where twenty years ago the 429 children under 
fifteen years of age were under the same roof and manage- 
ment with 141 pauper men and women. 

In those days there were provided only four teachers for 
an average of 300 children of an age to attend school, and 
so small a number of paid assistants that the daily care of 
the smaller children must have devolved mainly upon the 
adult pauper inmates, who, as a rule, shiftless and degraded 
in their habits, must have been most unfit to wash, dress 
and attend to the trifling needs of children at an age to 
need steady and intelligent care. With no play-room for 
rainy days, except a damp, ill-ventilated basement ; with 
no hospital apart from the main building, what wonder 
that in 1863 there were recorded, among other diseases, 
93 cases of ophthalmia and 83 of scabies ; 51 cases of small- 
pox ; 56 deaths. 

At least four years passed before the urgent request for 
better hospital arrangements was complied with, and the 
new, now the old, hospital built at a reasonable distance 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 5 

from the main building. This, in the course of twelve 
years, overcrowded at times with chronic diseases of the 
eyes and ears, with typhoid fever, pneumonia and other 
acute diseases, in its turn became so offensive that in 1880 it 
became necessary to tear out the half-rotten boards from 
the floor and walls and to prepare the shell for use by com- 
plete relining. Ventilation was then properly arranged by 
the simple expedient of warming the fresh air admitted by 
causing it to pass over steam coils, and by providing for 
proper egress of foul air. 

A small building for isolating contagious diseases, built 
at a cost of $3,500 by advice of the physicians on the Board 
of Health, Lunacy and Charity, was completed within the 
present year, too late to isolate the first cases of diph- 
theria, but in season to prevent the spread of that and 
other contagious diseases, such as brought 175 cases of 
whooping cough in 1879 and 250 cases of measles in 1880. 

A trained nurse devotes her whole time to the care of 
the invalids, and assists the physician in attending to the 
troublesome though not contagious ailments of the out-pa- 
tients. During the year ending October, 1883, there were 
13 deaths, mainly from diphtheria, but for the three years 
preceding there were but 5 deaths each year. 

There is not room to trace the improvement in play- 
rooms ; in sleeping arrangements, where whitewash and 
paint, and daily attention to cleanliness have secured a 
noticeable freedom from bad air. 

In 1866 the Primary School was established. The name 
of almshouse was dropped. Children above three years of 
age, from Bridge water and Tewksbury, were added to those 
already at Monson, and, by vote of the Board of State Char- 
ities, became pupils of the State Primary School, no longer 
to be designated as paupers. The same board was author- 
ized to place temporarily in the school, juvenile offenders, 
in cases where cause had been shown to the satisfaction of 
the courts why such should not be committed to the Reform 
School or Industrial School. The distinction between these 
different classes is neither mentioned nor recognized by 
teachers or pupils ; the one set equally with the other take 



6 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

prizes, receive marks for good behavior and find places out- 
side the school. Without claiming that the judgment of the 
officers who make this selection at the courts has been 
always unerring, no evil has been perceived except in the 
case of certain girls of an age and character to introduce 
evil example or conversation. Such girls are no longer 
placed here. There is no excuse for sending such to the 
Primary School while the Industrial School offers a separate 
house for perverse girls of thirteen to fifteen years ; while the 
Auxiliary Visitors stand ready to find homes for such as 
are fit for placing in families without commitment to any 
institution. 

Efforts had been made for placing out such children as 
were capable of self-support for several years before the 
urgent necessity for better supervision resulted in the 
establishment of a special visiting agency in 1869, now 
under the charge of the Superintendent of In-door Poor. 
The neighboring State of Connecticut, and the nearer coun- 
ties of New Hampshire as well as of Massachusetts, have 
been furnished with " little maids of all work" and boys to 
help on farms. 

The number of teachers has been doubled since 1863 ; the 
advance in civilization on the part of the children is evident 
to those who were familiar with the school in its earlier 
days. The amount of punishment has been reduced to a 
minimum by the system of rewards of merit whereby it has 
been made as interesting to behave well as to be in mischief. 
Good temper, forbearance and willing service prevail through- 
out the institution, thanks to the example of Colonel and 
Mrs. Tufts. 

Since 1868, when the thought struck the superintendent 
that the girls and boys might be taught the use of the needle 
with benefit to themselves and to the institution, tailoring and 
sewing have been taught. All the clothing, table-cloths, and 
bedding used in the institution are now made up and mended 
by the children, with the help of six or eight adult inmates 
and two or three sewing machines. The outfits, except the 
coats and trowsers of the older boys, are also made at the 
school, with such regard to appearances as may secure the 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 7 

children from any prejudical association with " institution 
garments." 

For results, we would respectfully call your attention to 
the report of the Superintendent, where it is shown that 
there have been no escapes from the school ; that nearly 
double the proportion of children have been placed out 
as compared with former years, the percentage placed in 
1874 being recorded at twenty-six one hundredths; in 
1883, forty-nine and five-tenths one hundredths, — nearly 
fifty per cent., — most of those returned being placed a 
second, time. 

The question has been earnestly discussed, year after year, 
to what extent the labor of pauper inmates might be dis- 
pensed with. Its crying evils were recognized long before 
the larger appropriations were allowed, which were required 
for a larger corps of paid assistants. It was urged that no 
better class of servants could be found for the heavy work ; 
that it would be cruel to refuse to allow a mother to come 
with her children. No slight evil has resulted from the 
employment of even the reduced number of twenty, who 
have been admitted during the present year ; the ungoverned 
temper peculiar to this class of persons, the noisy out- 
breaks or sulky rebellion against authority, and, in more 
than one instance, still more scandalous conduct might 
readily counteract the good influences we take such pains 
to bring to bear upon these children. 

It is believed that half the number of responsible hired 
women could accomplish the laundry work without the con- 
stant and expensive supervision now required, while the 
service of such persons would be attended with less waste 
of material. 

The Trustees recommend that henceforth pauper labor 
be discontinued in the Primary School, unless, possibly, 
in those rare cases where a woman of thoroughly clean 
character might be admitted with her children. Indeed, it is 
seriously questioned by some members of the Board whether 
a rule excluding all pauper help should not be adopted. 

This review of progress during the past twenty years at 
Monson, may serve to show that if the State would have its 



PKIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



wards prepared for good citizenship ample provision must be 
made for proper sanitary arrangements, for proper training 
in habits of industry in their early years ; moreover, that 
eternal vigilance is necessary in order to avoid the evils to 
which a large institution is liable, and that in order to secure 
intelligent supervision, intelligent officers must be employed 
and paid. 

For several years past a rearrangement of the heating 
apparatus has been contemplated with a view to more efficient 
service. One of the boilers has been repeatedly patched. 
The boiler-maker, who lately repaired it, reported it as 
hardly worthy of further repairs. 

Economy and safety will require an appropriation by the 
legislature for this purpose. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



STATE EEFOEM SCHOOL 



We should begin the section on the Westborongh Reform 
School by requesting a careful consideration of Mr. Allen's 
report. It is a plain statement of important facts that 
deserve serious attention. The Trustees, however, are not 
called upon to endorse or criticise his views on several matters 
which must be taken as his individual opinions. We are 
glad to report that under his administration a marked change 
has occurred in the school ; but still there is much that gives 
us grave uneasiness. 

To understand the situation it is necessary to remember 
that the Eeform School consists of two quite distinct parts . 
One is composed of the inmates of the main building, the 
other of those living in detached houses on the farm. The 
latter class, far more than the former, are in the condition 
contemplated by the charitable founder of the institution. 
They have plenty of fresh air, healthy work and play on the 
farm, besides instruction. We are able to speak favorably 
of their surroundings and hopefully of their future. One 
matter of the internal arrangement of the houses deserves 
attention. The sleeping accommodations are not what they 
should be. When the houses are full, some thirty inmates 
in each sleep in the same room, on bunks, very near to- 
gether, and built in two tiers, one above the other. They 
are much more crowded than is desirable and are not prop- 
erly watched during the night. A good system demands 
more room and more officers. This, of course, implies more 
money, which should not be grudged. Reformation is 
necessarily expensive, and if not done well is better left 
undone. 



10 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

In marked contrast to the outside department is that of 
the main building. We have, indeed, the satisfaction of 
reporting an improvement in the moral atmosphere, owing to 
Mr. Allen's kind and judicious treatment, but it would be 
untrue to express ourselves satisfied with this part of the 
institution. It is a failure ; and but for the superintendent's 
watchfulness, would be a disgrace. The cause and responsi- 
bility for it are easily found. 

First, as to the cause. The law allows young men to be 
sent till the age of seventeen ; the Board of Health, Lunacy 
and Charity can commit those under its charge till they are 
twenty-one ; and those who having been in the school are 
put out at places and do badly, can be returned during their 
minority. The oldest are mostly here, so are those who 
never have been found worthy to be put out, and thus the 
worst inmates naturally accumulate in the main building. 
But, as is greatly to be regretted, the disposal of each boy 
cannot be settled solely by his moral character. Certain 
boys will lose no opportunity to escape ; they are far from 
the worst, but they cannot be put in the trust houses, and 
consequently are kept in the main building, in company with 
its irreformable inmates, and exposed to the worst influences. 

Thus we have the misfortune to be Trustees of an institu- 
tion miscalled a Reform School, which may contain among 
its inmates children barely in their teens, or even younger, 
and criminals of twenty. During the past year the Super- 
intendent found it necessary to remove several of the young 
meu to a separate place of confinement in the new wing of 
the building, which was then unused. To all intents and 
purposes they w r ere in prison. We regretted, but fully 
acquiesced in the necessity of the step. Young men are 
well known to be among the most unmanageable of criminals. 
They are utterly out of place in a reform school among 
smaller boys. Their influence on the latter is disastrous, 
and it is needless to say that while dealing destruction to 
others, they themselves receive no good. Owing to con- 
stant foresight and vigilance there have been but few serious 
breaches of discipline during the past year. Several of the 
young men confined apart escaped after a desperate attack 
on the night watchman. They were recaptured, and are 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 11 

now in jail ; so are three others who attempted to burn the 
building. These are the reasons why this part of the insti- 
tution has been and continues a failure. We wish the public 
to recognize that we feel it dishonest to speak of this part 
as a reform school. 

This being the cause, who is responsible for it? We are 
forced to say the legislature, to whom these evils have 
repeatedly been represented, but without avail. A modifi- 
cation of the law of commitment, reducing the limit of age 
at least to fifteen and making provision for the transfer of 
incorrigible subjects, is absolutely necessary. 



12 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



In giving a report of the State Industrial School for the 
past year, a brief history of its establishment, with a short 
resume of its work, may be helpful to those appointed to 
consider the subject of changes in the public charitable insti- 
tutions, as well as to legislators who desire to vote intelli- 
gently upon matters concerning them. As early as the reform 
school for boys was considered, a similar one for girls, either 
to be connected with that for boys or to be established by 
itself, was strongly recommended. But it was not till 1856 
that the Industrial School was opened at Lancaster " for the 
instruction, employment and reformation of exposed, evil- 
disposed and vicious girls." Twenty thousand dollars had 
been appropriated by the legislature of 1854, upon condi- 
ion of a like sum being raised by private subscription. 
Within six mouths this amount had been assured, and 
three commissioners appointed to report plans for the con- 
duct of the school, and estimate the cost of buildings and 
land suitable for the purpose. 

These commissioners reported to another legislature, and 
were empowered to buy land and build houses. 

The present situation in Lancaster, then known as the 
6i Still well place," was secured. One house, with some out- 
buildings, was purchased with the land, and at an outlay of 
$4,000 was made suitable for one family. Two others were 
built at a cost of $12,500 each, and the school was opened 
on the 27th of August, 1856, the State having made another 
appropriation of $5,000 for furnishing the houses. At the 






1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 13 

end of thirteen months the houses were crowded with one 
hundred inmates. 

The numbers increased until provision had to be made for 
five families, and that number of houses was in use until 
1874, when the numbers decreased, and two houses were 
closed, but both were reopened, one in 1875, the other early 
in 1876. In March of 1877 the " Stillwell mansion," so 
called from having been the residence of the previous 
owners, was burned, and this building has never been 
replaced. There are now but four houses, only three of 
which have been occupied for something more than two 
years. 

The fourth house is really needed, unless the others can be 
so changed as to afford separate rooms and beds for each girl, 
a change very much desired, and without which it is in some 
instances almost hopeless to accomplish much in the way of 
reform. 

During the past year the average has been somewhat 
larger than that of 1882. The number of commitments for 
that year was 48. For 1883 there have been, up to Sept. 
30th, 45. For both years the number has been above the 
average of commitments from the beginning of the school. 
With this increase of commitments for the two past years, 
the average of those resident in the school has been far less 
than in former years, even during those years of the fewest 
commitments. Sufficient cause for this condition is found 
in the practice of the present Board of Trustees of sending 
out all who will in any measure answer family requirements, 
and this reduction of the numbers of inmates resident in 
the institution accounts in its turn for the increased per 
capita expense. 

In the days of the school when the trustees in their 
annual report say, " Each year's experience tends to render 
the propriety of indenturing our girls of doubtful expedi- 
ency," and the superintendent expresses the opinion that if 
they could be kept within the institution until within six 
months of their freedom from the school the results would be 
so much more satisfactory as to warrant a rule to that effect, 
it is reasonable to suppose that they were kept longer 
then than the policy of the present Board of Trustees or 



14 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

that of Health, Lunacy and Charity would approve. That 
this was so, is proved by the fact that the houses were full 
to their utmost capacity, when the commitments were not two- 
thirds of the number of the past two years. It was also the 
custom in those days to keep the courts and commissioners 
informed of vacancies, an intimation of which was followed 
by an increase of numbers. The establishment of the 
Visiting Agency of the Board of State Charities in 1866 
resulted at that time in the diminution of numbers at Lan- 
caster, by providing for many who would, without this 
agency, have been sent to the school. The younger and 
more hopeful of the girls brought before the courts were 
thus prevented from going there. It also became a check 
on unscrupulous persons who sometimes sought to evade the 
responsibility of supporting children who were in no way 
suitable subjects for a reformatory. That there were many 
in the earliest days of the school who could have been man- 
aged without such measures, is proved by a statement from 
one of the early reports of the superintendent. "There is,' 
he says, "absolutely a pressure on the part of parents to 
introduce children against whom not a shadow of a com- 
plaint can be made," and adds still further, that "some 
intelligent persons have even expressed regret that the act 
requires a formal complaint to be made, as many would be 
happy to have their girls enjoy the discipline of the school, 
but are properly reluctant to enter a complaint" 

A decline in numbers was not the only consequence of 
the action of the Visiting Agency in preventing the admis- 
sion of those who did not need the discipline of the school, 
and otherwise providing for the less culpable ones who had 
formerly been committed. There grew up a public opinion 
that the inmates were altogether worse than in the early 
days, and judges hesitated to send there all that needed just 
such training as they would have received there, for fear of 
the corrupting influences of those worse upon the com- 
paratively better. This opinion, into which too many 
have fallen, was not altogether correct, as will be seen by 
careful examination of the early records, where we find 
that many of the commitments were from the first from 
causes as serious as those of a later time, or even of to- 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 15 

day. Allusion is made through many of the reports pre- 
vious to 1871 (the time when the limit of age was advanced 
from 16 to 17 years) to a class in no way different from 
that with which the present management has to do — even 
worse, for mention is made more than once of girls who had 
been in houses of correction and jails previous to their ad- 
mission to the Industrial School, while during the experience 
of the present board no single case of the kind has been 
known. An instance is given of a girl " who for years had 
enjoyed the freedom of the streets, her resorts the lowest 
cellars, her companions most wretched outcasts," while she 
herself says " there is no sin I have not committed." The 
superintendent says, in general remarks on the work, " These 
children come to us, the most of them, squalid in dress, 
coarse in manners, inflamed by passion, unused to restraint, 
nearly every one of them so disobedient as to be ungovern- 
able alone in a family." He also says, in one of the early 
reports, "Forty-five of those admitted are known to have 
been guilty of some offence, either personal or social, 
against purity ; while thirty have laid themselves liable, 
by acts which have been discovered, to imprisonment." In 
1858 the superintendent urges that only "girls who are 
known to be criminal, or have unmistakably manifested 
criminal tendencies," be admitted, on account of " limited 
accommodations ; " so that it is reasonable to suppose that, 
although when the statements above quoted were made 
there were in the school girls of the class afterwards taken 
care of by the Visiting Agency and provided for to-day by 
the Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity, there was the 
same depraved element to deal with and guard against as at 
the present time ; and not only was there no objection to 
receiving girls of this character, as has been seen, but we 
find the superintendent arguing that the work should be 
devoted — almost exclusively to the reformation of this 
class. In the year 1871 the statute, chapter 368, per- 
mits girls up to the age of seventeen years to be admitted to 
the Industrial School, and fears began to be expressed in 
subsequent reports that none but the "incorrigible" were 
from that time to be sent to Lancaster. Since this change 
iii the limit of the age of commitments, the opinion has pre- 



16 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

vailecl that the school was not doing the good work of its first 
years, because of a corrupting element, which it was be- 
lieved did not in those first years gain admittance. That 
this was not true of the earliest days of the school has been 
shown, and the present Board entertains the opinion that 
because the younger and the more hopeful of juvenile of- 
fenders can be taken into the custody of the Board of 
Health, Lunacy and Charity, the Industrial School occupies 
a position more important than any it has held since its 
establishment. It is now a middle place between the care 
of that Board and the Reformatory Prison. Never in its 
whole history has it been more necessary than now as 
a place where girls, up to the age of seventeen years, may 
be admitted and detained from pursuing a career sure to 
end, if no obstacle is opposed, in actual crime and directly 
leading to penal institutions. 

A few months of physical cleanliness ; a few months sys- 
tematic training in habits of industry ; a few months abso- 
lute subordination of their own wills to the dictates of sound 
moral sense, in surroundings which have no association with 
the scenes they have left, and where the language they used, 
even the thoughts they breathed as a matter of course in 
those scenes, are in these among things forbidden — will 
work a most marvellous change in many instances. It is 
not claimed that all are reformed, or that any are reformed 
at once, but this entire change, this separation from their 
past, does in a way so clear away the films of sense, so dissi- 
pate the glamor that threw its lurid light round the scenes of 
sin they have left, that becoming accustomed to the regular- 
ity of well-ordered lives it is possible to reach their hearts 
and to bring out some latent good. 

Although in most cases a few months will accomplish 
this, too much importance cannot be put on this necessary 
removal from old surroundings and evil companions. The 
authority of home, so long defied, is not readily again ac- 
knowledged. The "putting on probation" without this 
change, either by the judge for longer trial or by the Board 
of Health, Lunacy and Charity in their old surroundings, will 
amount to little. In the latter case the auxiliary visitor 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 17 

may do something, bat double difficulties beset her iu her 
work when there has been no training to obedience. 

These remarks do not apply to the younger ones, for 
whom the institution would be undesirable until other agen- 
cies had been tried. The Trustees recognize the desirable- 
ness of family life and influence, but it cannot but be felt 
by them that family life is hardly possible for some girls 
who come before the courts, until they have had the dis- 
cipline and the moral and physical purification of the school. 
Neither will they admit that such as these are fit subjects 
for the woman's prison, until it has been proved by faithful 
trial that they are not themselves being benefited and that 
they are corrupting others in the school. 

The injustice of committing such to Sherborn, without 
giving them a trial at Lancaster, is most manifest to such 
members of this Board as are frequently implored by the 
mothers of girls who are beginning a sinful life or are in 
danger of such a life, to advise them as to their best course. 
Out of many such mothers few are remembered who did 
not express doubts of any good result without an entire 
change of surroundings and freedom from old associations. 
It may be taken as an unalterable statement that these 
mothers would never seek the counsel which would suggest 
the prison instead of the reformatory, and that in conse- 
quence many who now are saved would be too far on the 
way to ruin before any complaint would be made. 

The statute of 1880, chap. 208, sect. 3, provides for the 
transfer to the Reformatory Prison of girls who are found to 
be unsuitable for the life and discipline of the Industrial 
School, and this transfer, though most reluctantly, has been 
made during the past three years in several cases. It has 
seemed necessary to protect the girls of whom there was 
hope, from the baleful influence of those for whom the restraint 
of Sherborn seems necessary and where the danger of 
injuring others does not exist. With this provision of law for 
the protection of the school from the worst cases of impurity 
and depravity, and with the use of the house "No. 5,'' 
tacitly understood, rather than formally declared, to be the 
family of those who have been committed for minor offences, 
the Trustees have been Enabled to bring about a kind of 



18 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

classification, indeed almost as much as they think desirable. 
If the empty house might be opened for girls returned for 
serious " fault," and for the overflow from the other houses, 
(always of course taking out for this house the least desir- 
able members of the other households,) it might in a way 
classify still further, and perhaps lead to emulation in faith- 
fulness of outside service and in general good conduct. But 
the fear that any may imagine themselves outside the general 
sympathetic effort for their reform has hitherto been an 
obstacle to such farther classification. 

Classification has been the one subject most agitated and 
most difficult to accomplish, consistently with the original 
intent of the system, which was to preserve a discipline of 
parental character. 

Nothing should be done which should cause a disruption 
of the ties of common sympathy, or create in the inmates a 
feeling that they are pariahs or outcasts. If having had the 
chance for advancement, they have forfeited its advantages, 
they must begin again with the same encouragement. It 
is felt that nothing so near a satisfactory classification has 
been before accomplished as this separation of the younger, 
the not absolutely immoral, and those who have shown a 
sincere desire to retrieve the past, from the older and the 
thoroughly initiated in vice. 

With all changes claimed to have taken place in the 
school since its beginning, and with all which have really 
taken place, none is so striking as the decreased numbers 
within the school. The cause has been given again and 
again, — the constant culling from each house of all who can 
with safety be sent out. The whole number belonging to 
the school, really under its care and liable to recall or return, 
would require more room than is available in the four 
houses with their present construction. That no such whole- 
sale return is anticipated, may be understood by reference 
to the books of the Department of Indoor Poor, where there 
is an ever-increasing demand for girls from this school for 
domestic service. 

That they must be somewhat capable and useful, faithful 
in some degree, "goes without saying." The average 
employer in search for help in domestic service is not phil- 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 19 

anthropic enough to take these girls to make them faithful 
and efficient, but takes them because he or she finds that 
they are so ; and that they are so they owe mainly to the 
wholesome discipline, the training, the patient teaching and 
bearing with their faults of the matrons and teachers of the 
Industrial School. Direct from the courts, without this 
preliminary training, this living in the air of wholesomeness 
and truth, they could not be retained one week in respect- 
able homes. Nor could any of the class now committed to 
the Industrial School be properly placed in the Primary 
School at Monson without injury to the inmates of that 
school, or with the same chances for their own reformation 
as they have at Lancaster. The Trustees repeat their belief 
in the necessity of the Industrial School for a class too 
much depraved to be under a system intended only for the 
unfortunate, and too young and too hopeful to be consigned 
at once to a prison where criminals of all grades in vice are 
received. 

And it must not be supposed that any haphazard arrange- 
ments are permitted in finding places for these girls. If 
petition is made for their return to their homes most careful 
investigation is made by the Board of Health, Lunacy and 
Charity, and equally careful consideration by the Trustees 
of the report of that board before their consent is given. 
If the home of the parents is unsuitable, and it is desirable 
that they be placed in other families for domestic work, or 
in other situations where an honest living may be earned, 
like care is used. By the courtesy of the head of the 
Department of Indoor Poor, the Trustees are made 
acquainted with requirements of families and other em- 
ployers, and are able to suit the girl to the place, the place 
to the girl. 

There are various causes operating to keep the commit- 
ments to the Industrial School from reaching the maximum 
numbers of former years. These causes have been referred 
to in previous reports, and they still exist. Among them is 
the obligation on the part of towns and cities to pay one 
dollar towards the support of the girl committed, in place of 
half that sum, which was formerly paid. Another, and it 
seems to some of the Board more potent than any other 



20 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

one, is the necessity of making a complaint before the 
police court, and the unavoidable publicity attendant upon 
such a method. The mother is often the complainant, and 
the ordeal of an appearance before this court, in the midst 
of all kinds of criminals, adds to her already overflowing 
cup, and not unfrequently deters her altogether from seeking 
the remedy through that source. 

In the early history of the school commitments were made 
through the judges of probate or by commissioners appoint- 
ed for the purpose. It may be that in this way some were 
committed who might have been taken care of by other 
means, and it is a question worth consideration whether a re- 
turn to the old method of commitment would result in more 
harm than good. 

The matter of expense is ever recurring and forms the 
text, and vvith reason, of almost all who consider the school 
at Lancaster. The cause has been given again and again 
for the large per capita expense ; and, to quote from an- 
other, "the very success" of the school "is made into an 
argument against it. There are but few girls there, and, con- 
sequently, they may be removed and the school abolished." 
The very object for which all interested in it have been 
striving for years, viz., to place, and keep in places, the girls 
committed to it having been accomplished, the short-sighted 
immediately see no necessity for its existence. There are 
various items of expense, which even the opposers of the 
school would not remove if they could, and indeed it is 
believed that no one cognizant of the real state of affairs 
there would wish economy to be carried farther. The trans- 
portation item is a large one, but no one would wish a girl, 
who might do well if in a suitable place, to stay in one 
manifestly unsuitable, because it will cost a railroad fare for 
herself and perhaps an attendant to make a change. No 
one would wish a girl who is behaving badly to be set adrift, 
because the fees of an officer must be paid to return her to 
the school, where she may try again. If a girl escapes shall 
she not be retaken because it will cost some money to do 
so ? If sickness overtakes her and her wages are insufficient 
to pay a doctor's bill, shall not the State pay such bill ? And 
shall not the young girl bent on a new life, ambitious to do 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



21 



well, go forth in an outfit carrying no suggestion of the 
Lancaster school, but such as any economical, respectable 
young working girl might wear? 

With an average of sixty-seven girls, and but fifty single 
sleeping-rooms, and with no accommodations for sickness, 
it will readily be seen that if the unoccupied house be not 
put to the use suggested in the first part of this report, it 
may be required at any moment in cases of emergency. 

The per capita cost increases whenever the numbers resi- 
dent at the school decrease, but the actual cost to the State 
has been steadily declining, as the following table, made up 
from the auditor's reports for the last ten years, will show. 
The large decrease in salaries is most marked. 





Average. 


Total Expenses. 


Salaries. 


1874, 






971 


$20,708 11 


$10,601 54 


1875, 






Sit 


28,621 62 


9,246 14 


1876, 


. 




122 


23,554 10 


10,960 97 


1877, 






120 


20,834 83 


10,168 56 


1878, 


• 




98 


23,863 46 


10,048 20 


1879, 


• 




- 


17,870 50 


- 


1880, 


• 




76 


18,217 72 


6,630 96 


1881, 






! 63 


16,121 85 


6,087 50 


1882, 






sm 


14,840 08 


5,808 54 


1883, . 


• 




67 


15,860 69 


6,102 74 



The expense, as a whole, is not large. Let the great, 
prosperous State of Massachusetts decide if it cannot afford, 
out of its abundance, to invest the small sum required to 
carry on this school, which sum will pay a large return, if 
honest, useful lives are the result. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 



22 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

[Note. — The table appended to this report has been carefully pre- 
pared by Miss Putnam, and the following quotation from the report of 
the Industrial School of last year will give the sources from which it 
was made and its value, to such as desire to get at the results of the 
school.] (See page 24.) 

" The Trustees, believing the only proper test of the value 
of any institution for the young to be that of their behavior 
when placed out, will not confine their report to the present 
year, but will review the results of the school discipline and 
training as they may be gathered from personal knowledge 
and from the faithful records kept by the Board of Health, 
Lunacy and Charity, of 229* girls who have been on the lists, 
and in the custody of the Industrial School during the past 
two years, f visited by the women appointed as Auxiliary 
Visitors by this Board. The first on this list of girls had 
been committed in 1869, being then eight years of age, and 
has lately attained her majority and passed out of the care 
of the State. The offences of these 229* have been classified 
under four heads, but in making these classifications the 
technical offence charged has been in many cases set aside 
and the actual misconduct at the time of arrest, as learned 
from the court records, has been taken to be the real cause 
for commitment ; as, for instance, where the gravest offences 
are found to be covered by the charge of stubbornness, and 
a trifling theft used evidently as a pretext for arresting the 
girl in order to rescue her from bad companions." 

ELIZABETH C. PUTNAM, of Boston, ^Secretary. 
THOMAS DWIGHT, of Boston, i 

ANNE B. RICHARDSON, of Lowell, ) 
GEORGE W. JOHNSON, of Brookfield, Chairman, 
SAMUEL R. HEYWOOD,of Worcester, 
LYMAN BELKNAP, of Westborough, Treasurer. 



The undersigned member of the Board of Trustees for the 
State Primary and Reform Schools, cannot assent to that 
part of the report referring to the Reform School, found at 
the top of the 10th page. 

* Now numbering 274, f Now three years. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 23 

Speaking of the marked contrast of the outside depart- 
ment (meaning the family houses) with the main building, 
the report says of the latter : " it is a failure; and but for 
the Superintendent's watchfulness, would be a disgrace." 

I. A large share of the good results, coming from the 
outside, or family department, is because there is a main 
building, or a strong department, where restraints are greater 
and privileges are less. 

II. The main building is where the superintendent 
resides, and is the place for all punishments. 

If the conduct of a boy in the family houses is such as to 
require anything like severe discipline or punishment, he 
is immediately sent to the main building to be dealt with, 
by the superintendent, as his offence may seem to require. 

III. Very many boys go out from the main building by 
permission of the Board of Trustees and do well, as will 
appear on the records at the State House. 

For these reasons this department should not be called a 
failure. 

Again. In the closing paragraph on the 11th page, refer- 
ring to a modification of the laws of commitment, I would 
respectfully ask the legislature to consider fixing the age at 
14 years, and leaving it discretionary with the courts, to 
send the more hopeful boys, between the ages of 14 and 17 
years, and make provision for the transfer of the incorrigible, 
for these reasons : — 

I. Very many boys, especially from the country towns, 
over the age of 14 years, do well at the school, and the 
chances are greater of their making better citizens than if 
disgraced by being sent to a county prison. 

II. The influence of an older class of good boys is bene- 
ficial to the younger class of boys. 

MILO HILDRETH. 

NORTHBOROTJGH. 



24 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. FOct. 



TABLE 

Showing as nearly as can be ascertained from the Court Records, the 
real causes for commitment of 274 ivards of the State Industrial 
School, including those on probation Sept. 30, 1880, and all since 
committed, under four different heads; tracing the conduct of each 
of these four classes of girls since leaving the School on probation 
or othenoise, and giving their status at 21 years or when last 
heard from. 



BEHAVIOR SINCE LEAVING THE SCHOOL 
ACCORDING TO LAST ACCOUNTS. 



Since leaving the school conduct very good, 

Good on the whole 

Fairly good, 

Supporting illegitimate child by honest work, 

Child dead, mother self-supporting, 

Have had illegitimate child, behavior doubtful 

Behavior doubtful, 

Pregnant; unmarried, .... 

In prison, 

Term expired at prison (discharged from cus- 
tody of the school), 

Run away from school, . 
Run away from place, . 
In other institutions, . 

Discharged as unfit subject, . 
Died; never placed on probation, . 
Remaining in I. S. Sept. 30, 1883, . 

Total, 



Real Cause of Commitment. 



to ^ 

H 
■§! 






11 



Qr 



IS 



46 84 



g-O 



115 



Totals. 



154 



In 



33 



274 



Summary. 



There have become honestly self-supporting, . 

Behavior doubtful 

Runaway or behavior otherwise bad (11 of 

these in prison), 

In hospital or other institutions, not penal, 
Remaining in the I. S. Sept. 30, 1883, 
Died ; never placed on probation, 
Discharged as unfit subject, .... 

Total, . . . , 



17 


26 


54 


57 


- 


1 


3 


11 


4 


5 


8 


16 


- 


3 


1 


- 


7 


11 


18 


29 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


29 


46 


84 


115 



154 
15 

33 
4 

65 
2 
1 



274 



Since leaving the school seven of these have died ; sixty -five have come of age or 
have been discharged; thirty-eight have been married, six unsatisfactorily married, 
behavior doubtful, thirty -two well married and doing well at last accounts. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 25 



TRUST FUNDS OF STATE REFORM 
SCHOOL. 



TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Lyman Fund. 



Lyman Belknap, Treasurer, in account with Income of Lyman Fund. 

1882. Dr. 

Oct. 1. Balance brought forward, $1,268 23 

Interest on balance of Westborough Bank for 

Oct., :. . 3 28 

2. Dividend on 100 shares Boston & Albany R. R. 

stock, 200 00 

Interest on Town of Marlborough note, . . 206 25 

on two $1,000 Government bonds, . 20 00 

Nov. 1. Interest on balance ot Westborough Natioual 

Bank for Nov., 4 90 

10. Dividend on 40 shares Citizens' National Bank 

stock, 120 00 

16. Interest on 1Q shares Boston & Maine R. R. 

stock, 40 00 

Dec. 1. Interest on balance of Westborough National 

Bank for Dec, 4 14 

12. Check from Mary Lamb Fund, .... 100 00 
23. National Bank tax refunded, .... 40 00 

1883. 

Jan. 1. Interest on balance of Westborough National 

Bank for Jan., 1 42 

2. Dividend on 100 shares of Boston & Albany 

R. R. stock, . 200 00 

11. Balance National Bank tax refunded, . 98 83 
Interest on two $1,000 Government bonds, . 20 00 

Feb. 1. balance of Westborough National 

Bank for Feb., .... 42 

2. $2,000 Boston & Albany R. R. bonds, 70 00 

13. $1,000 Old Colony R. R. 6 per cent. 

bond, six months, ... 30 00 

Dividend on 13 shares Providence & Worcester 

R. R. stock 39 00 



26 PEIMARY AND KEFOKM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

March 1. 
30. 



Sept. 



Interest on balance of Westborough National 
Bank for March, ... 
Town of Marlborough note, . 
Dividend on 100 shares Boston & Albany R. R 

stock, 

April 1. Interest on balance of Westborough National 
Bank for April, . 
two $1,000 Government bonds, 
balance of Westborough Bank for 

May, 

Dividend on 140 shares Citizens' National Bank 

stock, 

Interest on 10 shares Boston & Maine R. R 

stock, 

balance of Westborough National 

Bank for June, 
balance of Westborough National 
Bank for July, 
Dividend on 100 shares Boston & Albany R. R 

stock, 

13 shares Providence & Worcester 
R. R. stock, . 
Interest on two $1,000 Government bonds, 

balance of Westborough National 

Bank for Aug., 
$2,000 Boston & Albany R. R. bonds 
$1,000 Old Colony R. R. 6 per cent 

bonds, six months, 
balance of Westborough National 

Bank, 

balance of Westborough National 
Bank for Sept., . 





13 


May 


1 




11. 




17 


June 


1 


July 


1. 




2 




3 




19 


Aug. 


1 



Payments as authorized by vote of Trustees. 

Cr. 

J. A. Allen, Supt., overwork of boys, 
Hale & Walcott, legal services, .... 
J. A. Allen, Supt., Thanksgiving and Christmas, 
13 shares Providence & Worcester R. R. stock, 

Miss E. C. Putnam, amount paid D. A. Gleason, 

J. A. Allen, Supt., books, 

overwork of boys, 
24. N. E. School Furnishing Co., spelling tablets, . 
J. A. Allen, Supt., Tern. Advocate, Science 
Monthly, Daily Adv., . . . . * . 
Feb. 12. C. B. Frost, skates, straps, etc., 



1883. 




Nov. 


13. 




20. 


Dec. 


12. 


1883. 




Jan. 


2. 




12. 



$0 55 
206 25 



200 00 



53 


20 00 


57 


120 00 


40 00 


96 


82 


200 00 


39 00 


20 00 


46 


70 00 


30 00 


1 05 


1 67 



$3,418 33 



$25 00 


125 00 


50 00 


1,716 00 


40 80 


25 00 


25 00 


12 00 


27 80 


43 12 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



27 



March 10. Oliver Ditson & Co., music, 

A. H. Roffe & Co., periodicals, . 
J. A. Allen, Supt., board of John Anglim, 
24. overwork of boys, 

April 11. Dr. A. A. Bachelor, dentistry, . 

Treas. of Am. Rubber Co., footballs, 
J. A. Allen, Supt., paying boy, . 
May 16. Money borrowed from Mary Lamb Fund 
Dec. 12, . . . . . 

J. A. Allen, Supt., proceedings of Com. of 
Charities, ...... 

J. A. Allen, Supt., books bought of Clark Bros, 
board of Chas. Young;, 

Musical Herald Co., 

Unitarian S. S. Soc, 50 copies Dayspring, 
June 13. S. R. Hey wood, board of J. Libby, . 

18. J. A. Allen, Supt., R. R. fare of J. W. Gardner 
July 20. Security Safe Deposit Co., use of vault, . 
Aug. 16. Heyer Bros., torpedoes, etc., 

Cobb, Bates & Yerxa, raisins, peanuts, etc., 
J. A. Allen, Supt., funds paid Wm. Donovan, 

J. Sullivan, 
R. R. fare of Juba, $1.00 
Maxwell, $1.20, 
Sept. 13. Codman & Shurtleff, forceps, 

29. L. Belknap, stationery, .... 
Balance carried forward, .... 



$17 15 

76 25 

5 00 

50 00 

115 35 

18 00 

5 00 

100 00 



6 00 


5 40 


9 10 


1 50 


12 50 


8 00 


10 00 


10 00 


10 00 


20 85 


5 00 


5 00 


2 20 


2 00 


2 00 


832 31 



$3,418 33 
LYMAN BELKNAP, Treasurer. 



Audited and approved. 

GEO. W. JOHNSON, 
SAM'L R. HEYWOOD, 

Committee. 



28 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Mary Lamb Fund. 



Lyman Belknap, Treasurer, in account with Income of Mary Lamb Fund. 

1882. Dr. 

Oct. 1. Balance carried forward, .... 

Interest on one $1,000 Government bond, 3 months 

1883. 

Feb. 13. Interest on one $1,000 Government bond, 3 months 
March 1. balance of Westborough National Bank 

April 1. balance of Westborough National Bank 

for April, 

13. one $1,000 Government bond, 3 months 

May 1. balance of Westborough National Bank 

for May, 

17. Money borrowed Dec. 12, to increase Lyman Fund 
June 1. Interest on balance of Westborough National Bank 

for June, 

balance of Westborough National Bank 

for July, 

one $1,000 Government bond, 3 months 
balance of Westborough National Bank 

for August, .... 
balance of Westborough National Bank 
for Sept., 



July 1. 

19. 
Aug. 1. 

Sept. 1. 



1882. 



Cb. 



Dec. 12. Amount paid to increase Lyman Fund, 

1883. 

Oct. 30. Balance carried forward, 



$625 99 


10 00 


10 00 


3 71 


1 27 


10 00 


1 52 


100 00 



1 37 



1 43 


10 00 


1 39 


1 26 


$777 94 


$100 00 


677 94 



$777 94 
LYMAN BELKNAP, Treasurer. 



Audited and approved. 

GEO. W. JOHNSON, 
SAM'L R. HEYWOOD, 

Committee. 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



29 



1883. 

Sept. 30. 



Inventory of Lyman Fund. 

100 shares Boston & Albany E. R. stock, . . $10,000 00 

66 " Fitchburg R. R. stock, . . . 6,600 00 

10 " Boston & Maine R. R stock, . . 1,000 00 

40 " Citizens' National Bank stock, . . 4,000 00 

13 " Providence & Worcester R. R. stock, . 1,300 00 
Two $1,000 Boston & Albany R. R. Co. bonds, 7 

per cent., 2,000 00 

Two $1,000 Government bonds, 4 per cent., . 2,000 00 

One $1,000 Old Colony R. R. Co. bond, . . 1,000 00 

Note of town of Marlborough, .... 10,000 00 

Cash on hand, 832 31 

$38,732 31 
Inventory of Mary Lamb Fund. 



Cash on hand, 



Audited and approved. 

GEO. W. JOHNSON, 
SAM'L R. HEYWOOD, 

Committee. 



ment bond, 


BELKNAP, 


$1,000 00 
677 94 


LYMAN 


$1,677 94 
Treasurer. 



Note. — A typographical or clerical mistake in last year's report 
caused an error in the addition of the items of the Lyman Fund, making 
the amount appear to be $47,868.23, instead of |37,868.23, the correct 
amount of the fund. 



30 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. 



[Oct. 



TKUST FUNDS OF STATE INDUSTRIAL 

SCHOOL. 



TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Lyman Belknap, Treasurer, in account with Income oj Trust Funds 
of State Industrial School. 



1882. 

Oct. 



Nov, 



12. 
1. 

6. 



8. 
23. 



25. 

27. 



Dec. 1. 

i88a. 
Jan. 1. 

Feb. 9. 
14, 



Dr. 

Balance brought forward, .... 

in Bank account June 5, . 
Interest on balance of Westborough National 

Bank for Oct., 

Check from Clinton Savings Bank for A. M., 
Interest on balance of Westborough National 

Bank for Nov., 

Check from Clinton Savings Bank for A. S., 
Cash from Westborough Savings Bank for A. S. 
Westborough Savings Bank for J. B. 
Westborough Savings Bank for J. S. 
Check from Clinton Savings Bank for S. G., 
Clinton Savings Bank for M. M., 
Cash from Westborough Savings Bank for M. M 
Boston Five Cents Savings Bank for 

M. B., ..... 
Boston Five Cents Savings Bank for 

L. S., . . 
Westborough Savings Bank for A P 
Check from Clinton Savings Bank for F. A., 
Cash from Westborough Savings Bank for F. A 
N. P. Brown for F. A., 
Westborough Savings Bank for M. G, 
Interest on balance of Westborough National 
Bank for Dec, 

Interest on balance of Westborough National 

Bank for Jan., 

Cash from Westborough Savings Bank for S. McN., 
Check from Clinton Savings Bank for A. G., 



$1,030 47 




12 


2 


05 


57 


88 


2 


21 


54 30 


6 


06 


49 


26 


20 


43 


54 


10 


21 


00 


12 


00 



75 

5 97 
9 04 
11 32 
32 68 
10 00 
14 88 

2 30 



1 42 

10 35 

11 00 



/ 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



31 



1883. 

Feb. 19. 
26. 



March 


t 1, 


April 


1, 


May 


1. 




10. 




u. 




16. 


June 


1 




9. 




12. 




30. 


July 


1. 




2. 


Aug. 


1. 



80. 



31. 



Sept. 1. 
25. 



Cash from Boston Five Cents Savings Bank for 

J. G., 

Cash from Boston Five Cents Savings Bank for 

L. B, 

Interest on balance of Westborough National 

Bank for Feb., .... 

balance of Westborough National 

Bank for March, .... 

balance of Westborough National 

Bank for April, .... 

balance of Westborough National 

Bank for May, .... 

Check from Clinton Savings Bank for K. W., 

Cash from Westborough Savings Bank for K. W., 

" " " " for R. C, 

" for E. C, 

Check from Clinton Savings Bank for E. C, 

Interest on balance of Westborough National 

Bank for June, 

Cash from Westborough Savings Bank for M.J. B., 

Cash from Boston Five Cents Savings Bank for 

A. E, ........ 

Check from Clinton Savings Bank for M. G., 

Interest on balance of Westborough National 

Bank for July, 

Cash from Westborough Savings Bank for M. G., 

Interest on balance of Westborough National 

Bank for Aug., 

Check from Clinton Savings Bank for B. M., 

" forM. M., 

" forM. C, 

Cash from Westborough Savings Bank for M. C, 

" forE. H., 
i. for E C) 

Cash from Boston Five Cents Savings Bank for 
A. C, 

Interest on balance of Westborough National 
Bank for Sept., 

Cash from Westborough Savings Bank for M.J. K., 
" " " " « forC.O'B., 



$57 35 

10 25 

69 

26 

31 





20 


15 


18 


14 


39 


20 


90 


20 


25 


19 


63 




21 


10 00 


26 


08 


22 


05 




20 


21 


19 




21 


8 69 


7 


00 


2 


50 


2 


17 


38 03 


27 


60 



25 00 

21 

10 13 

11 81 



1.792 08 



32 



PKIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Payments as authorized by vote of Trustees. 



1882. 

Oct. 14. 

Nov. 6. 



27. 



Dec. 22. 



Cr. 



Check to A. M., $57 8S 

A. S., 60 36 

J. O. B., 49 26 

S. C. Wrightington for J. S., . . . 20 43 

M. M., 33 00 

S. G., 54 10 

M. B., redeposited in Westborough Sav- 
ings Bank, 75 

L. S., redeposited in Westborough Sav- 
ings Bank, 5 97 

A. P., redeposited in Westborough Sav- 
ings Bank, . . . . . 9 04 

F. A, 54 00 

M. G., 14 88 

D. A. Gleason, amount bank deposit of 

deceased wards, 85 26' 

D. A. Gleason, amount collected by former 

trustees for suits in case of bastardy,* . 424 95 

Miss Putnam for M. M. and burial of child, 40 50 

M. W., for clothing: for child, ... 6 00 



1883. 


Jan. 


1 


Feb. 


8 




17. 




20 




26. 


May 


15 




17 


June 


9 




13 


July 


3 


Sept 


3. 



amount transferred to Mary Lamb Fund, 
D. A. Gleason, balance of deposit received 

for suit in case of M. & P., 
Mrs. H. Barber from A. G. deposit, 



XVliS. XX. JJH1 

S. A. McN. 


> 






J. G., . . . 






L. B., . 








K. W., 








R. C, . 








E. C, . 








M. J. B., 








A. E., 








M. G., 








M. M., 








M. C., 








B. M., 








E. C, . 








E. H., . 









223 26 



Amount carried forward, 

* See report of 1882, page 45. 



109 50 


11 00 


10 35 


57 35 


10 25 


29 57 


20 90 


39 88 


10 00 


26 08 


43 24 


7 00 


4 67 


8 69 


27 60 


38 03 


$1,593 75 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



Amount brought forward, .... 

1883. 

Sept. 3. Check to A. C, . 

26. M. K., . 

Thomas O'Brien (C. O'Brien's deposit), 
30. L. Belknap, stationery, 

Balance carried forward, 





38 


$1,593 


75 


25 


00 


10 


13 


11 


81 


2 


25 




14 



$1,792 08 
LYMAN BELKNAP, Treasurer. 



This balance consists of trust for W. child, 
Interest on deposit in Westborough National Bank, 



$141 00 
10 39 



Bill for stationery, deducted, 



Audited and approved. 

GEO. W. JOHNSON, 
SAM'L R. HEYWOOD, 

Committee. 



$151 39 

2 25 

$149 14 



34 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Mary Lamb Fund. 



39 00 



1883. 

Jan. 1. Amount transferred from Industrial School ac- 
count, $223 26 

April dividend on 13 shares Boston National Bank 

stock, 

October dividend on 13 shares Boston National 

Bank stock, 

Bank tax refunded, 

March 1. Interest on balance of Westborough National Bank 

for March, 

April 1. Interest on balance of Westborough National Bank 

for April, 

13. April dividend on 13 shares Boston National Bank 

stock, 

May 1. Interest on balance of Westborough National Bank 

for May, 

June 1. Interest on balance of Westborough National Bank 

for June, 

July 1. Interest on balance of Westborough National Bank 

for July, 

Aug. 1. Interest on balance of Westborough National Bank 

for August, 

Sept. 1. Interest on balance of Westborough National Bank 

for September, 



39 00 


45 72 


1 21 


63 


39 00 


61 


63 


61 


63 


63 


$390 93 



1882. CR. 

Dec. 18. Check to N. P. Brown, for Christmas and New- 
Year's, . 

1883. 

Jan. 27. Check to Miss Putnam for L. H., . 
June 18. " " " for tuition of M. S., 

Aug. 20. " " " for board of L. H., 

Sept. 30. Balance carried forward, 



$35 00 

6 86 

70 00 

17 00 

262 07 



$390 93 
LYMAN BELKNAP, Treasurer. 



Audited and approved. 

GEO. W. JOHNSON, 
SAM'L R. HEYWOOD, 

Committee. 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 35 



Fay Fund. 

1882. Dr. 

Oct. 1. Balance brought forward, . . . . . $40 40 

1883. 

Sept. 1. Dividend from Chelsea Savings Bank, . . . 40 40 

$80 80 

1883. C"R. 

June 19. Check to G. H., ........ $673 

A. L., 6 73 

R. C 6 73 

A. D., 6 73 

J. B., . . .... . . 6 74 

A. J., 6 74 

Sept. 30. Balance carried forward, 40 40 

$80 80 

LYMAN BELKNAP, Treasurer. 

Audited and approved. 

GEO. W. JOHNSON, 
SAM'L R. HEYWOOD, 

Committee. 



Rogers Fund, 

Dr. 

Balance of income of 1882, $22 49 

March 23. Received of State Treasurer, .... 30 00 

July 24. Received of State Treasurer, ■ . . . . 30 00 

$82 49 

Cr. 
March 28. Paid bill for magazines and newspapers, . , $54 35 
Balance carried to new account, .... 28 14 

$82 49 



36 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. '83. 



ESTVElSi TOKY OF TEUST FUNDS OF STATE 
INDUSTKIAL SCHOOL. 



MARY LAMB FUND. 

Sept. 30. 13 shares Boston National Bank Stock, . . $1,300 00 
Cash on hand, 262 07 

$1,562 07 

FAY FUND. 

Deposit in Chelsea Savings Bank, income to be divided 

yearly among best deserving girls, .... . $1,000 00 
Sept. 30. Balance on hand, 40 40 

$1,040 40 

HENRY B. ROGERS FUND. 

1 State of Maine bond, 6 per cent., deposited in State Treas- 
ury, income to be expended for books, . . . $1,000 00 
Sept. 30. Balance on hand, ....... 28 14 

$1,028 14 

SAVINGS BANK DEPOSIT FOR GIRLS. 

38 depositors in Boston Five Cents Savings Bank, — amount 

deposited, $592 62 

19 depositors in Clinton Savings Bank, — amount deposited, 177 47 

47 depositors in Westborougn Savings Bank, — amount 

deposited, ....... 704 89 

$1,474 98 
LYMAN BELKNAP, Treasurer. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18. 



REPORT OF TIE OFFICERS 



STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL 



MONSON 



1883. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS; 

18 Post Office Square. 

1884. 






SUPEKINTENDENT'S EEPOKT. 



October, 1883. 
To the Trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools. 

I have the honor to present herewith a report of the affairs 
of the State Primary School for the year ending Sept. 30, 
1883, presented mainly in statistical and tabulated state- 
ments. 

"Statement A" is a summary of admissions to and dis- 
charges from the institution, showing from whence the per- 
sons came and whither and how they went away. The 
number of inmates at the institution at the beginning of the 
year was 475. The number received during the year, 254. 
The number of different persons under care during the year, 
672; apparent number, 729.* The number who went there- 
from, 289. There remained at the close of the year 311 
boys, 108 girls, 21 women ; total, 440. 

" Statement B " is of comparative statistics for the five 
years last past. Showing the number of persons in the 
institution at the beginning of the year, the average, the 
largest, and the smallest numbers during the years ; the num- 
ber of children received who were taken from the courts ; 
the number received from the State Almshouse ; the number 
received as neglected children ; the number received as 
dependent ones ; the number born in the institution, the 
number returned alter having been placed out, the number 
discharged, the number placed on trial or at board in fam- 
ilies, the number of elopers and the number of deaths for 
each of the five years. 

* The apparent number is made by including the re-admission of 57 children 
returned to the school from places to which they had been sent. 



40 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

" Statement C " shows the nativity of the 672 different 
persons under care during the year: 525 were native born, 
112 foreign born, 35 whose places of birth are unknown, 
441 were born in Massachusetts. 

" Statement D" gives the number of arrivals and depart- 
ures for the ten }^ears last past, with comparative percent- 
ages. The increased percentage of placing out to average 
population in the later years is noticeable, rising from 26 in 
1874 to 49^ per cent, in 1883. 

" Statement E" is that of current expenditures in detail, 
being twenty-five different items for each of the twelve 
months. By it can readily be seen what was expended 
for services, provisions, groceries, clothing, etc., in each 
and every month. 

" Statement F" shows the persons employed, nature of 
service rendered, length of such service by each person and 
the compensation therefor. By the arrangement of the table 
it is made clear whether a person served a year or only a 
fractional part of a year, and also whether the same office 
was held by one or more persons. The changes of officers 
also appear therein. 

" Statement G" is that of the products of the farm, the 
aggregate value of which is $13,025.05. Owing to the ex- 
treme drouth of this year and the raising of veal for the 
table, the product of milk during the year was considerably 
diminished. The amount raised was 12 1^ tons. The amount 
of milk bought is about 1J tons per month. 

On account of the drouth the cut of hay was only about 
two-thirds the usual amount. The yield of potatoes was 
800 bushels greater than last year, being 2,243 bushels. 

" Statement H" is of the work done in the sewing-room 
and tailor s shop and the repairs of garments and bedding 
done elsewhere within the institution. 

All the garments worn by inmates and all the bedding, 
towels, etc., used in the institution are made on the prem- 
ises. Reparing is carried to the extreme limit of economy : 
the amount of it is large. The wear and tear by more than 
four hundred boys and girls rollicking in freedom over ample 
grounds is great. 

" Statement I " is the Superintendent's as Disbursing 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 41 

Officer. He received during the year from the regular and 
extra appropriations and for sales, $58,463.29, and disbursed 
the same amount, as per vouchers on file at the state audi- 
tor's office. 

The per capita cost of maintenance at the institution was 
$2.25 per week: four cents per week, per capita, more 
than it was in the year immediately preceding. The State 
Primary School is wholly maintained by annual legislative 
appropriation, not having any fund or endowment. In its 
expenditure is included every expense of instruction, board- 
ing, clothing and care, as well as the cost of an ample outfit 
of clothing, and transportation for all who go out from the 
institution to their friends or to homes found for them. 

The actual cost of the institution to the State is less than 
here given, as collections from cities and towns in the sum 
of one dollar per week, on account of those inmates having 
settlements, are made by the Superintendent of Indoor Poor. 
The amount collected for the year just closed is $1,946.78, 
making the net per capita cost $2.16 per week. 

" Statement J " shows the number of child workers in the 
institution, and how they are employed. The amount of 
work which they do in the work-rooms and about the build- 
ings is considerable, as will be seen by reference to " State- 
ment H," yet the amount which they do upon the farm and 
in the barns is greater than in any other place. Industrial 
teaching is not an experiment, but an established fact, at the 
State Primary School. About one-half of the scholars work 
one half of school hours and attend school the other half of 
such hours. Such division of study and work is found to be 
advantageous. As our schools are kept forty-seven weeks 
in a year it is believed that the scholars make more progress 
in their studies in attending school one-half of the time, than 
they would if they attended all the time the schools are in 
session through the long terms we keep ; beside their gain 
of industrial knowledge and skill. The work given the 
children to do is such as will probably first come to them as 
employment when they go from here or come to the time 
of self-support. It will be observed by reference to " State- 
ment J " that beside the house and farm workers there are 
many who are employed in the tailor shop, shoe shop, 



42 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

bakery and sewing-room, gaining therein at least the foun- 
dations of trades. The average number of workers is given 
in this statement. The number of individuals employed is 
yet greater. The average total is 195. 

44 Statement K " is concerning the consumption of flour — 
one of the largest in quantity and cheapest articles of our 
food. The daily per capita consumption is 14.34 ounces. 
St. Louis flour is almost always used. The price of it has 
varied in four years from $5.85 to $7.50 per barrel. 

44 Statement L " is a recapitulation of the inventory taken 
by appraisers Sept. 30, 1883. It will be observed that the 
valuation is larger by $4,483.10 than one year ago. In an 
institution as large as the State Primary School there are 
many articles of greater value to it than official appraisers 
give to them. As an institution is perpetual, its wants 
continuous and its population changing with each day and 
month, purchases must be made without regard to the end 
of the official year. The stock on hand may be, in the 
necessities of the institution, increased just before or just 
after an appraisal. The appraisal serves as a sort of in- 
vestigation into the material concerns of an institution and 
not as a test of business prosperity. 

44 Statement M" and 44 Statement N" show the receipts 
and expenditures in building the hospital for contagious 
diseases and in providing increased water supply. 

Following the several < 4 statements" is a diagram showing 
the movement of population in the institution during the 
past four years. It is an interesting study, illustrating the 
law of averages. 

Accompanying this report, as a part of it, is the report of 
the principal of the schools. Its statistics are full, and its 
remarks are interesting and valuable. 

The schools are our chief concern, for their teachings are 
the children's greatest need. We strive to make them good 
and efficient. We believe they are better now than ever 
before ; that they will compare favorably with the schools 
of cities and towns. 

They are eight in number. All the teachers are ladies. 
The principal teaches the first school, besides having the 
oversight of all the other schools. On referring to the list 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 43 

of teachers now in charge, their teaching experience and 
the places of their education, it will be observed all of them 
were taught in approved schools. The " courses of study" 
remain substantially as given in last year's report. A list 
of text-books used is given in this report. 

I commend the principal's report to your special atten- 
tion. 

Attached to this report (superintendent's), as is custom- 
ary, is the report of the physician of the institution. I make 
reference to it as containing the hospital and mortuary rec- 
ord, the history of the diseases and health of the institution 
for the year under review. In the last days of 1882 the 
institution was invaded by diphtheria. It was preceded by 
whooping cough and followed by scarlet fever and measles. 
These diseases brought to us a period of greatest anxiety 
and sorrow. Every effort of medical skill, competent nurs- 
ing and isolation were employed to arrest the progress of 
disease and overcome it. The new hospital was made avail- 
able at the earliest moment and used to its fullest capacity. 
It is a fact, which may be worthy of note, that the same 

trained nurse who was in care of a wealthy student at Har- 

«/ 

vard College, was specially employed to nurse the poor 
children at this institution, coming directly from that insti- 
tution to this. 

The number of deaths during the year was thirteen, — 
only two less than the whole number in the three years next 
preceding; viz., five each year. The number, however, is 
not as great as the average in the ten years preceding 1880, 
or in the ten years just closed. Apart from these epidemics 
the health of the school has been good. The new hospital 
has not been opened for patients for several months. 

Improvements. 
During the year many — none extensive — improvements 
in buildings and premises were made. The " straw barn," 
which was left from the first with only part of a floor and 
without scaffolds, has been fully floored and given scaffolds 
all around. The piggery has been shingled and otherwise 
improved and the connecting building turned round, given 
a new side and shingled. The ''swill house" has been 



44 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

raised about three feet, a large copper kettle set in it, and 
the ground about it and in its vicinity brought to the new 
grade. The pig-yard fence has been entirely reconstructed 
— made substantial and neat. All the high fences remain- 
ing at the beginning of the year have been cut dovvu and 
reset as low ones, and are now good for many years. A 
floor has been put under the piazza of the first division 
play-house, with substantial stone steps leading therefrom. 
The roofs of the long yerandas have been painted. The 
play-grounds of this division have been much improved by 
grading. The way to the new hospital has been fully 
opened, and the grounds around it brought to grade and 
sown. A portion of the adjoining bank is awaiting a more 
convenient season for sodding. New fences define the 
grounds of the new hospital. The "gate house" has been 
repaired by a gutter around its cornice aud by paint. An 
octagonal hose-house, with pagoda roof, has been built and 
surmounted by an Alta self-extinguishing lantern. In this 
hose-house have been put three hundred feet of linen hose, 
upon a reel, with pipe attached. Within the main house one 
new floor of rift kiln-dried hard pine has been laid. In the 
children's kitchen the tea-kettle has been newly -set and 
lined. The old coffee-kettle has given place to a better and 
more suitable one. Two of the school-rooms have been 
given additional blackboards aud repairs. The old floor of 
Division One play-house, which has long been in an unsafe 
condition, has been taken out, but a new one is not yet m. 
All the buildings and premises, so far as could be, have 
been kept in repair and order. 

General Remarks. 
The administration of the year now in review was upon 
the plan of the year preceding. Radical changes were not 
attempted. The perfecting of existing ways and methods 
was the endeavor, while new, if better, ways were wel- 
comed. The conduct of the children throughout the year 
was very good, and especially satisfactory in the latter 
months of the year. The tone and temper of the schools 
seems better than before in my administration. The sys- 
tem of conduct marks and grades has been applied through- 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 45 

out the year to all children above eight or ten years of age, 
with salutary effect. Privileges and rewards are based upon 
it. As a disciplinary measure, it is more efficacious than 
punishment. The rewards of the grade system are sub- 
stantial books, money and articles of intrinsic worth. 

While the year has been peculiar in visits and observa- 
tions, and there have been shadows the like of which we 
hope will not fall again upon us, yet there has been full 
cause for thankfulness to the Giver of all Good and for 
rejoicing that our lines fell in pleasant places and we had 
such a goodly heritage. I reverently thank God for his 
many morcies to the school. 

I have to thank the "Hospital Newspaper Society" of 
Boston for several barrels of papers and publications, also 
for a quantity of illuminated Christmas cards; Rev. Father 
Kelley of Monson, for a donation which brought to our 
library twenty-five volumes, and the Springfield T. A. 
Union for a package of magazines. 

To the officers and teachers I owe much for their fidelity 
and efficiency ; for their co-operation and loyalty to the 
scheme of my administration. 

To you as trustees and personally, I am heartily thank- 
ful for the evidences of your confidence in me and your 
kindness to me. 

Realizing to some extent the magnitude and delicacy of 
the work here, and somewhat of my lacks and needs, I am 

Very respectfully your ob'd't serv't, 

GARDINER TUFTS, 8wpt. 



46 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Statement A. 

Summary of Admissions and Discharges. 





Boys. 


Girls. 


Women. 


Men. 


Total. 


Present Oct. 1, 1882, 


324 


127 


23 


1 


475 


Transferred from State Almshouse, 


44 


33 


10 


_ 


87 


Received from Supt. Indoor Poor, 












taken from court as offenders, 


29 


3 


- 


- 


32 


Received from Supt. Indoor Poor, 












taken from court as neglected 












children, 


21 


9 


- 


- 


30 


Received from Supt. Indoor Poor, 












as dependent children, , 


14 


5 


- 


- 


19 


Returned, having been placed on 












trial in previous years, . 


31 


9 


- 


- 


40 


Returned, having been placed on 












trial since Sept. 30, 1882, 


32 


12 


- 


- 


44 


Born, 


1 


1 


- 


- 


2 




496 


199 


33 


1 


729 


Discharged by H. L. & C, 


28 


16 


9 


1 


54 


Released on trial, .... 


139 


55 


- 


- 


194 


Boarded in families, .... 


9 


13 


_ 


- 


22 


Died 


8 


5 


_ 


- 


13 


Transferred to State Almshouse, 


- 


2 


2 


- 


4 


Transferred to State Workhouse, 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


Transferred to State Lunatic Hos- 












pital at Northampton, . . 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


Totals, . . ... 


185 


91 


12 


1 


289 


Remaining Sept. 30, 1883, 


311 


108 


21 


- 


440 



Statement B. 

COMPARATIVE STATISTICS. 

Number of Persons in the Institution, 

Sept. 30, 1879, 479 

" 30, 1880 437 

" 30, 1881, 435 

" 30, 1882, 475 

" 30, 1883, 440 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



47 



Average Number of Persons in the Institution. 

Year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 

30,1880, 

30,1881, . . . 

30, 1882, 

30, 1883, 



501 

448+ 

424+ 

448— 

436 



Largest Number of Persons in the Institution. 
During the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 
" 30, 1880, 
" 30, 1881, 
" 30, 1882, 
" 30, 1883, 



547 
486 
450 
475 
475 



Smallest Number in the Institution. 
During the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 

30, 1880, 
30, 1881, 
30, 1882, 
30, 1883, 



450 

407 
396 

383 



Number of Children received from Superintendent of Indoor Poor, 
taken from Court as Offenders. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879 34 

" 30, 1880, . . . . . . .46 

" 30, 1881, . 50 

" 30, 1882, 68 

" 30, 1883, 32 



Number received from Slate Almshouse. 
For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, . 
' ; 30, 1880, . 
" 30, 1881, . 
" 30, 1882, . 
" 30, 1883, . 



118 
104 
106 
124 

87 



Number of Children received from Superintendent of Indoor Poor, 

taken from Court as neglected children. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1882, ....... 24 

" 30, 1883, 30 

Previously, none 

Note. — These children — " neglected " — came under the provisions 
of sect. 3, chap. 181, Acts of 1882, a law not in force prior to May 29, 

1882. 



48 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Number of Children received, from Superintendent of Indoor Poor, 
as dependent children. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1882, 16 

" 30, 1883, 19 

Previously, none 

Note. — These children were received under the provisions of sect. 2, 
chap. 151, Acts of 1882. 



For 



Number of Children born in the Institution. 
the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, . 
" 30, 1880, . ■ 
" 30, 1881, . 
" 30, 1882, . 
" 30, 1883, . 



Number of Children returned from place having been placed out in 

previous years. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 10 



30, 1880, . 

30, 1881, . 

30, 1882, . 

30,1883, . 



41 

47 
47 
40 



Number of Children returned from place having been released on trial 

during current years. 

For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, . 29 



30, 1880, 
30, 1881, 
30, 1882, 
30, 1883, 



35 

47 
47 
44 



Number discharged by Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity 
During the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 
" 30, 1880, 
" 30, 1881, 
" 30, 1882, 
" 30, 1883, 



71 
64 
46 
78 
54 



For 



Number of Children released on trial and boarded in families. 

the year ending Sept. 30, 1879 153 

" 30, 1880, . . ' . . . ' . .181 

" 30, 1881, . . 201 

" 30, 1882, . . . . . . . 197 

" 30, 1883, 216 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



49 



Number of Elopers 
For the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, 



u 




" 


30, 1880, . 




u »t u 




11 


30, 1881, 
30, 1882, . 




it u " 




tc 


30, 1883, . 








Deaths in the Institution 


For the year ending 


Sept 


. 30, 1879, . 




« 




" 


30, 1880, . 




(l 46 t< 

(I t< 4' 




(i 


30, 1881, . 
30, 1882, . 




11 44 44 




it 


30, 1883, . 
Statement 


C. 



6 


Returned, 4 


7 





3 


3 


8 


7 










. 14 




. ' . 5 




5 




5 




. 13 



Nativity of Inmates. 
The nativity of the 672 different persons under care during the year 
is as follows: — 
Native born, . ..'•"'. . . . . . . ' . • 525 

Foreign born, . . . • . . . . . . . 112 

Unknown, . . . .35 

Of the foreign-born there were born in 



Canada, . 
Denmark, 
England, . 
Germany, 
India, 
Ireland, . 
New Brunswick, 



10 
1 

18 
2 
1 

49 
5 



Nova Scotia, 


. 


. 13 


Prince Edwai 


•d Island, 


. 2 


Russia, 




. 1 


Scotland, . 




. 8 


Sweden, . 




. 1 


At sea, 


. 


. 1 



Of those born in the United States, there were born in 
Connecticut, . . . .15 New Jersey, . 



Dist. Columbia, 
Louisiana, 
Michigan, 
Maine, 
Missouri, . 
North Carolina, 
New Hampshire, 





id 

2 




1 




3 




12 




1 




1 




6 



New York, 
Ohio, 

Pennsylvania, . 
Rhode Island, . 
South Carolina, 
Vermont, . 
Massachusetts, 



Of those born in Massachusetts, there were born in 



Ashburnham, . 
Attleborough, . 
Bane, 
Beverly, . 



Billerica, . 
Boston, . 
Bridgewater, 
Brockton, 



3 

12 
2 
1 

16 

1 

8 

441 



2 

129 

1 

1 



50 



PRIMAEY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Cambridge, 






14 


North And over, 






1 


Chelsea, . 
Chester, . 






2 
1 


Northampton, . 
Norton, . 






. 3 
. 1 


Chicopee, 
Cottage City, . 
Danvers, . 






2 
1 
1 


Orange, . 
Otis, 
Palmer, . 






. 1 
. 2 

1 


Dedham, . 






2 


Paxton, . 






2 


Deerfield, 
Dover, 






2 
1 


Peabody, . 
Pittstield,. 






2 
3 


Dracut, .' 






1 


Plymouth, 






1 


East Bridgewater, 






1 


Provincetown, . 






1 


Easthampton, . 
Enfield, . 
Everett, . 






1 
1 
1 


Quincy, . . 

Rickport, 

Salem, 






1 
1 
4 


Fall River, 






28 


Sandwich, 






5 


Florida, . 






1 


Sherborn, 






1 


Franklin, . 






2 


Somerville, 






4 


Gay Head, 






2 


South Abington, 






1 


Gloucester, 
Grafton, . 






4 
3 


Springfield, 
Stoneham, 






7 
2 


Granville, 






1 


Stoughton, 






1 


Great Barrington, 






1 


Taunton, . 






7 


Greenfield, 
Hatfield, . 






1 
1 


Templeton, 
Tewksbury, 






1 


Haverhill, 
Holbrook, 






10 

2 


Topsfield, 
Upton, 






1 
1 


Holden, . 






1 


Wakefield, 






1 


Holyoke, . 






6 


Wales, 






1 


Hull, 
Lawrence, 






1 
8 


Walpole, . 
Waltham, 






2 
3 


Leominster, 






1 


Wareham, 






1 


Leverett, . 






2 


Warwick, 






1 


Lowell, . 






15 


We^t Stockbridge, 






5 


Lynn, 






16 


Westfield, 






3 


Maiden, . 
Mansfield, 
Marblehead, . 






2 
1 
1 


W T estport, 
Weymouth, 
Williamsburg, . 






1 
1 
1 


Medway, . 






1 


Williamstown, 






1 


Methuen, . 






1 


Winchester, 






2 


Milton, . 






1 


Windsor, . 






1 


Montague, 






3 


Wo burn, . 






4 


Natick, . 






1 


Worcester, 






32 


Needham, 






2 


Wrentham, 






1 


New Bedford, . 






4 


State Workhouse, 






6 


New Braintree, 






1 


State Almshouse, 






8 


New Marlborough, 






1 


State Reformatory Priso 


n for 




Newburyport, . 

Newton, . 






2 
1 


Women, 
State Primary School, 




1 
4 


North Adams, . 






6 











1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



51 



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52 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. 



[Oct. 



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1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT- No. 18. 



53 



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54 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS, 



[Oct. 



2-. 



I 



<53 












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Clerk, 

Engineer, . 

Farmer, 

In charge of dining-hall, 

Supervisor, 

Supervisor, 

Assistant Supervisor, . 

Driver, 

Shoemaker, 

Baker, 

Watchman, 

Gardener, . 

Teamster, . 

Assistant Farmer, 

u it 


I Night fireman, . 
Fireman, . 
Nurse, 
Laborer, 


a 










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Chakles S. Hart, 
John N. Lacey, . 
George H. Fisherdick, 
E. G. Buss, . 
Joseph F. Scott, . 
R. R. Field, . 
Charles H. Bradley, 
J. M. Fisk, . 
Samuel C. Rogers, 
Francis Duffy, 
Jason E. Stone, . 
Stillman J. Baker, 
Walter H. Williams, 
Arthur B. Robbins, 
George 11. Joslyn, . 
Warren M. Fisherdick, 
Cyrus W. Fisherdick, 
Ralph Dwight, 


James Donnovan, . 

James Skevington, 
James Lallet, 
Thomas J. Flynn, . 


3 
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1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 55 



© i— IOOOOOOO 

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56 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. 



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1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT -No. 18, 



57 



Statement G-. 
Products of the Farm. 





Quantity. 


Value. 


Apples (cider), . 


100 bushels, 


$35 00 


" (winter) 












10 barrels, 


50 00 


Asparagus, 












12 bushels, 


30 00 


Beans (shelled), 












21 


54 60 


(string), 












3 


3 00 


Beef, . 












3,275 pounds, 


262 00 


Beets, . 












225 bushels, 


112 50 


Cabbage, . 












1,740 heads, 


174 00 


Carrots, 












850 bushels, 


297 50 


Corn (pop), 












45 


45 00 


" (sweet), 












40 


24 00 


Cucumbers, 












10 


37 50 


Currants, . 












320 quarts, 


16 00 


Eggs, . 












1961 dozen, 


49 12 


English turnips, 












150 bushels, 


37 50 


Grapes, 












31 « 


10 50 


Hay, . . 












117 tons, . 


1,340 00 


Fodder corn, 












80 " 


800 00 


Ice, 












325 " . . 


975 00 


Lumber, 












7,000 feet, . 


112 00 


Mangolds, . 












1,900 bushels, 


627 00 


Milk, . 












1211 tons, . 


4,482 33 


Mowed oats, 












8. " . . 


160 00 


Onions, 












110 bushels, 


110 00 


Parsnips, . 












40 


30 00 


Pears, . 












3 


6 00 


Pease, . 












2.6i " 


53 00 


Peppers, 












1 bushel, 


1 50 


Pork, . 












11,135 pounds, 


1,002 15 


Potatoes, 












2,243 bushels, 


1,121 50 


Kaspberries, 












30 quarls, 


2 40 


Rhubarb, . 












1,600 pounds, 


24 00 


Rowen, 












9 tons, . 


126 00 


Rutabagas, . 












407 bushels, 


101 75 


Rye, . 












. 30 


22 50 


" fodder, 












10 tons, . 


110 00 


" straw, . 












3 " 


42 00 


Strawberries, 












132 quarts, 


13 20 


Tomatoes, . 










33i bushels, 


33 50 


Veal, . 












1,535 pounds, 


153 50 


Vinegar, 












171 barrels, 


87 50 


Wood, 












50 cords, 


200 00 














$13,025 05 



58 



PRIMAEY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct, 



Statement H. — Work done in Sewing Rooms. 
No. 1. 



ARTICLES. 


Made. 


Repaired. 


Total. 


Aprons, ...... 


79 


_ 


79 


Bed-ticks, . 










39 


382 


421 


Blankets, . 










- 


18 


18 


Capes, 










14 


50 


64 


Chemises, . 










189 


- 


189 


Circulars, . 










18 


- 


18 


Clothes bags, 










18 


- 


18 


Curtains, 










12 


- 


12 


Dresses, 










264 


82 


346 


Drawers, pairs, 










177 


- 


177 


Handkerchiefs, 










28 


- 


28 


Holders, 










48 


- 


48 


Hoods, 










42 


- 


42 


Napkins, . 










72 


13 


85 


Night-dresses, 










190 


- 


190 


Pillow-slips, 










380 


108 


488 


Pillow-ticks, 










12 


- 


12 


Roller-towels, 










143 


100 


243 


Sacques, 










105 


- 


105 


Sheets, 










505 


205 


710 


Shirts, 










236 


1,387 


1,623 


Skirts, 










313 


- 


313 


Spreads, 










38 


20 


58 


Stockings, pairs 










- 


1,595 


1,595 


Table cloths, 










10 


12 


22 


Tiers, 










432 


- 


432 


Towels, 










427 


552 


979 


Underwaists, 










52 


■ - 


52 


Waists, 










394 


- 


394 


Wash-cloths, 










100 


- 


100 


Wiping-towels, 










24 


- 


24 


Totals, 


4,361 


4,524 


8.885 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



59 



Statement H. — Concluded. 
No. 2. 



ARTICLES. 


Made. 


Repaired. 


Total. 


Aprons, 
Caps, . 
Jackets, 

Mittens, pairs, . 
Pants, pairs, 
Shirts, 

Suspenders, pairs, 
Waists, 




• 




23 

433 
241 

10 
470 

372 
293 

48 


3,468 
5,310 


23 

433 

3,709 

10 

5,780 

372 

293 

48 


Totals, 


1,890 


8,778 


10,668 



Total number articles made, 
" " " repaired, 



6,251 
13,302 



19,553 



Note. — The weekly repairing of dresses, aprons, night-dresses, 
underwear and stockings of 84 girls (average number), and all the 
repairing of all the clothing of 90 small boys and girls (average num- 
ber), is done outside the sewing-rooms — within the departments of these 
children; beside the repairs of the bedding, etc., used for them,— 
aggregating more than 20,000 pieces annually. 



60 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Statement I. 

Gardiner Tufts, Superintendent and Disbursing Officer of the State 
Primary School, in account with the State Treasury. 
Dr. 
To cash received from appropriation for 1882, . 

" 1883, . . 
" " " " to meet a deficiency, 

To cash received from appropriations for new hospital, 
" " " " " increased water 

supply, 

To cash received from appropriation for boarding out 
children, .......... 

To cash received from sales, 



Cr. 

By disbursements for three months ending Dec. 31, 1882, as 
per schedules on file in State Auditor's office, 

By disbursements for nine months ending Sept. 30, 1883, 
as per schedules on file in State Auditor's office, . 

By payments to State Treasurer as per his receipts, . 



$9,116 


15 


40,793 08 


1,282 


60 


2,654 


46 


3,295 


91 


700 


52 


119 


80 


$58,463 


29 


$7,853 06 


50,490 


4;] 


119 80 


$58,463 29 



Statement J. 

Employment of Children. 

There are employed in the 

Sewing room, 22 girls. 

Dormitories and other parts of the house, . . . 16 " 

Tailor shop, 23 boys. 

Dining hall, 23 

Kitchen, 5 

Shoe shop, 4 

Bakery, 7 

Laundry, . ' . 9 

Hospital, 1 

Dormitories and miscellaneous work about the house 

and grounds, 35 

On the farm and at the barns, 50 

— Boys, 157 ; girls, 38 ; total, 195. 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



61 



Statement K. 

Concerning Flour. 
Flour on hand Oct. 1, 1882, . ... 
" purchased during the year, . . 



611 bbls. 

804 " 



on hand Oct. 1, 1883, . 
used during the year, . 



803 



Average population, . . 

" number of officers supported at the school, 



Total, 



436 persons. 
45 

481 



803 barrels flour= 157,378 lbs., divided among 481 persons, gives an 
average consumption of 327^ lbs. per annum, or a daily per capita con- 
sumption of 14.34 ounces. 



Statement L. 

Recapitulation of Inventory. 

Taken by Enos Calkins and S. H. Helyar of Palmer, Mass., as of Sept. 

30, 1883. 
Buildings, . . . ... 

Land, 

Products of farm on hand, . . . . 

Carriages and agricultural tools, .... 

Mechanical fixtures, . . . ... 

Personal property in Superintendent's Department, 
" " in Inmates' Department, . 



Beds and bedding, . 
Clothing and shoes, 
Dry goods, . . . 
Groceries and provisions, 
Medical department, 
Fuel, .... 
Heating, water and gas, . 
Library and school-books, 
Live stock, 
Miscellaneous, 



Total, .... 
Total, inventory of last year, 

Increase 



$97,940 00 
22,664 81 
6,501 22 
3,786 53 
10,231 45 
6,226 85 
6,186 45 
5,291 67 
5,006 73 
1,681 11 
1,266 42 
245 00 
2,690 50 
22,100 00 
1,328 25 
5,951 50 
1,489 95 

$200,588 44 
196,105 34 

$4,483 10 



62 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Statement M. 

Building Hospital 
Appropriation for building new hospital 
Expended prior to Oct. 1, 1882, 

Balance available Oct. 1, 1882, 
Payments for Oct., 1882, 
" Nov., " 
" " Dec, " 



Unexpended balance Dec. 31, 1882, (which reverted to the 
State Treasury by statutory limitation), . 



. 


$3,500 00 


• 


778 95 




$2,721 05 


$911 36 




326 59 




1,081 14 






2,319 09 


hprl fr» tli a 



$401 96 



Keappropriated by Legislature of 1883, .... $401 96 

Payments, June, 1883, $270 87 

July, " 65 50 

336 37 



Balance available Sept. 30, 1883, 



$65 59 



Note. — Vouchers for all expenditures are on file at ^ic State 
Auditor's office. 



Statement N. 

Water Supply. 
Appropriation for water supply, 
Expended prior to Oct. 1, 1882, 



Balance available Oct. 1, 1882, 
Payments for Oct., 1882, 
" " Dec, " 



$51 78 
2,871 05 



Appropriated by the Legislature of 1883, to meet a deficiency 

in the appropriation for water supply, .... 

Payments for March, 

Note. — Vouchers for all expenditures are on file at the State 
Auditor's office. 



$8,500 00 


5,577 17 


$2,922 83 


$2,922 83 


$373 08 


$373 08 



















DIACVjVM 




Sho 


/<? MOVEMENT OF 


r POPULATION AT THE 


State Primary School. 
























October. 


JSTnyerrvb e r. 


Decfirnl i ier. ) 


tJcuiMciri/ 


February. 


^Mctrctu. 


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1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



63 



PHYSICIAN'S KEPOET. 



To the Trustees of the State Primary School, Monson, Mass. : 

I hand you the report of the hospital department of the 
State Primary School for the year ending Sept. 30, 1883. 



Number remaining in hospital Sept. 30, 1882, 
admitted during the year, 
births during the year,, . 
died during the year, 
discharged during the year, 
remaining in hospital Sept. 30, 1883, 



37 

513 

2 

13 
514 

25 



As heretofore, the name of no patient stands on the record 
who has not been in hospital twenty-four consecutive hours. 

The number of deaths is greater than for a number of 
years past. 



Names 


, Ages and Diseases 


of those ivho Died. 


NAME. 


Date of Death. 


Age. 


Disease. 






Yrs. Mos. 




Annie Hogan, 


Nov. 24, 1882 . 


3 11 


Diphtheria. 


Delia Hogan, 




Dec. 4,1882 


6 8 


" 


Tommy Burns, 




4,1882 


3 6 


" 


Lena Brown, 




9,1882 


8 - 


" 


Sarah Moore, 




9,1882 


7 - 


tt 


Eddie Burns, 




16,1882 


5 6 


" 


Tommy Kennedy 


, 


21,1882 


7 - 


(< 


James Mack, 




Jan. 25,1883 


3 6 


Convulsions, 


Eddie Mack, 




Feb. 10,1883 


6 - 


" 


Mary Steele, 




Mar. 4,1883 


7 - 


Scarlet Fever. 


William Morril, 




11,1883 


10 - 


Cerebral Meningitis. 


Samuel K. Phipps, 


May 7,1883 


14 - 


Consumption. 


Charles Lewis, ... 


Aug. 3, 1883 


7 - 


Typhoid Fever, with 
Hemorrhage. 



64 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct, 

During September, 1882, a few cases of diphtheria ap- 
peared, none proving fatal ; most of these cases were of a 
mild form and yielding readily to treatment. 

The disease again appeared in the early part of November 
and new cases appeared all along through the winter into 
March, and the preceding table will show that seven of the 
cases proved fatal. The number recorded in hospital as 
having diphtheria is twenty- six, although more than twice as 
many more had diphtheritic sore throats of the milder form. 
Scarlet fever appeared on the first of February and con- 
tinued until the early part of March. There were fifteen 
cases, some very severe, one only proving fatal, on the 
fourth of March. Measles also appeared about the same time 
with scarlet fever, and we had forty-six cases, continuing 
until about the last of March. You will observe that wo 
had diphtheria, scarlet fever and measles all at the same 
time, and the whooping cough we had had all summer, au- 
tumn and winter, — four contagious diseases in the institution 
at one and the same time. No local cause could be found 
for the two first named diseases, although searched for dili- 
gently, by Dr. Dvvight of the Board of Trustees, Dr. Wol- 
cott of State Board of Health, Dr. Abbott, State Health 
Officer, the Superintendent and myself. The two last named 
diseases were importations from Tewksbury. 

Great care was used in isolating the cases as far as possi- 
ble, and while the new hospital building was of great help, 
it could not accommodate nearly all of the cases. I noticed 
this fact : the severe and fatal cases had just had whooping 
cough severely, and they were in no condition to withstand 
the shock of these other terrible diseases. 

The two Mack children (brothers), both dying in convul- 
sions, had some disease of the brain, probably tubercular; 
as no post mortem was held, it is conjectural. 

The Phipps boy had tubercular disease (consumption), 
and had been kept alive with cod-liver oil, whiskey and 
milk, having had hemorrhages for more than two years, and 
finally bled to death almost instantly. 

Again the measles are introduced from Tewksbury, two 
cases in one family just at the time of writing this report, 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 65 

and we shall now be likely to have another siege this winter 
of this disease. 

Our hospital seems to be a receptacle for cripples, — the 
lame, halt (if not blind), the dumb. We have three boys 
that have not walked a step for years, otherwise in good 
health. In the girls' ward are two idiotics, one not knowing 
enough to feed itself; and these children are sent to the 
Primary School. One of these five, by being wheeled and 
carried, can go to the school-rooms, the other four cannot; 
and it seems to me that this is not the proper place for 
these children. 

Taken as a whole, the general health of the children is 
good, perhaps never better than at present. 

I feel under great obligation to the Superintendent, matron 
and nurses for their unwearied care and attention during the 
severe sickness of last winter. 

Respectfully submitted. 

WM. HOLBROOK. 



66 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



PKINCIPAL'S EEPOET. 



To the Superintendent of the State Primary School : 

I take pleasure in presenting the annual report of the 
schools for the year ending Sept. 30, 1883. In preparing 
this, the attempt has been made to include such statistics 
and information as will furnish a definite exhibit of the 
working of the schools, and enable comparison to be made 
with other schools, and with our own condition in previous 
years. 

The general statistics are presented in the following 
tables : — 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



67 











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68 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. 



Oct. 



Text-books Used m the Schools. 
Monroe's Reading Chart. 

Appleton's First, Second, Third and Fourth Headers, 
Sheldon's Fourth Reader. 
Anderson's Historical Reader. 
Ray's New Practical Arithmetic. 
Ray's New Elementary Arithmetic. 
Ray's Primary Arithmetic. 
Harper's Introductory Geography. 
Harper's School Geography. 
Swinton's Language Lessons. 
Reed and Kellogg's Grammar. 

Whitney and Knox's How to Speak and Write Correctly. 
Payson, Dunton, and Scribner's Writing Books. 
Webster's Dictionaries. 

Statistics. 
Whole number of pupils enrolled during the "year in all the 

grades, . . . 830 

Whole number of different pupils during the year, . . . 591 

Largest number in attendance any one week, .... 416 

Smallest number in attendance any one week, .... 345 

Average daily attendance, . . . . . . . . 375 

Whole number of promotions, 215 

Whole number transferred, . „ 5 

Average age of pupils, 9 years. 

Number of pupils in school Oct. 1, 1882, 409 

Entered as new pupils, 154 

Re-entered, 75 

Discharged, 230 

Died, 11 

Remaining Sept. 30, 1883, 397 



Of those re- entered, 28 are at present members of the 
school, the remainder having again been placed out. 

The scholarship of pupils is somewhat indicated by the 



following : — 

Whole number who can read, 

Whole number who can write, . 

Whole number who can do both, 

Whole number who can do neither, . 

Whole number who study Arithmetic, 

Whole number who study Geography, 

Whole number who study Grammar, . 

Number admitted who could neither read nor write 

dumber admitted who could do both, . 



356 

332 

328 

41 

314 

160 

30 

63 

108 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 69 

Of those who could neither read nor write, several were 
admitted during the month of September, 1883, and several 
have been members of the school but a short time. Of 
these, 22 have been taught to read, 21 to write, 18 to do 
both, since coming to the school. All pupils are examined 
and classified, when admitted, according to their attainments, 
irrespective of age or size. The increase of numbers occurs 
principally in the primary grades. While the average 
attendance in a room may not be very large, there are weeks 
at a time when the number in some of the rooms is large. 
This is especially true of terms previous to promotion. 

Particular attention is given to pupils of foreign birth or 
parentage, so as to insure their mastery of the principal 
difficulties of English pronounciation. Phonic drills are 
very useful for this purpose. The excellence attained by 
our pupils in penmanship has during the year been main- 
tained. The specimens of pupils' work have been inspected 
and commended by many. Drill in forming the script letter 
commences in the lowest grade, and the work of making 
pupils good penmen begins the first day of school life here. 
In the lowest grades the writing has never been better than 
at present. A goodly number in the higher grades are fine 
penmen, and show considerable skill in drawing. Some fine 
maps have been drawn. Four boys have completed the 
Practical Arithmetic, and three taken up book-keeping. 
The reproduction of stories, letter-writing, descriptions of 
pictures, and the writing of short compositions take the 
place of grammatical drill, and the attempt is made to teach 
English Grammar by using its rules rather than by memo- 
rizing them. The improvement in spelling and expression of 
thought has been marked and gratifying, since the introduc- 
tion of sentence-building. For the want of time pupils 
receive only general instruction in History. Several, how- 
ever, have read one or more historical books, one boy of 
twelve years having read eight volumes, and is quite as con- 
venient as a cyclopaedia for reference. 

The appropriate daily incidents of school are used for 
giving instruction in morals and manners. The usual enter- 
tainments were given once in three weeks during eight 
months of the } r e:ir, thereby affording pleasure and profit to 



70 PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 

the pupils. Great care has been exercised in the selection 
and preparation of the Sabbath evening exercise given by the 
pupils of the several schools in regular succession, to 
make them impressive and lasting. We trust that some of 
the instruction imparted, like that of a mother, will abide 
through life. 

Written and oral examinations take place the last week of 
each term, the one previous to promotion being conducted 
by the Principal. Pupils are required to reach a standard 
of seventy-five per cent., in both written and oral, in order 
to be promoted. The average rank in examinations has been 
higher than previously. There are two grades in each 
school, excepting the first and fifth ( girls ), which resemble 
mixed schools, being obliged to receive a class by promotion 
twice a year. Pupils, after reaching the first and fifth 
rooms, remain until leaving the school. In some of the 
schools much extra labor has had to be bestowed by those 
in charge to bring the work up to the requirements of our 
course of study printed in last year's report. This is prin- 
cipally true of those, which, by reason of frequent change 
of teachers, had fallen behind. It is expected succeed- 
ing classes will easily do the required work. Since Oct. 1 , 
1882, 3,357 books have been drawn from the library. The 
books most in demand are books of travel and history. 

Most of the children come to us with little or no know- 
ledge of the common English branches, their vocabulary 
small, and the power to think and to express thought with 
anything like approximate accuracy is almost entirely want- 
ing. These deficiencies demand a larger amount of element- 
ary instruction, and our course is arranged to meet this 
demand as far as possible. Oftentimes, however, the pupil 
does not remain long enough to show complete results, or to 
admit the giving of the elementary training that is necessary. 
It is hoped that measures will be taken in the near future, 
so that pupils can remain a sufficient length of time to have 
the foundations upon which to build character more thor- 
oughly established. It is no easy task that we have to per- 
form, as any one can readily see, yet one with a good degree 
of satisfaction and encouragement, as we note the improve- 
ment of a large majority of the pupils. The days and weeks 



1883.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 71 

have not left us where we were. Our work is made to take 
as much of that which is practical as is possible. The 
necessity of object-teaching is fully realized. The pupils 
learn to do by doing. The object kept in view is to prepare 
the pupils in the most practical things of life, as many receive 
the most of their education while here. All are in charge of 
conscientious teachers, who feel that not only the mind is to 
be worked upon, but who strive to inculcate an aspiration 
for all that is good, noble and divine. 

It is with the deepest gratitude that I thank you for your 
forbearance and support. 

Very respectfully, 

EUGENIA M. FULLINGTON, Principal. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 18. 



REPORT OF THE OFFICERS 



STATE REFORM SCHOOL 



WESTBOROUGH. 



1883. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

IS Post Office Square. 

1884. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



State Reform School, 

Westborougii, Oct. 1, 1883. 

To the Board of Trustees of the Slate Primary and Reform School. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : — I respectfully submit the an- 
nual report of the Westborough Reform School, for the year 
ending Sept. 30, 1883, with some suggestions. 

Table No. 1. 

Showing number of Boys received and discharged for the year ending 

Sept. 30, 1883. 



Boys in school Sept. 30, 1882, . 
Received — Since committed, . 

" recommitted,. 

" returned, 



. 133 
100 
3 
11 
114 



Whole number in school during year, 
Discharged — On probation, 

To Bridgewater Workhouse, 
" overseers of poor, 
" court, .... 
Elopers, .... 



2-47 



Remaining in school Se"pt. 30, 188; 



125 
4 

2 



144 

. 103 



7G 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct 



Table No. 2. 



Showing the Admissions, Number Discharged, and Average Num- 
ber of each Month. 



MONTHS. 


Admitted. 


Discharged. 


Av< rage 

Number. 


1882. 








October, 


9 


11 


133.25 


November, 


4 


15 


125 90 


December, 


10 


12 


118.16 


1883. 








January, 


8 


14 


116.96 


February, . . 


7 


6 


111.93 


March, . . 


12 


17 


113.80 


April, 


8 


10 


109.83 


May, 


15 


8 


110.71 


June, 


13 


9 


113 87 


J«iy 


7 


18 


112.23 


August, 


6 


13 


101.89 


September, 


12 


11 


102.93 


Totals, 


111 


144 


114.28 



1883.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



77 



Table No. 3. 

Showing the Commitments from the several Counties the past Year 
and Previously. 



COUNTIES. 


Past Year. 


Previously. 


Total. 


Barnstable 




45 


45 


Berkshire, . 








- 


196 


196 


Bristol, 








13 


465 


478 


Dukes, 








_ 


9 


9 


Essex, . 








10 


895 


905 


Franklin, 








_ 


49 


49 


Hampden, . 








4 


300 


304 


Hampshire, 








1 


68 


69 


Middlesex, . 








28 


897 


925 


Nantucket, . 








- 


16 


16 


Norfolk, 








4 


915 


919 


Plymouth, . 








3 


95 


98 


Suffolk, 








25 


1,133 


1,158 


Worcaster, . 








12 


602 


614 


Totals, 


100 


5,685 


5,785 


Nativity. 








American, ...... 


94 


4,277 


4,371 


Foreign, 


6 


835 


841 


Unknown, 


- 


15 


15 


Totals, 


100 


5,127 


5,227 



Of the 100 boys, 19 are of American parentage. 

" 49 are of Foreign parentage. 
" 6 are Foreign-born. 

" 9 are father Foreign-born. 
" 5 are mother Foreign-born. 

" 14 father's nativity unknown. 

" 17 mother's nativity unknown. 
" 1 boy's nativity unknown. 



78 



PRIMARY AND REFORM SCHOOLS. [Oct. 



Table No. 4. 

Showing by ivhat Authority the Commitments have been made the 

past Year. 



COMMITMENTS. 


Past Year. 


By State Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity, 

Police Court, 

District Court, 

Trial Justice, . . . 

Municipal Court, 

Superior Court, 


6 
25 
38 

8 
12 
11 


Total, . 


100 



Table No. 5. 
Showing the